Blogarchiv

Dienstag, 31. Dezember 2013 - 14:30 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Kosmos-1068 Re-Entry an Silvester 1978/1979

.

1978 December 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.

  • Cosmos 1068 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11169 . COSPAR: 1978-123A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

Exploded view-Zenit
Exploded View of Typical Components of a Zenit-class reconnaissance satellite:. 1 - Power module; 2 - Solar panels; 3 - SA re-entry capsule, which returns film and camera to earth; 4 - Command radio antenna; 5 - Cold gas tanks of the pressurisation/thermal control system; 6 - Radar altimeter; 7 - Equipment module; 8 - Orientation system engine; 9 - Solid rocket motor deorbit engine; 10 - Thermoregulation system radiators; 11 - Equipment frame; 12 - Infrared horizon scanner; 13 - Electrical system umbilical; 14 - Mayak system antennae

.

The sheer number of witnesses is another likely indicator of the meteoric origin of the fireball. But in other cases the re-entry into earth’s atmosphere of space debris, such as rocket bodies and satellites, have led people to believe they were seeing UFOs. Possibly the best known example from the UK happened on New Year’s Eve 1978, as this extract from my book The UFO Files explains:

“….The night of 31 December 1978 was cold and clear, and across the British Isles people were out of doors bringing in the New Year. A few minutes after 7.00 pm many hundreds were amazed to see a bright light with a long trail behind it streaking across the heavens on a northwest to southeast path. In the space of just a couple of hours the MoD received a total of 120 separate sighting reports and civilian UFO groups received hundreds more. The source of this spectacular flap was quickly identified by the RAF’s early warning base at Fylingdales in North Yorkshire as the re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere of a booster rocket that had launched a Russian satellite, Cosmos 1068, into orbit on Boxing Day. The rocket burned up over northern Europe, with pieces falling to the ground in Germany.

“Although most observers gave a sound description of the New Year’s Eve UFO a few provided wildly inaccurate details, particularly of its size and altitude. Exact estimation of the height of an object in the dark sky is extremely difficult, if not impossible. For example, some observers believed the object was as low as 1,000 ft, when in reality it was many miles above the Earth. Others gave a time for their sighting that was one hour or more in error.

“Several described what they had seen in imaginative terms, for example ‘cigar-shaped, very bright, with lighted windows’ (Manchester), ‘similar to a German V-2 rocket’ (Bradford) and ‘train-shaped, 120 ft long tapering at the front with 40 plus bright lights all along the side’ (Newmarket). A few refused to believe the UFO was a Russian rocket at all. One, who served five years in the RAF, said he was familiar ‘with meteors and re-entry of space debris [and] found it difficult to accept the [MoD’s] explanation for this occurrence.’

Quelle: Dr David Clarke

.

Am 4.Januar 1979 dann in der Klagenfurter ´Kleinen Zeitung´: "Britisches UFO wahrscheinlich Überreste einer sowjetischen Rakete" - Bei dem am Silvesterabend von zahlreichen Personen über der Ostküste Großbritanniens beobachteten unbekannten Flugobjekten (UFO) handelt es sich wahrscheinlich um Überreste einer sowjetischen Rakete, die in der Atmosphäre verglühgten. Diese Ansicht vertrat am Dienstagabend das britische Verteidigungsministerium. In einem Kommunique wies das Ministerium darauf hin, dass die UdSSR am 26.Dezember den Satelliten Kosmos 1068 startete.

Quelle: CENAP-Newsticker 5.01.2009

.

"Teil eines unbekannten Flugkörpers abgestürzt - Kegelförmiger Metallgegenstand schlug in Bruchhagen auf" hieß es aus Steyerberg am 9.Januar 1979 in ´Die Harke´: Nun ist es also doch geschehen: Sicherlich waren es noch keine Besucher unbekannter Welten, die am Vorabend des gerade beendeten Jahres über dem Kreis Nienburg schwebten ("Die Harke" berichtete), doch müssen die zahlreichen Beobachtungen aufmerksamer Bürger am klaren winterlichen Nachthimmel andere, handfestere Hintergründe gehabt haben. jedenfalls schlug in der Nacht vom 31.Dezember zum 1.Januar auf einem Feld des Bruchhagener Landwirts Friedhelm Schumacher ein bisher nicht identifiziertes Teil eines Flugkörpers ein, um den sich zunächst die Polizei und jetzt andere zuständige Stellen den Kopf zerbrechen. Und so soll es sich zugetragen haben: Hilde und Friedhelm Schumacher befanden sich am Silvesterabend kurz nach 20 h auf dem Fußweg von ihrem recht einsam gelegenen Gehöft zu einer Silvesterfeier, als sie am Himmel mehrere leuchtende, still und langsam in großer Höhe vorüberziehende Objekte beobachteten. "Im ersten Moment dachten wir an Silvesterraketen, doch waren diese viel zu hoch und zudem etwa zwei Minuten lang am Himmel", erklärte Hilde Schumacher, die auch beobachtet haben will, daß die leuchtenden Himmelskörper einen leichten Bogen beschrieben. Dabei soll es sich um einen größeren und einige kleinere gelb leuchtende Körper mit rötlichem Schweif gehandelt haben. "Ich hatte Sorge, daß die Dinger auf den Hof fallen", meinte die junge Landwirtsfrau, doch sie war erleichtert, als die sich nach ihren Angaben von Nord nach Süd bewegenden Punkte das Gehöft überflogen hatten. Am anderen Morgen stutzte Hilde Schumacher, als sie etwa 200 Meter entfernt auf freiem Feld einen im Boden steckenden Metallkörper ausmachte, den sie allein kaum schleppen konnte. Gedanken über den teilweise verglühten Metall-Kegel machte man sich indes erst nach der UFO-Glosse in der "Harke", nach deren Lektüre umgehend die Polizei benachrichtigt wurde.

Schwiegermutter Else Schumacher dagegen konnte sich erinnern, in der Neujahrsnacht durch ein undefinierbares Geräusch erwacht zu sein: "Ich habe irgend etwas gehört und konnte daraufhin sehr schlecht wieder einschlafen." Nach der im gefrorenen Boden steckenden Metall-Kapsel muß der Gegenstand von Nordwest nach Südost geflogen sein, doch kann er sich auf dem Boden nach dem Aufschlag auch gedreht haben, meinten die Entdecker, die den etwa zehn Kilomgramm schweren, aus dunkelgrauem Metall in einem Stück gegossenen und am oberen Ende stark geschmolzenen Kugel zeurst sahen. Der an beiden Seiten offene Kegel hat eine Höhe von etwa 110 Zentimetern, unten einen Durchmesser von 77 und oben von 30 Zentimetern. Die doppelt geriffelte Wandung hat einen Durchmesser von etwa fünf Millimetern. Nach Bekanntwerden des Fundes sicherte die Polizei die Absturzstelle. Spezialisten der nahen niederländischen Luftwaffe nahmen danach eine Strahlenmessung vor, die dem Vernehmen nach negtaiv verlief. Wie berichtet, haben auch zahlreiche andere Mitbürger die leuchtenden Erscheinungen am klaren Silvesterhimmel gegen 20 h beobachtet, die zudem von einer Reihe von Anrufen in der Redaktion bestätigt wurden. Der Erichshagener Peter Rautenberg hatte sogar zur Uhr geschaut, als die ungewöhnlichen Himmelskörper auftauchten: "Es war genau 20:05 h, als die leuchtenden Punkte geräuschlos und recht langsam in großer Höhe in Richtung Estorf flogen." Zur gleichen Zeit stand der Steyerberger Geschäftsmann Fritz Dolle auf der dortigen Bahnhofstraße, um auf Silvestergäste zu warten. Er berichtet: "Die Himmelskörper kam aus nordwestlicher Richtung und togen nach Südost ab. Da mich das Geschehen am Firmament interessierte, sah ich genauer hin und stellte fest, daß es zwischen den Flugkörpern irgendwie funkte." Das Ganze habe etwa zehn Sekunden gedauert; dann sei alles vorbei gewesen. Der Nienburger Siegfried Wender war mit zwei Bekannten per Auto auf dem Weg nach Marklohe, als man das Leuchten am Himmel wahrnahm. "Es waren drei untereinander fliegende Leuchtpunkte, die sich ganz langsam über die B 6 in Richtung des Waldes über Wohlenhausen bewegten", sagte er. Die drei Autoinsassen hatten auf dem Lemker Berg gehalten und sahen, wie die Objekte zur Erde gingen. Ihnen war allerdings der Blick durch einen Wald verstellt. Auch in Nienburg, Haßbergen, Hassel, Stöckse, in Liebenau, Mehlbergen und weiter im Südkreis war das unbekannte Himmelstreiben auszumachen. Eine Uchterin berichtete, daß sie gegen 20 h "etwa 25 UFOs" gesehen habe. Obwohl Spekulationen über das Ereignis derzeit wie UFOs aus dem Winterhimmel schießen, wird die Möglichkeit eines nach Eintritt in die Erdatmosphäre verglühenden oder explodierenden Satelliten von vielen Beobachtern in betracht gezogen. Möglicherweise könnte es bereits die amerikanische Raumstation Skylab sein, deren Verglühen vor einiger Zeit bekanntgegeben wurde. Um was für ein Objekt -ob militärisch oder zivil- es sich wirklich handelt, wollen jetzt zuständige Stellen klären.

 

+ Der lange Artikel wurde von zwei Fotos begleitet, eines ist mit folgendem Text begleitet: "So hat der Metallkegel im Boden gesteckt", erklärte der 13jährige Cord Schumacher, der zusammen mit seinem gleichaltrigen Freund Karsten Windler die Absturzstelle auch bei Dunkelheit wiederfand. Das vom Firmament gefallene unbekannte Objekt wurde sofort nach Bekanntwerden von der Polizei in Sicherheit gebracht." Die zweite Aufnahme zeigt den UFO-Kegel als solches recht gut, der Text hierzu: "Dieser etwa 10 kg schwere kegelförmige, zum Teil geschmolzene Metallkörper ging nachts auf dem Acker des Bruchhagener Landwirts Schumacher nieder. Ob es sich dabei um einen Teil des US-Himmelskörpers SKYLAB oder um ein anderes Objekt handelt, wollen zuständige Stellen jetzt klären." Tatsächlich handelte es sich um einen russischen Re-Entry-Körper.

Quelle: CENAP-Newsticker 5.01.2009

.

"Schubdüse einer Rakete stürzte auf einen Acker" meldete die ´Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung´ am 13.Januar 1979: Bei dem etwa 1,10 Meter langen und zehn Kilogramm schweren, teilweise verglühten Metallkegel, der in der Neujahrsnacht in Bruchhagen bei Nienburg auf einem Acker gestürzt ist, handelt es sich nach Angaben des Luftfahrtbundesamtes in Braunschweig um einen Teil einer Schubdüse. Derartige Düsen befinden sich - so das B raunschweiger Amt - an "jeder normalen Rakete". Deshalb könnte über den Typ der Rakete und ihre Herkunft noch nichts gesagt werden. Der Metallkegel war zunächst als Teil eines unbekannten Flugobjekts (UFO) angesehen worden. Er befindet sich gegenwärtig im Bundesverteidigungsministerium, wo er genau analysiert wird. In Nienburg und Umgebung wird damit gerechnet, dass nach der Schneeschmelze weitere Raketenteile im südlichen Kreisgebiet und im angrenzenden Nordrhein-Westfalen gefunden werden.

Quelle: CENAP-Newsticker 5.01.2009

.

.

.

Quelle: Die Harke


2745 Views

Dienstag, 31. Dezember 2013 - 10:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - MARS EXPRESS vor Flyby von Phobos am 29.Dezember 2013

.

23.12.2013

Mars Express HRSC image of Phobos, taken on 7 March 2010

.

Late this month, ESA’s Mars Express will make the closest flyby yet of the Red Planet’s largest moon Phobos, skimming past at only 45 km above its surface.

The flyby on 29 December will be so close and fast that Mars Express will not be able to take any images, but instead it will yield the most accurate details yet of the moon’s gravitational field and, in turn, provide new details of its internal structure.

As the spacecraft passes close to Phobos, it will be pulled slightly off course by the moon’s gravity, changing the spacecraft’s velocity by no more than a few centimetres per second. These small deviations will be reflected in the spacecraft’s radio signals as they are beamed back to Earth, and scientists can then translate them into measurements of the mass and density structure inside the moon.

Earlier flybys, including the previous closest approach of 67 km in March 2010, have already suggested that the moon could be between a quarter and a third empty space – essentially a rubble pile with large spaces between the rocky blocks that make up the moon’s interior.

Knowing the structure of the roughly 27 x 22 x 18 km Phobos will help to solve a big mystery concerning its origin and that of its more distant sibling, Deimos, which orbits Mars at approximately three times greater distance.

The leading theories propose that the duo are either asteroids captured by Mars, or that they were born from debris thrown up from giant impacts on Mars.

“By making close flybys of Phobos with Mars Express in this way, we can help to put constraints on the origin of these mysterious moons,” says Olivier Witasse, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist.

In addition to probing the gravitational field of Phobos during its close approach, Mars Express will be making measurements of how the solar wind influences the moon’s surface.

“At just 45 km from the surface, our spacecraft is passing almost within touching distance of Phobos,” says Michel Denis, Mars Express Operations Manager.

“We’ve been carrying out manoeuvres every few months to put the spacecraft on track and, together with the ground stations that will be monitoring it on its close approach, we are ready to make some extremely accurate measurements at Phobos.”

Both the position of the spacecraft and the moon must be known to high precision in order to make the most accurate calculations of the moon’s internal characteristics. To improve the positional data, the spacecraft’s high-resolution stereo camera has been capturing images of Phobos set against the background star field in the weeks leading up to closest approach and will continue to do so afterwards.

Furthermore, ground stations around the world will track the spacecraft for a total of 35 hours in the lead up to, during, and after the flyby to ensure that the position of Mars Express is precisely known.

“Mars Express entered orbit around the Red Planet exactly ten years ago this week – this close flyby of Phobos is certainly an exciting way to celebrate!” adds Olivier.

.

Phobos in 3D

Mars Express HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera) image of Phobos taken on 9 January 2011 at a distance of 100 km with a resolution of 8.1 m/pixel. Use red-blue glasses to fully appreciate this image.

Phobos is approximately 27 × 22 × 18 km and orbits Mars at a distance of 6000 km above the planet’s surface, or 9400 km from the centre of the planet.

Quelle: ESA

.

Update: 28.12.2013

.

MARS EXPRESS AUF DEM WEG ZU WAGHALSIGEM MANÖVER BEI PHOBOS

.

Am 29. Dezember wird Europas Mars Mission den kürzesten, je versuchten Vorbeiflug am Mars-Mond Phobos durchführen, nur 45 km an der Oberfläche vorbei. Das Vorbeiflugmanöver wird so nahe und schnell sein, dass die ESA-Sonde keine Bilder aufzeichnen, sondern stattdessen das Schwerefeld des Mondes sehr genau untersuchen wird. Dies soll wiederum neue Erkenntnisse zur inneren Struktur des seit langem von der Wissenschaft anvisierten Himmelskörpers liefern. Gesteuert wird Mars Express vom Europäischen Satellitenkontrollzentrum ESA/ESOC in Darmstadt.

Quelle: ESA

.

Update: 29.12.2013

.

Phobos flyby now

.

Update at 05:00GMT

We are now transmitting from NASA's 70m deep-space station in Madrid, DSS-63, and have released ESA's 35m station at New Norcia.

The hand-over between the two networks was very smooth with both DSN [NASA] and ESTRACK [ESA] performing their duties exactly on time despite an unusually tight schedule and a hand-over method that is not routinely used.

The telemetry modulation was switched off again at 03:46GMT (04:46CET) and will remain off until shortly after we begin tracking with NASA's 70m station at Goldstone, California, DSS-14, at 11:23GMT (12:32CET). Until then we will be relying on a system that the NASA tracking stationcolleagues have very helpfully provided for us, in which we can monitor directly their spectrum analysers and check on the quality of the signal.

Everything is currently running as planned and the next event will be the fly-by itself!

.

.

Phobos-Maps

As you read this, at 08:09 CET, Mars Express will be making its closest-ever flyby of Phobos!

MEX is transmitting a continuous radio signal across 208 million km of space, which is being tracked and received by NASA's 70m station at Madrid. The recording will enable scientists to precisely reconstruct the spacecraft's trajectory and, hence, know the gravitational influence of Phobos.

The one-way signal time is 11 minutes, 35.4 seconds right now.

If you were standing on the (lumpy) surface of Phobos and looked up, the animation below shows more or less what you would see: ESA's spacecraft as a pinpoint of light slowly but steadily advancing across the sky.

A few minutes ago, I got an update from the Mars Express Dedicated Control Room at ESOC: everything is going as planned!

The tracking today will continue through until this evening; NASA Goldstone takes over tracking at 11:02 GMT (12:02 CET) until 19:00 GMT (20:00 CET). ESA's New Norcia station will also shadow track starting at 17:06 GMT (18:06 CET). The MEX transmitter will remain on until tomorrow at 01:12 GMT (02:12 CET).

Months of preparation have culminated in a successful and – As hoped for! – relatively quiet tracking and flyby operation. Best wishes and well done to the ESA and NASA pros who made this work.

.

Phobos flyby timeline

13-362T 17:40:00Z New Norcia (NNO) station starts tracking Mars Express
13-363T 01:30:00Z DSS-63 acquires the signal from MEX
13-363T 03:21:52Z DSS-63 takes over as primary station
13-363T 03:44:05Z NNO stops tracking MEX
13-363T 07:09:00Z Mars Express – closest approach to Phobos (45km from surface)
13-363T 07:20:35Z Signals from closest approach reach Earth (due to the one-way light time)
13-363T 08:55:00Z DSS-14 begins tracking MEX
13-363T 11:02:50Z DSS-14 takes over as primary station
13-363T 11:25:00Z DSS-63 stops tracking MEX
13-363T 17:06:02Z NNO begins tracking MEX
13-363T 18:37:53Z NNO takes over as primary station
13-363T 19:00:00Z DSS-14 stops tracking MEX
13-364T 01:12:30Z The transmitters on MEX start switching off; flyby 'mission' ends

Quelle: ESA

.

Update: 31.12.2013

.

Mars Express Orbiter Buzzes Martian Moon Phobos

.

Phobos photographed by the ESA's Mars Express orbiter with Mars' limb in the background in 2010.

.

On Sunday, at 5:17 p.m. GMT (12:17 p.m. EST), Europe’s Mars Express orbiter successfully completed a daring low-pass of Mars’ largest moon Phobos.

In an effort to precisely measure the gravitational field of the moon, the 10 year-old mission was sent on a trajectory that took it only 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the dusty surface, the closest any spacecraft has ever come to the natural satellite.

At the time of flyby, Mars Express was transmitting a “continuous radio signal across 208 million km of space” to NASA’s radio antennae near Madrid, Spain, wrote Daniel Scuka at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre, Darmstadt, Germany, in a blog update. The 70 meter radio antenna is part of NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN), which precisely tracked the spacecraft’s signal. Post-flyby, NASA’s 70 meter Goldstone DSN antenna in the Mojave Desert, Calif., and ESA’s 35 meter antenna at New Norcia in Australia continued to track the mission.

During the flyby, DSN operators reported “a slight effect in the Doppler residuals,” meaning that, as expected, Phobos’ gravity had accelerated Mars Express’ orbital velocity very slightly. Through careful analysis of the Doppler shifting of the radio signal, Phobos’ gravity can be measured, allowing scientists to discern its mass and density — the most precise measurement to date.

All focus was on the spacecraft’s ability to send a continuous stream of data back to Earth, so close-up snapshots were not a possibility.

“In order to perform the Phobos flyby radio science measurements, the spacecraft needed to have its high gain antenna dish pointed at Earth for the entire duration of the flyby operations,” said Scuka. “This meant that we were not able to conduct observations with any of the other instruments (which would need to be pointed at Mars).”

However, the operation allowed the spacecraft to beam back an extra 200 Gigabits of observational data, including imagery of Phobos during an earlier 500 kilometer pass of the moon.

The successful flyby marks the end of months of planning by the ESA team managing Mars Express that, as of last week, has been in Mars orbit for 10 years. This flyby opportunity will hopefully provide further clues to the origin of the knobbly 13.4 kilometer (8.3 mile) wide moon that orbits Mars only 6,000 kilometers (3,700 miles) from the planet’s surface.

By precisely measuring the gravitational influence on a spacecraft during flyby, planetary scientists will better understand the moon’s composition. During previous flybys, scientists calculated that the moon must be one-third empty space, which means the object may be a “rubble pile” — an agglomeration of smaller rocks hold together under a mutual gravity. But did the material come from a cataclysmic Mars impact? Or was Phobos, and its smaller satellite sibling Deimos, once an asteroid that got captured by Mars’ gravity?

Those answers may not come until we can carry out a dedicated sample return mission of the moon’s regolith, but the flyby will certainly aid our understanding of Phobos’ internal structure.

.

Quelle: D-News


2627 Views

Montag, 30. Dezember 2013 - 09:49 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISS Mikrometeoriten und Orbital Debris (MMOD) Schutz

.

.

Quelle: NASA


2801 Views

Montag, 30. Dezember 2013 - 09:05 Uhr

Astronomie - Die Jagd nach Meteoriten beginnt in der Antarktis

.

The Antarctic Search for Meteorites didn't glean as many meteorites as hoped during the , but still came back with hundreds of specimens — and photos.

.

Antarctica is one of the best places on Earth to spot these fallen stars.

Each winter — which is summer in down south — camps out on an Antarctic glacier in the middle of nowhere, often where no human has ever tread. It's kind of like a space voyage, but a lot cheaper.

And it's the meteorite that's done most of the traveling.

"It's an amazing journey to think about, and a very precious rock," says Jani Radebaugh, a planetary scientist at Brigham Young University, from a tent about 500 miles from the South Pole. She's one of eight in an expedition group funded by NASA and based out of Case Western Reserve University.

Each day, she and her team members set out on snowmobiles, scanning the horizon for black specks — samples that will eventually make it to NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Most of the meteorites have been since they landed on Earth millions of years ago. The glacier keeps them fairly sterile, preserving the specimens almost as a deep freezer would. And the white-and-blue expanse gives a good backdrop for the search, which is a little like looking for an ant on a white tablecloth — if the tablecloth were million-year-old, mile-thick blue ice.

"As soon as you see that dark black fusion crust on the outside, you just get so excited," Radebaugh says. "Everyone jumps up and just starts waving their hands."

Then, they drop to their knees to measure, photograph and collect the meteorite. They get excited because these rocks can offer precious information — like clues about the early solar system, and whether there was ever life on Mars.

The meteorite hunters are a hardy crew. Sleeping on a creaky slab of ice hundreds of feet thick can be a bit unnerving.

"The only thing I can hear is the popping of the glacier underneath me," Radebaugh says. "You're sitting on a giant, moving body of ice. And sometimes you forget that, until you hear the pops and groans. It's really magical."

Radebaugh and her colleagues will spend close to two months out on the ice, one group of a long line that has collected more than 20,000 meteorites in the last few decades.

This year's expedition is a little different from past years. It's a lot shorter — delayed by about a month because of the . Bad weather has prevented the other half of the eight-person crew from landing, despite efforts to smooth a landing strip on the ice for the ski-equipped planes.

The team that is on the ground is doing its best, enjoying 24 hours of daylight and the thrill of finding chunks of other worlds.

They'll celebrate New Year's Eve under the midnight sun, listening to the popping glacier, and perhaps dreaming about popping a cork.

.

.

Quelle: npr


3477 Views