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Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 19:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - CNES Saphir+Rubis Testraketen 1964-1967

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The test vehicle Rubis is the fourth born in the family jewels.
It consists of a first stage consisting of propellant Agate and second floor powder designed specifically for the launcher Diamant.
The unmanned vehicle is stabilized by rotation.
10 shots are made from 1964 to Hammaguir in Algeria Joint Test Center of Space Vehicle.
Ruby was originally designed to test flight the release of the cuff, separation and rotation of the third floor.
5 test (VE) vehicles: AGATE, TOPAZ, EMERALD RUBY SAPPHIRE and developed in the EBB (Ballistic Research Base) program, also known as Gems, resulted in Diamant launcher.
Title of Report:
The family of gemstones

Saphir test vehicle is the fifth born in the family jewels.
It consists of two floors obtained by combining the first floor Emerald and Topaz in second.15 shots were made between 1965 and 1967 in Algeria since Hammaguir Joint Test Center of Space Vehicle. This allows the vehicle in flight testing of driving a two-stage device, the separation stages, the inertial guidance and retraction of the wedge. These aspects were studied through three successive versions of the VE231, designated P versions (Control), G (guidance) and R (Back).
5 test (VE) vehicles: AGATE, TOPAZ, EMERALD RUBY SAPPHIRE and developed in the EBB (Ballistic Research Base) program, also known as Gems, resulted in Diamant launcher.
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Quelle: CNES

Tags: Raumfahrt 

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Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 17:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - China Prototyp des Mars-Rover zieht große Aufmerksamkeit auf der 2014 China International Industry Fair (CIIF) in Shanghai auf sich.

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Quelle: Chinanews

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Update: 9.11.2014

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China's Mars Rover Prototype Debuts

China's home-developed prototype aeroplane for probing Mars has made its debut at 2014 China International Industry Fair in Shanghai from November 4 to November 8. [Photo: CFP]
A prototype of China's planned Mars rover is among a number of high-tech products on display at this year's China International Industry Fair in Shanghai.
Engineers say the rover has been designed along the same lines as the Chinese moon rover "Jade Rabbit," but with features to better cope with the conditions on Mars.
Xiao Jie is with the Shanghai Aerospace System Engineering Institute.
"The current designed speed of the rover remains as 200 meters per hour. It can climb a slope of up to 30 degrees, and cross a barricade 350 millimeters high. These are the designs for its capabilities."
Apart from the Mars rover, a model of an unmanned submersible that can dive some 44-hundred meters below the surface is also on display at the Industry Fair. 
The event runs until tomorrow.
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China's home-developed prototype aeroplane for probing Mars has made its debut at 2014 China International Industry Fair in Shanghai from November 4 to November 8. [Photo: CFP]
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Technicians install self-developed prototype aeroplane to be shown at 2014 China International Industry Fair on November 3, 2014 in Shanghai, China. 2014 China International Industry Fair will be held at Shanghai International Expo Center from November 4 to November 8 and the prototype aeroplane for probing the planet Mars is one of exhibits to be shown. [Photo: CFP]

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Quelle: CRI


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1932 Views

Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 16:15 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Vorbereitung für Delta-4 Start mit NROL-45 Mission

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Delta Mariner drops anchor at Vandenberg to deliver rocket

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Credit: Senior Airman Shane M. Phipps/Air Force.
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The harbor at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California received a Delta 4 rocket last week, dropping anchor aboard the Delta Mariner cargo ship after transit from the manufacturing plant in Alabama.
The United Launch Alliance rocket is scheduled to lift off in April from Space Launch Complex 6 at the base, on the classified NROL-45 mission for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office.
“Months of work went into the Mariner’s arrival, by everyone from the contractors, to ULA, to the base personnel,” said Capt. Crystal Hamilton, 4th Space Launch Squadron launch mission manager. “The Delta 4 that arrived on the Mariner actually traveled from the production facility at Decatur, Ala., to Cape Canaveral Air Station for initial processing, before making its way through the Gulf of Mexico, Panama Canal and up the coastline to Vandenberg.”
The harbor is a leftover part of the base’s space shuttle infrastructure built in the 1980s. The dock would have received the external fuel tank barge. Now, it is used exclusively by the Mariner.
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The Delta 4 rocket Common Booster core is offloaded from the Mariner. Credit: Senior Airman Shane M. Phipps/Air Force.
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“The Delta rocket travels by boat because it’s too large to be transported any other way,” said Maj. Lawrence Ware, 4th SLS director of operations.
“Our role is to provide mission assurance for Evolved Expendable Launch vehicles for the Air Force at Vandenberg. What that means is we work with ULA and monitor their operations to ensure they’re complying with the contract set up with the Air Force and we help manage their risk all the way from the hardware arrival to the day of launch when the rocket leaves the pad. It has been a great experience. Nothing is better than being out on the beach, watching the sun come up, and being able to unload a 250 million dollar rocket off the back of a ship. This is definitely one of the highlights of being at this base and not too many people can say they do this for a living.”
Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1947 Views

Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 16:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Re-Entry von Kosmos-1441 Satelliten

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7.11.2014

Soviet satellite Kosmos-1441 to burn in atmosphere November 8 — space defense spokesman

The satellite was launched by the USSR on February 16, 1983 with a Vostok rocket, its service life expired in February 1984

Russia’s Space Defense Force is keeping track of the Kosmos-1441 satellite, which is about to leave the orbit within hours, Space Defense Force spokesman Alexey Zolotukhin told TASS.
“Analysis indicates that fragments of the Kosmos-1441 satellite will leave the near-Earth orbit on November 8, 2014 over the Pacific Ocean. The final date and site where the fragments will be dumped may change under the influence of external factors,” he said.
Space Defense Force specialists are maintaining stable control of every single orbit.
Also, Zolotukhin confirmed the dumping of fragments of another space satellite — Kosmos 1939 on October 29 — over the Caribbean.
The Soviet Union launched the Kosmos-1441 satellite on February 16, 1983 with a Vostok rocket. Its service life expired in February 1984.
Quelle: TASS
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One Down, One To Go, As Old Russian SpySats Turn Into Burned Objects

Image of the Kosmos-1441 satellite
[SatNews] The RT news site is reporting that an old Soviet reconnaissance satellite is due to enter and burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere on Saturday, November 8, 2014, while any possible debris is projected to fall into the Pacific Ocean, this according to the Russian Aerospace Defense Force.
“Analysis indicates that fragments of the Kosmos-1441 satellite will leave the near-Earth orbit on November 8, 2014 over the Pacific Ocean. The final date and site where the fragments may crash may change under the influence of external factors,” spokesman for the Russian Space Command Aleksey Zolotukhin told TASS.
Kosmos-1441 is a Soviet military ELINT (Electronic and Signals Intelligence) satellite that was launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in 1983 onboard a Vostok rocket. The satellite was a part of the Soviet and then Russian space-based military surveillance system, designed to detect radio-emitting objects, their type and mode of operation, including how active they are. Its one-year active service life is said to have expired in February 1984.
The Aerospace Defense Force specialists maintain stable control and are tracking the spacecraft, which is currently orbiting the Earth at 88 minutes orbit time, 81 degrees inclination, apogee 215 km, perigee 204 km. The agency also confirmed an earlier deorbiting of the Kosmos-1939, and that satellite fell into the waters of the Caribbean Sea, which occurred on October 29th.
Quelle: Satnews Daily
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Update: 9.11.2014
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MOSCOW,  A defunct Soviet satellite has left the Earth's orbit, disintegrated and plunged into the Pacific as anticipated by the Russian Air Defense Forces, its spokesperson said Saturday.
"According to the Center for Space Monitoring at the Main Center for the Missile and Space Defense, the fragments of the space object left the orbit at 2:52 p.m. MSK [11:52 GMT] on November 8, 2014 over the Pacific Ocean," Col. Alexei Zolotukhin, a spokesperson for Russia's Aerospace Defense Forces said.
The satellite, identified as Kosmos-1441, was expected to make a comeback in early November, together with another obsolete Soviet satellite which veered off the course and plunged into the Caribbean Sea on October 29.
Kosmos-1441 was put into orbit on February 16, 1983 and stopped operation the next year. In 2009, another decommissioned Kosmos satellite collided with a US Iridium telecom satellite in the first ever high-speed crash between two man-made objects in space.
Quelle: RiaNovosti


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1884 Views

Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 13:40 Uhr

Luftfahrt - Modellflugzeug erreicht 709km/h

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Quelle: Bild


Tags: Luftfahrt 

2156 Views

Sonntag, 9. November 2014 - 10:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA bringt beispiellose 3-D-Ansichten aus dem All auf den Computer

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In the middle of the last century, going to the theatre for a 3-D film was considered a unique experience of state-of-the-art technology. People had a box of popcorn and special glasses, and were ready to jump out of their seat when something reached out from the screen to grab them.
Today, you no longer need to go find a theatre to experience three-dimensional moving pictures, but can join millions watching online. NASA is bringing the 3-D experience to your computer with a new playlist of 3-D videos on the agency's official YouTube channel. Videos posted to the account will give viewers a more realistic representation of living and working on the International Space Station and other fascinating images from the nation's space program.
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zu sehen hier: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxE09URykdg
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The films of the Mercury and Apollo astronauts floating in orbit and walking on the surface of the moon are a major part of the world's visual history. As we continue to explore space, NASA's imaging experts have advanced the science of imaging technology so that even more breathtaking picture let viewer virtually experience the phenomenon of spaceflight.
"Delivering images from these new and exciting locations is how we share our accomplishments with the world," said Rodney Grubbs, program manager for NASA's Imagery Experts Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. "As the industry made advances in technology, from film to digital cameras and then cameras with better resolutions, we all benefited by seeing sharper and cleaner images from space. We also started saving on launch costs with cameras taking up less room and weight in a spacecraft, including shrinking the material on which we record images -- from film to standard definition video tape to high-definition digital files on reusable storage media."
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zu sehen hier: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQEkFppWaRI
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NASA took the next step in bringing back stunning footage from space when the agency sent a 3-D HDTV camera with the crew of STS-135 to document the final space shuttle mission -- the orbiter Atlantis in July 2011. The camera stayed on the space station so the various crews could record their experiences and share them with the world.
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European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers works with the 3-D camera on the International Space Station during Expedition 31 in 2012.
Image Credit: NASA
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"Shooting in 3-D hasn't changed much in 50 or 60 years," Grubbs said. "The camera still has two distinct left and right lenses, but now we record to two separate flash memory cards, one for the left camera eye and one for the right. We don’t have to transmit taped footage and re-record it here. We can simply download an exact copy of those digital files to the ground, merge them in our editing software here, and create the same 3-D image they had in orbit."
These new videos will provide much of the content for NASA's online 3-D video playlist. Some of the first footage posted shows a tour of the space station and astronauts exploring water surface tension in microgravity with both the 3-D camera and a miniature HD camera in a waterproof case inside a volleyball-sized water bubble. Standard two-dimensional versions of both the tour video and the water surface tension video are also available.
All these decades of recording and documenting the astronaut experience have led to a new, unexpected scientific investigation.
"During the course of long-duration flights on station, we have noticed a degradation of our cameras," said Grubbs, who is also the principal investigator for the 3-D camera study on orbit. "Increased radiation is part of the space environment and, while the hull of the station protects the astronauts, small radiation particles can still penetrate. They may not do any detectable harm to the crew, but these same particles will damage the camera's sensors resulting in 'hot' or white pixels on the video.”
These pixels show up as white dots on images beamed back to Earth. Station cameras were replaced every eight to 12 months. However, when Grubbs and his team sent up the new 3-D camera, the number of burned out pixels they could see in footage dropped from the thousands in the standard cameras to virtually zero. It was a much cleaner image and the camera stayed in orbit for a few years.
"We eventually decided we needed to take a look and see what was physically going on with the camera, so we got permission to bring that particular one back to Earth on the first SpaceX-Dragon splashdown in 2012," Grubbs said. "We found the overlay of the two stereo images forming the 3-D picture may have helped lessen the appearance of damaged pixels."
More importantly, the camera performed better because it used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, and not the more traditional charge-coupled device imaging sensor in previous cameras. Both are ways to turn light into electrical signals that eventually are saved to a memory card, but it seems like the CMOS is less susceptible to radiation and can therefore create a clearer image.
Scientists and engineers also are interested in this investigation of 3-D cameras for possible future use to determine proximity in space and for rendezvous and docking operations.
In the meantime, Grubbs and his team are now planning to send up a camera that could shoot nearly six times the resolution of an HD camera, encouraging the crew to record more video to share with the public.
Make sure to have your popcorn and 3-D glasses ready because it can get topsy-turvy working on an orbiting laboratory with no floor or ceiling.
Quelle: NASA

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1775 Views

Samstag, 8. November 2014 - 21:21 Uhr

Science Fiction - Warum "Interstellar" gehört in den Pantheon der Besten "Realistische" Science Fiction Filme

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Why "Interstellar" Belongs in the Pantheon of the Best "Realistic" Science Fiction Films
The film follows a well-trodden path, says Smithsonian space historian Cathleen Lewis, who gives it a thumbs up
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Early in the 20th century, a little known Russian school teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky reportedly wrote to a fellow enthusiast of the emerging science of aviation and rocketry, "The Earth is the cradle of humanity, but mankind cannot live in a cradle forever."  Tsiolkovsky was one of the globally dispersed pioneers of rocketry of the time. Almost as importantly, Tsiolkovsky defined a standard of space science fiction that required careful attention to the technical accuracy of space fiction and film. Interstellar director Christopher Nolan and his screenwriter brother, Jonathan, know the work of Tsiolkovsky. Although he is never mentioned by name, the Russian schoolteacher's message provides the backbone to the movie.  
No one willingly attends a space science fiction movie with a space history curator. The audible eye rolling, heavy sighing and groans of protest when the laws of physics are violated through the magic of CGI can ruin even the most entertaining and fast-paced science fiction movie for others. Even tightly written movies that cause the most skeptical to suspend disbelief for the duration of the film later generate days of recrimination over historical, logical, mechanical and physical flaws. The flaws can range from meaningless ones to grand leaps of faith; all of which can unravel the entire fabric of the story. Interstellar is not one of these movies.  
Three things distinguish the film from recent space-themed movies: it is grounded in the current concerns of our world; its plot is rich in the technically accurate science and technology of spaceflight and the movie pays homage to the best of the spaceflight cinema genre. All three themes transport the viewer and leave few concerns for what might be missing, rather than what the film got wrong.   
The movie begins with a series of filmed oral history interviews with survivors of a global dust bowl that has resulted from a plague that eroded agricultural production to the monoculture of corn. The interviews fade into a farmhouse where widowed NASA pilot-turned-farmer, Cooper, aka Coop (Matthew McConaughey) lives with his father-in-law and two children. We know the setting is the not-too-distant future because the technology of computers and drones are part of our reality. The Earth will survive, but it won't support life. More importantly, humanity is also doomed because the culture that has prevailed accepts the current situation as an inevitable consequence of past mistakes. The Apollo program, it is widely believed, was all faked, a propaganda ploy concocted to bankrupt the Soviet Union. Education is rationed. The accomplishments of the 20th century are excesses and waste. Coop's visceral response to the complacency that he faces makes it clear that Interstellar is also making a thinly veiled political statement. The massive crop failure is a consequence of global warming.  Nolan has written a call to arms, embracing the recent motive for leaving Earth that has humankind replacing the manifest destiny justification for exploration.
The scientific genesis of the plot is the recognition that humans have exploited the capabilities of chemical rocket engines to their capacity. Without developing a new means of propulsion, humankind cannot reach beyond the solar system for salvation from a failing planet. It is the appearance of a wormhole near Saturn that excites the few remaining scientists at the now-secret and long-forgotten NASA to view the hole as a passageway to salvation. This is the only means of escape from the solar system to find a habitable replacement for Earth. Gravitational anomalies from the wormhole lead Coop and his daughter Murph (Mackenzie Foy) to the NASA facility where his former mentor is working on a solution to the problem of transporting the remaining human population to another galaxy.
This is the most compelling characteristic of the movie. It is what Tsiolkovsky dubbed "realistic science fiction."  This type of science fiction is well informed by some of the best scientific minds of the time. In rocketry and space travel there has been a long tradition of popularizers and filmmakers joining together with the practitioners and experimenters to produce compelling, inspiring science fiction. Hermann Oberth consulted on Fritz Lang's Frau im Mond (Germany 1929); Tsiolkovsky on Cosmic Voyage (USSR 1934); Wernher von Braun on Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color (USA 1955-57); Soviet rocket designer Sergei Korolev on Planet of the Storms (USSR 1962); and of course Arthur C. Clarke on 2001: A Space Odyssey (USA  1968). Interstellar has its own scientific advisor, physicist Kip Thorne, on whom the film's character Professor Brand (Michael Caine) is based. The science is important, but this is a movie, not an advanced course in theoretical physics. Its scientific logic is tight enough to hold the attention of a well-educated audience. That fact was very apparent sitting among an audience of millennials who were silent, unshifting and paying little or no attention to their phones for over two and a half hours.
This is a filmmaker's film, in contrast to an actor's film. The cast is not an ensemble and the sole well-developed relationship in the film is between McConaughey and the three actresses who play his daughter (Foy, Jessica Chastain and Ellen Burstyn) over the course of a century. Nolan has chosen to create this movie in film instead of digital formats. Over half the movie was captured on 70mm film stock in IMAX format. He has eschewed computer generated graphics and green screens and filmed genuine location scenes. This may be one of the last major films that is created in this format. Laser projection IMAX theaters that show the film must retrofit their projection booths with old fashioned, non-digital projectors.
Returning to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, I am mindful that a Russian word that he used razum is often translated to mean "humanity," but its literal translation is "reason." This broader interpretation encompasses all of human culture. Tsiolkovsky and space history curators have long realized that humans do not make technological leaps based on science and technology alone. Science and technology have to work in conjunction with the history, arts, culture, politics and economics of the time. We witnessed this particular confluence of events in the middle of the last century, when Earthbound humans took their first steps on the Moon. Interstellar provokes a new generation to consider that a similar confluence might be at hand. In rephrasing Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's words from over a century ago, Nolan challenges his audience to a choice. As Coop says as he makes his decision to leave his family to seek a new world for humanity, "Mankind was born on Earth. It was never meant to die here." 
Quelle: Smithsonian
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Interstellar spielt in naher Zukunft, in der die Erde zu einem verstaubten Planeten verkommen ist. Dadurch wird den Menschen das Leben zunehmend erschwert, ihr Ende steht bevor. Um dies zu verhindern, reist der Ingenieur Cooper (Matthew McConaughey) mit der Wissenschaftlerin Amelia (Anne Hathaway) und zwei anderen Crew-Mitgliedern ins All, um mit Hilfe eines Wurmlochs fremde Galaxien nach einem neuen Heimatplaneten zu erforschen und die Menschheit damit zu retten. Der Trip durch Raum und Zeit wird zu einem gefährlichen, aber fantastischen Erlebnis.
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Tags: Science 

2146 Views

Samstag, 8. November 2014 - 12:35 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Vor Kometen-Landung von Rosetta-Philae

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Frams: ESA-Video


Tags: Raumfahrt 

2282 Views

Freitag, 7. November 2014 - 22:48 Uhr

Astronomie - MAVEN-Sonde :Mars-Meteor-Schauer nach Komet Siding Spring-C/2013 A1 am 19.Oktober

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MARTIAN METEOR SHOWER: Today, NASA held a press conference to discuss what happened when Comet Siding Springs buzzed Mars on Oct. 19, 2014. An international fleet of Mars orbiters observed the encounter using a variety of cameras, radars, and other sensors. Among many findings, the highlight was a "spectacular meteor shower" detected by NASA's MAVEN spacecraft. MAVEN did not actually see streaks of light in the Martian atmosphere--the spacecraft was sheltering behind the body of Mars during the comet's flyby. But when MAVEN emerged, it found a glowing layer of Mg+ (a constituent of meteor smoke) floating 150 km above the planet's surface:
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The "smoke" was made of ionized magnesium and other metals shed by the disintegrating meteoroids. The data are consistent with "a few tons of comet dust being deposited in the atmosphere of Mars," says Nick Schneider, the instrument lead for MAVEN's Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph at University of Colorado, Boulder. "A human on the surface of Mars might have seen thousands of shooting stars per hour, possibly a meteor storm." He further speculated that the meteor shower would have produced a yellow afterglow in the skies of Mars because the meteor smoke was rich in sodium ions.
Jim Green, the director of NASA's Planetary Science Division in Washington DC says there was a lot more comet dust hitting Mars than researchers expected, pre-flyby. Radars onboard the ESA's Mars Express spacecraft and NASA's Mars Reconnassance Orbiter also detected signs of meteor-related ions. MAVEN and the other spacecraft are continuing to collect data as the atmosphere of Mars recovers from the encounter. Stay tuned for updates.
Quelle. Spaceweather
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Mars Spacecraft Reveal Comet Flyby Effects on Martian Atmosphere
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Artist’s concept of Comet Siding Spring approaching Mars, shown with NASA’s orbiters preparing to make science observations of this unique encounter.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL
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Two NASA and one European spacecraft that obtained the first up-close observations of a comet flyby of Mars on Oct. 19, have gathered new information about the basic properties of the comet’s nucleus and directly detected the effects on the Martian atmosphere.
Data from observations carried out by NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and a radar instrument on the European Space Agency's (ESA’s) Mars Express spacecraft have revealed that debris from the comet added a temporary and very strong layer of ions to the ionosphere, the electrically charged layer high above Mars. In these observations, scientists were able to make a direct connection from the input of debris from a specific meteor shower to the formation of this kind of transient layer in response; that is a first on any planet, including Earth.
Comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring traveled from the most distant region of our solar system, called the Oort Cloud, and made a close approach around 2:27 p.m. EDT within about 87,000 miles (139,500 kilometers) of the Red Planet. This is less than half the distance between Earth and our moon and less than one-tenth the distance of any known comet flyby of Earth.
Dust from the comet impacted Mars and was vaporized high in the atmosphere, producing what was likely an impressive meteor shower. This debris resulted in significant temporary changes to the planet’s upper atmosphere and possible longer-term perturbations. Earth-based and a host of space telescopes also observed the unique celestial object.
“This historic event allowed us to observe the details of this fast-moving Oort Cloud comet in a way never before possible using our existing Mars missions,” said Jim Green, director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division at the agency’s Headquarters in Washington. “Observing the effects on Mars of the comet's dust slamming into the upper atmosphere makes me very happy that we decided to put our spacecraft on the other side of Mars at the peak of the dust tail passage and out of harm's way.”
The MAVEN spacecraft, recently arrived at Mars, detected the comet encounter in two ways. The remote-sensing Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph observed intense ultraviolet emission from magnesium and iron ions high in the atmosphere in the aftermath of the meteor shower. Not even the most intense meteor storms on Earth have produced as strong a response as this one. The emission dominated Mars' ultraviolet spectrum for several hours after the encounter and then dissipated over the next two days.
MAVEN also was able to directly sample and determine the composition of some of the comet dust in Mars’ atmosphere. Analysis of these samples by the spacecraft’s Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer detected eight different types of metal ions, including sodium, magnesium and iron. These are the first direct measurements of the composition of dust from an Oort Cloud comet. The Oort Cloud, well beyond the outer-most planets that surround our sun, is a spherical region of icy objects believed to be material left over from the formation of the solar system.
Elsewhere above Mars, a joint U.S. and Italian instrument on Mars Express observed a huge increase in the density of electrons following the comet's close approach. This instrument, the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS), saw a huge jump in the electron density in the ionosphere a few hours after the comet rendezvous. This spike occurred at a substantially lower altitude than the normal density peak in the Martian ionosphere. The increased ionization, like the effects observed by MAVEN, appears to be the result of fine particles from the comet burning up in the atmosphere.
MRO’s Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD) also detected the enhanced ionosphere. Images from the instrument were smeared by the passage of the radar signals through the temporary ion layer created by the comet's dust. SHARAD scientists used this smearing to determine that the electron density of the ionosphere on the planet's night side, where the observations were made, was five to 10 times higher than usual.
Studies of the comet itself, made with MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, revealed the nucleus is smaller than the expected 1.2 miles (2 kilometers). The HiRISE images also indicate a rotation period for the nucleus of eight hours, which is consistent with recent preliminary observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.
MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) also observed the comet to see whether signs of any particular chemical constituents stood out in its spectrum. Team members said the spectrum appears to show a dusty comet with no strong emission lines at their instrument’s sensitivity.
In addition to these immediate effects, MAVEN and the other missions will continue to look for long-term perturbations to Mars’ atmosphere.
MAVEN's principal investigator is based at the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the mission. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Mars Express is a project of the European Space Agency; NASA and the Italian Space Agency jointly funded the MARSIS instrument.
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Mars Orbiter Sizes Up Passing Comet
Five images of comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring taken within a 35-minute period as it passed near Mars on Oct. 19, 2014, provide information about the size of the comet's nucleus. These observations by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suggest that the nucleus is smaller than 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) across.
HiRISE acquired these images from distances ranging from 86,000 to 93,000 miles (138,000 to 150,000 kilometers) away from the nucleus, as comet Siding Spring made its closest approach to Mars. At those distances, each pixel covers an area from about 450 to 580 feet (138 to 177 meters).  The scale bar on each image is 0.62 mile (1 kilometer).
The HiRISE observations of comet Siding Spring during this period were made possible due to very precise pointing and slewing of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter by engineers at Lockheed Martin in Denver, based on comet position calculations by engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. HiRISE acquired three images 12 days before closest approach, when the comet was barely detectable above the "noise level" of the images. These early images indicated the comet was not quite at its predicted location. This new viewing angle on the comet was used to update its predicted location and timing at closest approach. Without this update, the comet may have been outside the HiRISE image area in the best images.
For more information on these and other HiRISE images, see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu.
HiRISE is one of six instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colorado. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona
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Radar-Detected Change in Martian Near-Polar Ionosphere After Comet's Flyby
Quelle: NASA

Tags: Astronomie 

1990 Views

Freitag, 7. November 2014 - 16:25 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von RS-20B mit Japan-ASNARO-1 Satelliten

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Japanese Satellites Orbited as Part of Russia-Ukraine Program: Spokesperson

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A converted RS-20B (SS-18 Satan) intercontinental ballistic missile has placed five Japanese satellites into orbit as part of a joint Russia-Ukraine program, a spokesperson for the Russian Strategic Missile Forces told RIA Novosti on Thursday.
"The rocket has successfully put the space vehicles into orbit," Col. Igor Egorov said.
A representative for Kosmotras company, in charge of the program, told RIA Novosti that the rocket was carrying an ASNARO-1 Earth observation satellite and four university-made micro-satellites.
The launch was carried out at 0735 GMT from the Yasny missile launch site in central Russia.
The Dnepr program, established by Russia and Ukraine in the 1990s, converts military RS-20 ICBMs into carrier rockets to put satellites into low Earth orbit. The program uses missiles withdrawn from combat duty, solving the problem of their elimination.
Technical maintenance of rockets used to be carried out by Ukrainian specialists, before Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko ordered a moratorium on military-industrial cooperation with Russia in June over the armed conflict in Donbas.
Quelle: RIA-NOVOSTI
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Start-Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iM5j2MnLWpg

Tags: Raumfahrt 

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