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Sonntag, 19. Juni 2016 - 16:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Blue Origin Raumschiff Fallschirm-Kapsel-Test während 4.Testflug

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27.05.2016

Blue Origin will intentionally crash its spaceship during the next test flight
The empty crew capsule will launch with faulty parachutes
Blue Origin is planning the next test flight of its reusable New Shepard rocket, but CEO Jeff Bezos just revealed a twist: the empty crew capsule, which sits on top of the rocket, will crash-land on purpose.
"On this upcoming mission we also plan to stress the crew capsule by landing with an intentionally failed parachute, demonstrating our ability to safely handle that failure scenario," Bezos writes in an email update that was sent out this afternoon. "It promises to be an exciting demonstration."
BLUE ORIGIN WANTS TO FIND OUT WHAT HAPPENS IF THE PARACHUTES FAIL
New Shepard is the company's flagship rocket, one that it hopes to use to send tourists to space starting in 2018. Those trips, if and when they happen, will be short — Blue Origin plans to offer just four minutes of weightlessness before the capsules return to Earth. Passengers will be passing what's known as the Karman line — an imaginary boundary 62 miles above the Earth that signals the beginning of what the industry officially refers to as "space" — but they won't be going into orbit.
The rocket that Bezos is talking about is the same reusable New Shepard rocket that Blue Origin has flown — and landed — three separate times. (While there are many differences between what SpaceX and Blue Origin are doing, Bezos is trying to accomplish a similar goal of lowering the price tag of getting to space by making its rockets reusable.) The crew capsule separated and returned safely to Earth using parachutes during each of those previous missions.
Crashing the crew capsule won't be the only difference during this test flight. Bezos writes that the company will "execute additional maneuvers on both the crew capsule and the booster" in order to learn more about how they behave under different conditions. "One of the fundamental tenets of Blue Origin is that the safest vehicle is one that is robust and well understood," he writes. "Each successive mission affords us the opportunity to learn and improve our vehicles and their modeling."
New Shepard has flown and landed three times since November of 2015. News of the first landing wasn't shared until a day after the company had completed the mission, but the private spaceflight company has become less secretive with each flight. That said, the company has not yet revealed a date for the upcoming flight.
Quelle: THE VERGE
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Update: 5.06.2016
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Jeff Bezos: Blue Origin Will Drop Crew Capsule Without a Parachute in a Few Weeks

"A parachute failure is a credible scenario," Bezos wrote today.

Now both Blue Origin and SpaceX have launched rockets and returned them to Earth for reuse. Blue Origin has even relaunched the same rocket (three times), a feat SpaceX has yet to achieve. But simply landing a rocket is only half the battle. Blue Origin, started by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, hopes to one day to be able to offer passenger flights, which would require landings that don’t crush the skulls of the people on board.
“A parachute failure is a credible scenario in even the most carefully designed recovery system, so a robust vehicle needs to accommodate that possibility,” Bezos wrote in the Blue Origin email newsletter sent out today. “We’re about to do that test.”
He adds: “We’ll provide a heads up when we know the flight date, but it will likely be before the end of the month.”
After a joyride to suborbital space — and perhaps further once Blue Origin fully develops its BE-4 rocket booster — landings for space tourists and explorers should be safe even if the parachute doesn’t open.
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Blue Origin workers gather up a parachute after a recent test landing. The next test landing won't offer any parachutes.
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Bezos is confident that the six-passenger crew capsule is ready for the same kind of trouble that once struck Apollo 15 when it experienced the trauma of landing in the ocean after one of its three parachutes didn’t catch, prompting the controllers on a nearby U.S. warship to radio the returning astronauts, “You have a streamed chute. Stand by for a hard impact.”
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The Apollo 15 capsule that lost one of its parachutes on the descent inspired Bezos to perform a test of the New Shepard crew capsule. 
Apparently, it’s all a part of his plan to ensure the New Shepard rocket is able to withstand just about anything.
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In addition to redundant parachutes, the crew capsule is equipped with a two-stage crushable structure that absorbs landing loads, along with seats that use a passive energy-absorbing mechanism to reduce peak loads to the occupant. As an added measure of redundancy, the crew capsule is equipped with a “retro rocket” propulsive system that activates just a few feet above the ground to lower the velocity to approximately 3 ft/sec at touchdown. This final maneuver causes the dust cloud you can see when the crew capsule lands.
It is somewhat encouraging that the first Blue Origin rocket successfully touched down less than a year ago in November 2015, and SpaceX achieved the milestone the next month. Now, these same companies are actually making landings harder on themselves.
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The crew capsule has successfully detached from the New Shepard rocket and landed without trouble.
Quelle: INVERSE
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Update: 14.06.2016
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WATCH BLUE ORIGIN'S ROCKET LAUNCH VIA LIVE WEBCAST FOR THE FIRST TIME

THE REUSABLE NEW SHEPARD BOOSTER TAKES OFF FOR THE FOURTH TIME ON FRIDAY

Blue Origin's New Shepard rocket
Blue Origin, the rocket company founded by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, in November 2015 performed the first successful powered vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) of a reusable rocket, the New Shepard. On Friday, that same booster will launch for the fourth time.
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The rocket company founded by Amazon.com billionaire Jeff Bezos isn't exactly well known for its openness. Its launches from its West Texas facility are kept as secret as possible, and only a few reporters have ever entered the company's headquarters in Washington State.
On Friday, for the first time, you can watch a Blue Origin rocket launch live via webcast.
Blue Origin made history by becoming the first group to launch a rocket and then land it vertically on Earth in November 2015. Since then, the booster has flown two more times, and Friday's launch will be this booster's fourth launch into suborbital space.
Eventually, Blue Origin hopes to carry tourists 62 miles above the Earth using these (relatively) cheap, reusable rockets.
While the rocket booster should land vertically using its thrusters, a crew capsule will drift to the ground on three parachutes. Friday's flight will launch an uncrewed capsule to test what happens if only one of the chutes deploys properly.
In case of emergency, the capsule is also equipped with retro boosters to help soften its landing.
Quelle: PS
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Blue Origin will live stream its next rocket launch for the first time
The test flight will also include an intentional crash landing
Private spaceflight company Blue Origin will attempt to launch and land its New Shepard rocket for the fourth time this week — and this time, we’ll get to watch the test flight live. CEO Jeff Bezos tweeted out today that the company is aiming to launch on Friday and that a live webcast will show the event at BlueOrigin.com. An exact time for the flight has yet to be announced.
This is the first time that Blue Origin has provided a live stream of one of its launches, suggesting that the company is trying to be more transparent with its projects. That’s smart, since Blue Origin has been criticized for its super secret reputation in the past. Up until recently, the company rarely gave interviews about its work, and the first few test flights of the New Shepard weren't publicized until after they had been completed. And even then, Blue Origin didn’t provide much information about the flights, apart from releasing highly stylized videos.
THE COMPANY IS TRYING TO BE MORE TRANSPARENT WITH ITS PROJECTS
But recent events suggest the company is transitioning to a more open mindset. In March, Bezos invited a small group of journalists to the company’s headquarters in Kent, Washington for the first time. And the CEO announced the most recent test flight of the New Shepard in April, before it actually took place. He even live-tweeted the event, letting people know that the vehicle had launched and landed smoothly.
Transparency is going to be crucial for Blue Origin, since the company’s main goal revolves around sending tourists into space. That’s what these uncrewed test flights of the New Shepard are all about. The reusable vehicle is designed to launch a crew capsule up to 62 miles above the Earth’s surface, where six passengers will experience about four minutes of weightlessness. In the test flights, the crew capsule detaches from the rest of the New Shepard vehicle in space, and both fall back to Earth. The main rocket body is supposed to reignite its engines and land upright on solid ground, while the crew capsule deploys parachutes to lower itself down gently.
Blue Origin has successfully demonstrated this launch and landing technique with the same uncrewed New Shepard vehicle three times before. But for this next test, Blue Origin wants to know what happens when that landing sequence doesn’t go according to plan. On Friday, two of the crew capsule’s parachutes will intentionally fail to deploy during the spacecraft’s descent. Bezos claims that the vehicle can handle the scenario just fine, and theoretically, any people on board would be safe. But for added protection, the crew capsule has some backup systems — such as retro-rockets and a "crushable structure" — to help keep passengers alive if an abnormal landing should occur.
Blue Origin plans to continue uncrewed test flights of New Shepard throughout the rest of the year. Bezos said that the vehicle will start carrying test pilots into space sometime in 2017, and paying customers could start riding as early as 2018.
Quelle: THE VERGE
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Update: 16.06.2016
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Jeff Bezos:
Replacing leaking O-ring in capsule’s nitrogen gas pressurization system. Rescheduling flight to Sunday. 
Quelle: Jeff Bezos
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Update: 18.06.2016
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Blue Origin to Test Rocket Parachute Failure Sunday Morning

On Sunday, June 19, 2016 at approximately 14:15 UTC (10:15 a.m. Eastern time), the private rocket company Blue Origin plans to launch their New Shepard rocket for the fourth time. As with the three previous tests, it’ll launch straight up, deploy the crew capsule, and then come back down vertically. The crew capsule will come back much more slowly, using parachutes to descend gently (and a retrothrust system to make sure the landing isn’t too rough).
Except this time, the company has rigged it so that only two of the three parachutes will open.
This test is being done on purpose to make sure they can still safely land in the event of single parachute failure. As Blue Origin CEO Jeff Bezos said, “Works on paper, and this test is designed to validate that.” 
This should be an exciting test. In a very different move for the company, they have announced they’ll be streaming the event live on their website (it starts at 13:45 UTC, a half hour before the launch). I find that very interesting; in general the company has not done that; they release video after the flights, and rarely even announce when the launch tests will be. I wouldn’t say they’re secretive, but they tend not to actively seek publicity.
I have to wonder if the live coverage of SpaceX launches is behind this decision. Obviously, SpaceX has captured the lion’s share of the public’s attention when it comes to rocket launches. SpaceX has carefully cultivated an excellent public outreach effort, and the result is that their launches are watched live by a lot of folks. I imagine Blue Origin wants a piece of that.
They deserve it. New Shepard (named after astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American in space) has launched successfully three times, and each flight has tested different aspects of the process, including a quick restart of the engine only a kilometer above the ground before landing. It’s actually pretty amazing.
What SpaceX is doing and what Blue Origin is doing are, at the moment, very different. SpaceX is launching a very large rocket into orbit, meaning it has to go sideways (usually to the east) very rapidly to go around the Earth. Blue Origin’s flights are suborbital; the rocket goes essentially straight up, past the arbitrary but generally agreed-upon 100-km altitude marking the beginning of space (at that height, there’s almost no air and no drag on the rocket). That’s far easier than going into orbit.
But not easy. Going up that high, releasing a capsule, having that land safely, and landing the rocket itself back down vertically on its tail is incredibly hard. Blue Origin has shown they’re getting the hang of it, though.
And while there’s a good market for suborbital flights (even a few minutes of free fall can be very useful scientifically), the plan is to use the knowledge gained to create a more powerful rocket capable of orbital flight. This is how SpaceX did it with the Falcon 1 rocket that led to the Falcon 9, and Blue Origin has similar ideas. Their BE-4 engine, currently being tested, should have enough oomph to do this. United Launch Alliance, which makes the Atlas and Delta rockets, has partnered with Blue Origin to develop this engine for use with their next generation Vulcan rocket. That’s being created as a competitor for SpaceX’s Falcon series, and I’ll be very interested indeed to see how this goes.
I’ll be getting up early Sunday morning to watch this fourth New Shepard test flight, and live tweeting it, too. Rocket launches are fun and exciting, and these tests are the first steps toward a bigger and better arena for commercial spaceflight. I have a lot of hope for this new chapter in space exploration. A lot, and I think it’s been earned.
There’s an (apocryphal) curse: “May you live in exciting times.” I don’t think it’s a curse. I think it’s the best time to be alive.
Quelle: BAD ASTRONOMY
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Update: 19.06.2016
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Blue Origin's first live rocket launch

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Quelle: BlueOrigin - LIVE



Tags: Raumfahrt 

1728 Views

Sonntag, 19. Juni 2016 - 10:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Deutlich mehr Gasplaneten in Sternhaufen als erwartet

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Ein internationales Astronomenteam hat herausgefunden, dass es deutlich mehr Planeten vom Typ "heißer Jupiter" in einem Sternhaufen namens Messier 67 gibt, als bisher angenommen. Zu diesem überraschenden Ergebnis kamen die Astronomen mit Hilfe mehrerer Teleskope und Instrumente, darunter auch der HARPS-Spektrograf am La Silla-Observatorium der ESO in Chile. Durch die dichtere Umgebung in einem Sternhaufen finden häufiger Wechselwirkungen zwischen Planeten und nahen Sternen statt, was die ungewöhnlich hohe Zahl an heißen Jupitern erklären würde.
Ein Astronomenteam aus Chile, Brasilien und Europa unter der Leitung von Roberto Saglia vom Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik in Garching und Luca Pasquini von der ESO hat mehrere Jahre damit verbracht, Hochpräzissionsmessungen von 88 Sternen in Messier 67 zu sammeln [1]. Dieser offene Sternhaufen hat in etwas dasselbe Alter wie die Sonne und man geht davon aus, dass die Sonne in einer ähnlich dichten Umgebung entstanden ist [2].
Mit HARPS und weiteren Instrumenten [3] suchte das Team nach Spuren von Gasplaneten mit kurzer Umlaufdauer, in der Hoffnung das verräterische Taumeln von Sternen zu sehen, das durch die Anwesenheit massereicher Objekte in nahen Umlaufbahnen verursacht wird, die auch als heiße Jupiter bezeichnet werden. Neben früheren Hinweisen auf mehrere andere Planeten sind nun Nachweise heißer Jupiter für insgesamt drei Sterne im Sternhaufen gelungen.
Ein heißer Jupiter ist ein sehr großer Exoplanet, der eine Masse von mehr als etwa einem Drittel der Jupitermasse besitzt. Als „heiß“ werden sie bezeichnet, da sie ihren Mutterstern in unmittelbarer Nähe umkreisen, wie man aus deren Umlaufdauer (also ihrem „Jahr“) ableiten kann, die weniger als zehn Tage beträgt. Verglichen mit dem Jupiter, den wir aus unserem Sonnensystem kennen, ist das ein großer Unterschied,  da ein Jupiterjahr etwa 12 Erdjahre beträgt und es auf Jupiter deutlich kälter ist als auf der Erde [4].
“Wir wollten einen offenen Sternhaufen als Laboratorium verwenden, um die Eigenschaften von Exoplaneten und die Theorien zur Planetenentstehung zu untersuchen“, erläutert Roberto Saglia. „Hier haben wir nicht nur viele Sterne, die möglicherweise einen Planeten beherbergen, sondern auch eine dichte Umgebung, in der sie sich gebildet haben müssen.“
Die Untersuchung ergab, dass heiße Jupiter um Sterne in Messier 67 häufiger vorkommen, als es für Sterne außerhalb des Sternhaufens der Fall ist. „Dies ist wirklich ein verblüffendes Resultat,“ staunt Anna Brucalassi, die für die Auswertung verantwortlich war. „Die neuen Ergebnisse bedeuten, dass es um ungefähr 5% der Sterne in Messier 67, die untersucht wurden, einen heißen Jupiter gibt — deutlich mehr als bei vergleichbaren Untersuchen von Sternen, die nicht Teil des Sternhaufens sind, wo die Rate eher 1% beträgt.“
Astronomen gehen davon aus, dass es höchst unwahrscheinlich ist, dass diese exotischen Riesen tatsächlich dort entstanden sind, wo wir sie heute finden, da die anfänglichen Gegebenheiten in einer so geringen Entfernung zum Mutterstern für die Entstehung von jupiterähnlichen Planeten nicht geeignet gewesen wären. Man nimmt eher an, dass sie weiter außen entstanden sind, wie es auch bei Jupiter vermutlich der Fall war, und dann mit der Zeit weiter nach innen in Richtung ihres Muttersterns gewandert sind. Waren sie zunächst noch weit vom Stern entfernt und kalt, ist ihre Oberflächentemperatur nun um einiges heißer. Die Frage ist dann: Was ist die Ursache dafür, dass sie nach innen in Richtung des Sterns gewandert sind?
Für diese Frage gibt es eine Reihe möglicher Antworten, aber die Autoren schlussfolgern, dass es sich hierbei um die Auswirkungen naher Begegnungen mit benachbarten Sternen handelt oder sogar mit Planeten in benachbarten Sonnensystem und dass das unmittelbare Umfeld um ein Sonnensystem einen bedeutenden Einfluss darauf haben kann, wie es sich entwickelt.
In einem Sternhaufen wie Messier 67, in dem sich die Sterne untereinander deutlich näher sind als im Durchschnitt, sind solche Begegnungen um einiges häufiger, was erklären würde, warum dort mehr heiße Jupiter gefunden wurden.
Koautor Luca Pasquini von der ESO, der die Gruppe mit leitet, blickt zurück auf die letzten Jahre, in denen sich in der Erforschung von Planeten in Sternhaufen bemerkenswert viel getan hat: „Noch vor wenigen Jahren war kein einziger heißer Jupiter in offenen Sternhaufen bekannt. In drei Jahren hat sich das Denkmuster stark verändert – von einem vollständigen Nichtvorhandensein hin zu einem Überschuss solcher Planeten!“
Endnoten
[1] Bei 88 der ursprünglich untersuchten Sterne fand man heraus, dass es sich um Doppelsterne handelt oder sie aus anderen Gründen für diese Untersuchung nicht geeignet sind. Der neue Fachartikel konzentriert sich auf eine Untergruppe von 66 Sternen.
[2] Obwohl der Sternhaufen Messier 67 im Moment noch zusammenhält, hat sich der Sternhaufen, der einst die Sonne in ihrer Anfangsphase umgab, schon vor langer Zeit aufgelöst, sodass die Sonne am Ende alleine da stand.
[3] Spektren des hochauflösenden Spektrografen am Hobby-Eberly Telescope in Texas, USA, und vom SOPHIE-Spektrografen am Observatoire de Haute Provence in Frankreich wurden ebenfalls verwendet.
[4] 51 Pegasi b, der erste Exoplanet, der um einen sonnenähnlichen Stern entdeckt werden konnte, ist ebenfalls ein heißer Jupiter. Damals war das eine Überraschung, da viele Astronomen angenommen hatten, dass andere Planetensysteme dem Sonnensystem ähnlich sein würden und ihre massreichen Planeten in größerer Entfernung zum Mutterstern haben würden.
Quelle: ESO

Tags: Astronomie 

1331 Views

Sonntag, 19. Juni 2016 - 10:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Breakout: Wie Schwarze Loch Jets aus ihren Galaxien ausbrechen

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A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy.

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New simulations of the jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes in the cores of galaxies show how, with enough power, the corkscrewing fields (white squiggles) can force their way through surrounding gas and drill out of the galaxy, channeling hot gas into the interstellar medium (top). Less powerful jets get stalled inside the galaxy, however, their magnetic fields breaking and dumping hot gas inside and heating up the galaxy. (Simulations by Alexander Tchekhovskoy, UC Berkeley, and Omer Bromberg, Hebrew University)
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About 10 percent of all galaxies with active nuclei — all presumed to have supermassive black holes within the central bulge — are observed to have jets of gas spurting in opposite directions from the core. The hot ionized gas is propelled by the twisting magnetic fields of the rotating black hole, which can be as large as several billion suns.
A 40-year-old puzzle was why some jets are hefty and punch out of the galaxy into intergalactic space, while others are narrow and often fizzle out before reaching the edge of the galaxy. The answer could shed light on how galaxies and their central black holes evolve, since aborted jets are thought to roil the galaxy and slow star formation, while also slowing the infall of gas that has been feeding the voracious black hole. The model could also help astronomers understand other types of jets, such as those produced by individual stars, which we see as gamma-ray bursts or pulsars.
“Whereas it was rather easy to reproduce the stable jets in simulations, it turned out to be an extreme challenge to explain what causes the jets to fall apart,” said University of California, Berkeley theoretical astrophysicist Alexander Tchekhovskoy, a NASA Einstein postdoctoral fellow, who led the project. “To explain why some jets are unstable, researchers had to resort to explanations such as red giant stars in the jets’ path loading the jets with too much gas and making them heavy and unstable so that the jets fall apart.”
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This false-color image of the radio jet and lobes in the very bright radio galaxy Cygnus A is an example of the powerful jets that can be produced by supermassive black holes at the cores of large galaxies. (Image by R. Perley, C. Carilli & J. Dreher)
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By taking into account the magnetic fields that generate these jets, Tchekhovskoy and colleague Omer Bromberg, a former Lyman Spitzer Jr. postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University, discovered that magnetic instabilities in the jet determine their fate. If the jet is not powerful enough to penetrate the surrounding gas, the jet becomes narrow or collimated, a shape prone to kinking and breaking. When this happens, the hot ionized gas funneled through the magnetic field spews into the galaxy, inflating a hot bubble of gas that generally heats up the galaxy.
Powerful jets, however, are broader and able to punch through the surrounding gas into the intergalactic medium. The determining factors are the power of the jet and how quickly the gas density drops off with distance, typically dependent on the mass and radius of the galaxy core.
The simulation, which agrees well with observations, explains what has become known as the Fanaroff-Riley morphological dichotomy of jets, first pointed out by Bernie Fanaroff of South Africa and Julia Riley of the U.K. in 1974.
“We have shown that a jet can fall apart without any external perturbation, just because of the physics of the jet,“ Tchekhovskoy said. He and Bromberg, who is currently at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, will publish their simulations on June 17 in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, a publication of Oxford University Press.
Bendable drills
The supermassive black hole in the bulging center of these massive galaxies is like a pitted olive spinning around an axle through the hole, Tchekhovskoy said. If you thread a strand of spaghetti through the hole, representing a magnetic field, then the spinning olive will coil the spaghetti like a spring. The spinning, coiled magnetic fields act like a flexible drill trying to penetrate the surrounding gas.
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The black hole at the center of the galaxy M87 produced a weak jet that could not break out of the galaxy, as seen in this radio image from 1989. As in the new computer simulation, stalled jets dump hot gas into giant bubble-like structures that heat up the galaxy. These stalled jets may be part of the black hole feedback mechanism that periodically halts the inflow of gas that feeds the black hole. (VLA/NRAO/NSF image)
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The simulation, based solely on magnetic field interactions with ionized gas particles, shows that if the jet is not powerful enough to punch a hole through the surrounding gas, the magnetic drill bends and, due to the magnetic kink instability, breaks. An example of this type of jet can be seen in the galaxy M87, one of the closest such jets to Earth at a distance of about 50 million light-years, and has a central black hole equal to about 6 billion suns.
“If I were to jump on top of a jet and fly with it, I would see the jet start to wiggle around because of a kink instability in the magnetic field,“ Tchekhovskoy said.“If this wiggling grows faster than it takes the gas to reach the tip, then the jet will fall apart. If the instability grows slower than it takes for gas to go from the base to the tip of the jet, then the jet will stay stable.“
The jet in the galaxy Cygnus A, located about 600 million light-years from Earth, is an example of powerful jets punching through into intergalactic space.
Tchekhovskoy argues that the unstable jets contribute to what is called black hole feedback, that is, a reaction from the material around the black hole that tends to slow its intake of gas and thus its growth. Unstable jets deposit a lot of energy within the galaxy that heats up the gas and prevents it from falling into the black hole. Jets and other processes effectively keep the sizes of supermassive black holes below about 10 billion solar masses, though UC Berkeley astronomers recently found black holes with masses near 21 billion solar masses.
Presumably these jets start and stop, lasting perhaps 10-100 million years, as suggested by images of some galaxies showing more than one jet, one of them old and tattered. Evidently, black holes go through binging cycles, interrupted in part by the occasional unstable jet that essentialy takes away their food.
The simulations were run on the Savio computer at UC Berkeley, Darter at the National Institute for Computational Sciences at the University of Tennesee, Knoxville, and Stampede, Maverick and Ranch computers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin. The entire simulation took about 500 hours on 2,000 computer cores, the equivalent of 1 million hours on a standard laptop.
The researchers are improving their simulation to incorporate the smaller effects of gravity, buoyancy and the thermal pressure of the interstellar and intergalactic media.
The work was supported by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140115 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060, and the National Science Foundation through an XSEDE computational time allocation TG-AST100040.
Quelle: UC Berkeley

Tags: Astronomie 

1491 Views

Sonntag, 19. Juni 2016 - 09:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von Ariane-5 VA230 mit Echostar 18 und BRIsat

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19.03.2016

Ariane 5 arrives at the Spaceport for a June launch with Echostar 18 and BRIsat

The shipping container with Ariane 5’s “upper composite” – composed of the ESC-A cryogenic upper stage and vehicle equipment bay – is unloaded from the MN Colibri transport ship docked at Pariacabo Port in French Guiana. This component is for an Arianespace Ariane 5 mission in early June with the Echostar 18 and BRIsat satellites.
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Components for another of Arianespace’s up-to-eight planned Ariane 5 launches in 2016 are now at the Spaceport in French Guiana, following their delivery from Europe this week.
Arriving aboard the MN Colibri – which is one of two sea-going roll-on/roll-off transport ships that support Arianespace’s launcher supply chain – the elements included Ariane 5’s EPC cryogenic main stage and the “upper composite” composed of the ESC-A cryogenic upper stage and vehicle equipment bay.
Once unloaded from the MN Colibri at Pariacabo Port adjacent to the city of Kourou, the components were transferred by road to the nearby Spaceport.
A Dual-Payload Mission For Arianespace In June
This Ariane 5 is planned for liftoff from the Spaceport in early June with two telecommunications relay passengers: Echostar 18 and BRIsat.
Echostar 18 will join the spacecraft fleet of U.S.-based EchoStar Satellite Services, which provides video distribution, data communications and backhaul services to meet the needs of media and broadcast organizations, direct-to-home providers, enterprise customers and government service providers.
BRIsat will serve Indonesia’s PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. – also known as BRI – to provide a dedicated platform for banking connection services across the Indonesian archipelago.  Its launch will make BRI one of the world’s first banks to orbit a communications satellite.
The 230th Mission For Europe’s Ariane Launcher Family
Both BRIsat and Echostar 18 are relay platforms built by SSL, a leading provider of geostationary commercial satellites. To date, more than 50 SSL-built spacecraft have been launched by Arianespace.
Ariane 5’s early June mission with BRIsat and Echostar 18 is designated Flight VA230, signifying the 230th liftoff of an Ariane vehicle since the family of European launchers entered service in 1979.
So far in 2016, Arianespace has used the heavy-lift Ariane 5 for two on-target missions: Flight VA229, performed March 9 to orbit the EUTELSAT 65 West A satellite for Eutelsat Communications; and Flight VA228 – conducted on January 27 – which lofted Intelsat 29e as the first high-throughput EpicNG-series spacecraft for international operator Intelsat.
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Protected by its shipping container, Ariane 5’s cryogenic main stage enters the Spaceport in a convoy that began at Pariacabo Port. The cryogenic stage will be utilized on a June heavy-lift flight to orbit the Echostar 18 and BRIsat satellites from French Guiana.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 25.03.2016
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Arianespace’s third Ariane 5 for launch in 2016 is assembled at the Spaceport

Ariane 5’s cryogenic main stage for Flight VA230 is moved into position over the mobile launch table inside the Spaceport’s Launcher Integration Building (photo at left), which was followed by rollout of the two solid propellant boosters (photos, right).
The launcher for Arianespace’s third Ariane 5 mission of 2016 has begun its build-up at the Spaceport in French Guiana, initiating preparations for an early June liftoff with the Echostar 18 and BRIsat telecommunications satellites.
During activity in the Spaceport’s Launcher Integration Building, the vehicle’s cryogenic main stage was positioned over one of two operational launch tables for Ariane 5, followed by the integration of its two solid propellant boosters.
The next step will be installation of Ariane 5’s “upper composite,” composed of the ESC-A cryogenic upper stage and vehicle equipment bay.
When this integration – performed under responsibility of industrial prime contractor Airbus Safran Launchers – is completed, the Ariane 5 will be ready for its transfer to the Final Assembly Building, where Arianespace oversees the payload integration, final checkout and the launch operations.
The Upcoming Flight Will Be Ariane’s 230th Mission
Arianespace’s June mission is designated Flight VA230 in the company’s launcher family numbering system, representing the 230th liftoff of an Ariane vehicle since the family of European launchers entered service in 1979.  It will deliver the two passengers into geostationary transfer orbit.
Both the Echostar 18 and BRIsat satellites to be lofted by Flight VA230 are relay platforms built by SSL, which is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of geostationary commercial satellites. More than 50 SSL-built spacecraft have been launched by Arianespace to date.
Echostar 18 will be operated U.S.-based EchoStar Satellite Services, a provider of video distribution, data communications and backhaul services for media and broadcast organizations, direct-to-home providers, enterprise customers and government service providers.
BRIsat is to serve Indonesia’s PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. – also known as BRI – and the launch will make it one of the world’s first banks with a communications satellite.  BRIsat has been designed to operate as a dedicated platform for banking connection services across the Indonesian archipelago.
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 7.04.2016
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Anheben der Oberstufe von Ariane-5 - VA230
Quelle: CNES
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Update: 6.05.2016
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EchoStar 18 begins its preparation for Arianespace’s next Ariane 5 mission
The EchoStar 18 satellite for Arianespace’s next dual-passenger Ariane 5 mission is undergoing its pre-launch checkout at the Spaceport for a June liftoff from French Guiana.
As part of this activity, the spacecraft underwent its fit-check – an initial milestone validating the satellite’s compatibility with the adapter that is to serve as the payload interface with Ariane 5.
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EchoStar 18 undergoes a fit-check with the interface adapter used for integration on Arianespace’s Ariane 5 launcher.
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EchoStar 18 will join U.S.-based EchoStar Satellite Services’ spacecraft fleet, which provides video distribution, data communications and backhaul services for media and broadcast organizations, direct-to-home providers, enterprise customers and government service providers.
Based on the 1300 satellite bus produced by SSL, EchoStar 18 is one of two passengers built by the company that will be deployed into geostationary transfer orbit by the upcoming heavy-lift Ariane 5 mission – designated Flight VA230 in Arianespace’s launcher family numbering system. It will be joined by BRIsat, a dedicated relay platform for Indonesia’s PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. to deliver banking connection services across the Indonesian archipelago.
Arianespace’s Flight VA230 is one of up to 12 missions planned during 2016 with the company’s launcher family of the heavy-lift Ariane 5, the medium-lift Soyuz and lightweight Vega. So far this year, Arianespace has performed three launches: Ariane 5 missions on January 27 (with Intelsat 29e) and March 9 (orbiting EUTELSAT 65 West A), as well as a Soyuz flight on April 25 that lofted a five-satellite payload consisting of Sentinel-1B, Microscope and three Fly Your Satellite! CubeSats.
Flight VA230 in June will be preceded by Arianespace’s May 24 launch of a Soyuz, which will carry two more satellites for Europe’s Galileo satellite-based navigation and positioning system.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 12.05.2016
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Welcome to French Guiana! BRIsat is delivered for its Arianespace Ariane 5 launch

Protected by its environmentally-controlled shipping container, BRIsat is unloaded from the chartered An-124 jetliner at Félix Eboué Airport after its arrival this morning.
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Satellite preparations for Arianespace’s next Ariane 5 mission are now in full swing with today’s arrival in French Guiana of its second passenger: BRIsat for Indonesia’s PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk.
BRIsat was delivered by a chartered Antonov An-124 cargo jetliner, which touched down at Félix Eboué Airport near the French Guiana capital city of Cayenne just before sunrise.
The satellite’s environmentally-controlled shipping container was then unloaded and prepared for transfer by road to the Spaceport – located approximately 60 km. to the northwest – where it will undergo processing in the S5 payload preparation facility.
Once it begins operations in orbit, BRIsat will serve as a dedicated relay platform for banking connection services across the Indonesian archipelago.
An Arianespace Mission With Two SSL-Built Satellites
BRIsat is one of two SSL-built (Space Systems Loral) satellites to be lofted on the next Ariane 5 mission, designated Flight VA230 in Arianespace’s launcher family numbering system and scheduled for liftoff in June. It will be accompanied on the heavy-lift launcher by EchoStar 18, which arrived at the Spaceport last month and has now completed its fueling in the S5 payload preparation facility.
EchoStar 18 will join the fleet of U.S.-based EchoStar Satellite Services, which delivers video distribution, data communications and backhaul services for media and broadcast organizations, direct-to-home providers, enterprise customers and government service providers.
The Ariane 5 mission with BRIsat and EchoStar 18 will deliver its passengers to geostationary transfer orbit, and is one of up to 12 missions planned during 2016 with the company’s launcher family composed of the heavy-lift Ariane 5, along with the medium-lift Soyuz and lightweight Vega.
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EchoStar 18 is fueled at the Spaceport’s S5 payload preparation facility.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 20.05.2016
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Pre-launch processing is underway with Indonesia’s BRIsat for the next Arianespace heavy-lift flight
The second of two Space Systems Loral-built (SSL) payloads on Arianespace’s upcoming Ariane 5 mission is well into its pre-launch processing at the Spaceport as Indonesia’s BRIsat is readied for a June liftoff from French Guiana.
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Indonesia’s BRIsat is positioned for its fit-check validation with the interface adapter used for integration on Ariane 5.
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Preparations have included the fit-check, which is a regular milestone for Arianespace spacecraft passengers. This step validated BRIsat’s electrical and mechanical compatibility with the adapter that will serve as the interface when integrated with Ariane 5.
BRIsat will be riding as the lower passenger during Arianespace’s dual-payload mission, which will be the third Ariane 5 flight in 2016.
Once in orbit, BRIsat will become one of the world’s first communications satellites dedicated to a financial institution, and is configured to provide both C-band and Ku-band coverage of Indonesia and South East Asia.
BRIsat To Support Banking Communications Services
The spacecraft will serve PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. (BRI), the country’s oldest and most profitable bank, providing enhanced secure banking communications for more than 10,600 operational branches, some 237,000 electronic channel outlets and nearly 53 million customers across the Indonesian archipelago.
BRIsat is based on the SSL 1300 satellite platform, designed to deliver service for 15 years or longer. In addition to producing the satellite, SSL is providing BRI with a complete ground system solution, which includes two satellite control facilities, as well as training and launch support services.
Riding in the upper payload position on Arianespace’s June Ariane 5 mission to geostationary transfer orbit is EchoStar 18, which is to join the fleet of EchoStar Satellite Services. This U.S.-based operator provides video distribution, data communications and backhaul services for media and broadcast organizations, direct-to-home providers, enterprise customers and government service providers.
EchoStar 18 also utilizes the SSL 1300 satellite bus as its platform.
The Ariane 5 mission with BRIsat and Echostar 18 will be the fifth of up to 12 Arianespace flights planned during 2016 with the company’s launch vehicle family composed of the heavy-lift Ariane 5, the medium-lift Soyuz and lightweight Vega.
Preceding the June liftoff with BRIsat and EchoStar 18 will be Soyuz Flight VS15, which is to orbit a pair of FOC (Full Operational Capability) satellites for Europe’s Galileo navigation system on May 24.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 30.05.2016
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The BRIsat banking communications satellite is fueled for Arianespace’s June 8 launch with Ariane 5

A milestone payload on Arianespace’s upcoming Ariane 5 mission has been fueled at the Spaceport in French Guiana, readying the Indonesian BRIsat spacecraft for integration with its heavy-lift launcher.

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BRIsat is “topped off” in the Spaceport’s S5B preparation hall, readying the SSL-built satellite for its upcoming integration on Ariane 5.

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BRIsat will be operated by PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. (BRI), which is one of the world’s first banks to purchase its own satellite. Once in orbit, BRIsat will provide enhanced secure banking communications for more than 10,600 operational branches, as well as to some 237,000 electronic channel outlets and nearly 53 million customers across the Indonesian archipelago.
The spacecraft was produced by Space Systems Loral (SSL) based on the company’s SSL 1300 satellite platform.
BRIsat will be orbited along with Arianespace’s co-passenger on the June 8 mission: EchoStar 18, which also was built by SSL and will be utilized by DISH Network L.L.C. This direct broadcast spacecraft is designed to provide exceptional sparing flexibility for the DISH fleet, and will augment its existing satellite resources while assuring the highest level of ongoing service to DISH customers.
Arianespace’s Ariane 5 launch to deploy BRIsat and EchoStar 18 into geostationary transfer orbit is designated Flight VA230 in the company’s numbering system, signifying the 230th mission with an Ariane-series vehicle. It will be Arianespace’s fifth liftoff in 2016, with the overall goal of performing up to 12 flights this year using the heavy-lift Ariane 5, medium-lift Soyuz and lightweight Vega launchers.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 2.06.2016
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EchoStar XVIII and BRIsat are installed on Arianespace’s Ariane 5
The payload integration process was completed today in French Guiana for Arianespace’s upcoming dual-passenger Ariane 5 Flight VA230 on June 8.
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The lower passenger for Flight VA230 – BRIsat – is integrated with Ariane 5’s central core inside the Spaceport’s Ariane 5 Final Assembly Building (BAF).
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During activity this week inside the Spaceport’s Ariane 5 Final Assembly Building (BAF), both satellite passengers – EchoStar XVIII and BRIsat – have been installed on the heavy-lift vehicle, completing launcher build-up for Flight VA230.
These preparations kicked off with installation of the mission’s lower passenger – BRIsat – atop the launcher’s central core. Subsequently, the upper component – consisting of EchoStar XVIII, the SYLDA dispenser system and Ariane 5’s protective payload fairing – was placed over BRIsat. This clears the way for final checkout before Ariane 5’s liftoff next week, including the launch readiness review and the vehicle’s rollout to the ELA-3 launch zone.
Ariane 5 Complete For Flight VA230
EchoStar XVIII is the mission’s upper passenger, and it is to be orbited for operator DISH Network L.L.C. The spacecraft features a high-power multi-spot beam in the Ku-band to assure the highest levels of ongoing service to DISH customers in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
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Flight VA230’s upper component – composed of EchoStar XVIII, the SYLDA dispenser system and Ariane 5’s protective payload fairing – is lowered over BRIsat to complete launcher build-up for Arianespace’s third heavy-lift mission of 2016.
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Joining EchoStar XVIII on Arianespace’s next mission is BRIsat – a milestone payload for P.T. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. (BRI).
As the world’s first dedicated banking communications satellite, BRIsat will provide enhanced secure banking communications for more than 10,600 operational branches, as well as to some 237,000 electronic channel outlets and nearly 53 million customers across the Indonesian archipelago.
Both the BRIsat and EchoStar XVIII relay platforms were built by U.S.-based SSL (Space Systems Loral).
Next week’s Ariane 5 Flight VA230 will be Arianespace’s third heavy-lift launch of 2016, following previous successes in January (VA228) and March (VA229). Arianespace is maintaining its busy operational pace this year – with its launch manifest including a record of up to eight Ariane 5 flights, along with its two successful medium-lift Soyuz missions to date (VS14 in April and VS15 in May) and two launches planned with the lightweight Vega.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 7.06.2016
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ARIANESPACE FLIGHT VA230
ECHOSTAR XVIII and BRIsat: LAUNCH DELAYED
During the preparations for the roll-out of the Ariane 5 ECA launcher for Flight VA230, an anomaly occurred on a fluid connector between the cryogenic upper stage and the launch table.
As a result, Arianespace has decided to postpone the Flight VA230 launch, initially scheduled for June 8, 2016, in order to replace this component and perform the subsequent verifications.
The launch vehicle and its ECHOSTAR XVIII and BRIsat satellite payloads are being maintained in fully safe conditions and in stand-by mode.
The new targeted launch date will be announced very soon.
Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 8.06.2016
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FLIGHT VA230 – EchoStar XVIII AND BRIsat
NEW TARGETED DATE FOR LAUNCH: JUNE 16, 2016
Replacement operations for the fluid connector between the cryogenic upper stage and launch table have begun, along with associated checks. The new targeted launch date is Thursday, June 16, 2016, as soon as possible within the following window:
- 5:30 p.m. to 6:15 p.m., local time in French Guiana,
- 4:30 p.m. to 5:15 p.m., in Washington, D.C,
- 20:30 to 21:15, UTC,
- 22:30 to 23:15, in Paris, France.
The Ariane 5 launch vehicle and its EchoStar XVIII and BRIsat satellite payloads are being maintained in fully safe conditions and in stand-by mode.
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 15.06.2016
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 16.06.2016
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Quelle: arianespace
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Ariane 5 startet mit Rekord-Last ins All
Bild links: Installation des Satelliten BRIsat auf der Ariane 5. Bild in der Mitte: Die Nutzlastverkleidung mit dem darin befindlichen EchoStar 18 wird über den Satelliten BRIsat gestülpt. Bild rechts: Die Ariane 5-Hauptstufe im Integrationsgebäude. Dort werden die Hauptstufe, die Oberstufe mit den Satelliten und die Booster der Rakete zusammengefügt und auf dem mobilen Starttisch montiert. Der Starttisch wird dann zusammen mit der Ariane 5 in die Startzone gefahren.
+++ Update: Ariane-Start um 24 Stunden verschoben. +++
Beim Transfer des Trägers in die Startzone trat eine Anomalie an einer der Verbindungsleitungen zwischen Träger und Starttisch auf. Daher hat Arianespace entschieden, den Start um 24 Stunden zu verschieben. Der Träger und die Satelliten befinden sich in einem stabilen Stand-by-Zustand.
Am Donnerstag, den 16. Juni 2016, um 22:30 Uhr ist es mal wieder soweit: Eine Ariane 5-Trägerrakete wird zwei Satelliten ins Weltall bringen. Das Besondere an diesem Start: Noch nie hat eine Ariane 5 so eine große Last in den geostationären Transferorbit (GTO) transportieren müssen. Die beiden Satelliten und die für Doppelstarts nötigen Strukturen wiegen zusammen 10,731 Tonnen. Das ist absoluter Rekord für eine Ariane 5. Die bisherige Bestmarke beträgt 10,317 Tonnen in den GTO und wurde am 7. Februar 2013 aufgestellt, als eine Ariane 5 die Satelliten Amazonas 3 und Azerspace/Africasat-1a transportierte.
Satelliten fertig betankt und abflugbereit
Der größere der beiden Satelliten trägt den Namen Echostar XVIII. Er wiegt 6300 Kilogramm und wird Fernsehsignale für den nordamerikanischen Kontinent bereitstellen. Der kleinere Co-Pilot heißt BRIsat und wiegt 3540 Kilogramm. Er wird von einer indonesischen Bank betrieben werden und soll Datenverbindungen zu entlegenen Bankautomaten auf indonesischen Inseln bereitstellen.
Beide Satelliten sind bereits betankt und befinden sich abflugbereit an der Spitze der Ariane 5 in Französisch-Guayana. Der Start wird voraussichtlich um 22:30 Uhr deutscher Zeit erfolgen und kann live auf www.arianespace.com verfolgt werden.
Über 40 Prozent der Satellitenmasse macht Treibstoff aus. Die Satelliten benötigen ihn, um nach dem Absetzen im All ihren finalen Zielorbit zu erreichen. Zudem kann es in ihrer über 15-jährigen Betriebsphase nötig sein, Bahnkorrekturen vorzunehmen. Mit dem restlichen Treibstoff werden sie am Ende ihrer Lebenszeit in einen höheren Orbit gebracht, wo sie außer Betrieb genommen werden und dort verbleiben.
Start wurde um eine Woche verschoben
Ursprünglich sollte die Ariane 5-Mission bereits letzte Woche Mittwoch, am 8.6.2016, starten. Bei den Routinechecks vor dem Herausrollen aus dem Integrationsgebäude wurde jedoch eine fehlerhafte Schlauchverbindung zwischen der Oberstufe und dem mobilen Starttisch entdeckt, die ersetzt werden musste. Die Schlauchverbindungen an der Oberstufe werden benötigt, um die Oberstufe vor dem Start mit flüssigem Sauerstoff beziehungsweise flüssigem Wasserstoff zu betanken.
20-jähriges Dienstjubiläum der Ariane 5 und ein Blick in die Zukunft
Die Ariane 5-Trägerfamilie ist seit nunmehr 20 Jahren im Dienst. Die Leistung der ersten Ariane 5-Version betrug damals gerade mal 6,3 Tonnen. Man kann also durchaus von einer bemerkenswerten Leistungssteigerung sprechen. Mit einer Starterfolgsquote von über 98 Prozent zählt die Ariane 5 zu den zuverlässigsten Trägerraketen überhaupt.
Ab dem Jahr 2020 wird sich die Ariane 5 dann langsam in den wohlverdienten Ruhestand verabschieden. Denn für dieses Jahr ist der Erstflug der neuen Ariane 6 geplant. Die beiden Träger werden noch bis 2023 gemeinsam im Dienste Europas stehen. Danach wird die Ariane 5 vollständig von der Ariane 6 abgelöst werden.
Quelle: DLR
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Update: 17.06.2016 / 7.45 MESZ
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Ariane 5 is in the launch zone for heavy-lift Arianespace mission
Arianespace has delivered another Ariane 5 to the launch zone at Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana, positioning this workhorse vehicle for its June 17 liftoff with a dual-satellite payload of EchoStar XVIII and BRIsat.
Riding atop a mobile launch table, Ariane 5 was transferred to the ELA-3 launch zone from the Spaceport’s Final Assembly Building – where its two passengers had been integrated as part of pre-flight preparations.
With the rollout completed, the final countdown will begin for a Friday liftoff at the start of a 1-hour, 10-minute launch window that opens at 5:30 p.m. local time in French Guiana.
For this 86th flight of an Ariane 5 to date, the payload lift performance to geostationary transfer orbit is approximately 10,730 kg. – which includes a combined total of some 9,840 kg. for EchoStar XVIII and BRIsat, plus the launch vehicle’s dual-passenger dispenser system and satellite integration hardware.
EchoStar XVIII – which was produced by SSL (Space Systems Loral) for DISH Network L.L.C. – is riding in the upper position of Ariane 5’s payload arrangement, to be released first in the flight sequence at 29 minutes following liftoff.
BRIsat also was built by SSL and will be deployed from Ariane 5’s lower passenger position 42 minutes into the flight – completing the mission. Once in orbit, it is to be operated by PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. (BRI).
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 17.30 MESZ
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 22.20 MESZ - LIVE LAUNCH VA-230
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...Update: 23.11 MESZ
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Update: 18.06.2016 / 8.15 MESZ
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Update 20.55 MESZ
...22.12 MESZ
...22.19 MESZ
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...22.48 MESZ
...23.33 MESZ
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Quelle: arianespace
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Update: 19.06.2016
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ARIANESPACE FLIGHT VA230: 72ND SUCCESSFUL ARIANE 5 LAUNCH IN A ROW, AND A RECORD-SETTING PAYLOAD FOR ARIANE 5 ECA
Arianespace has successfully launched two satellites for operators in the Americas and the Asia-Pacific region: EchoStar XVIII for the operator DISH Network L.L.C and BRIsat for the Indonesian bank PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk.
The fifth launch of the year for Arianespace, and the third in 2016 using an Ariane 5, took place on Wednesday, June 18 at 18:38 pm local time from the Guiana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana. This mission was the heavy-lift launcher’s 72nd consecutive success.  It set a payload lift record to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) for the Ariane 5 ECA by lofting a total mass of 10,730 kg.
It was also the 230th launch of an Ariane rocket overall, and marked two other milestones, as Arianespace launched two SSL-built (Space Systems Loral) satellites for the first time on a single mission, and also orbited a spacecraft wholly dedicated to a financial institution.
Quelle: arianespace

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2564 Views

Samstag, 18. Juni 2016 - 20:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1996: Space Shuttle-Nachfolger-Projekt X-33-VentureStar

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

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cenap-infoline


Und 2001 kam dann das Aus für X-33-Projekt:

Quelle: CENAP-Archiv, NASA


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1625 Views

Samstag, 18. Juni 2016 - 19:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Sind UFO Statistiken ein mutiger erster Schritt .... oder ein verzweifelter letzter Ausweg?

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2015 Canadian UFO survey released
Another year has passed and another Canadian UFO survey has been published. As always, I want to congratulate the individuals involved for publishing something that other UFO organizations appear to be afraid to do. They actually list all the sightings they collected and then classify them so the reader can see the results.
The survey for 2015 has 146 cases listed as “unknowns”. These “unknowns” are what everyone focuses their attention upon but I have to wonder if anybody even bothered to look at the data very closely.
According to the survey:
Defining an unknown
The category of Unknown is adopted if there is extensive information or data available and/or if the contributed data or case report contains enough information such that a conventional explanation cannot be satisfactorily proposed.1
This implies that the “unknown” classification is to be applied to cases where the report indicates something exotic was seen and a thorough evaluation had been conducted. A quick review of the survey indicates that it appears that there are some “unknowns” that should not have been given this classification.
Missing data
The first thing I noticed about the unknown classifications are that certain fields are not complete. I would assume it might be a case of bad data entry but it was not just isolated cases. Almost half (69/146 by my count) of these cases do not have a duration for the event. The definition of an unknown is that the report contains enough information to eliminate a conventional explanation. One would think that “duration” would be an important bit of information in evaluating the case.
Allan Hendry once stated the following about having the proper data to make an IFO/UFO evaluation:
In my own reports, I would never have dreamed of making an IFO/UFO judgment without important parameters like shape and dura- tion.2
It wasn’t duration that was the only thing missing in some of these “unknowns”. By my count, seven did not have a time listed and one did not have a specific location given other than British Columbia. In my opinion, one has to at least consider lumping these cases into the “insufficient information” category and not the “unknown” classification. How can these reports actually be consid- ered to have enough information to even attempt a solution? If no solution can be attempted, then they really can not be classified as “unknown”.
How reliable is reliable?
Some of the other sightings listed as “unknown” that caught my eye seemed dubious at best. Even more strange was how they managed to get high reliability ratings. Reliability is a subjective measure and I found several examples which made me ques- tion the scale being used.
This sighting report on the 22nd of May could be found in the MUFON database.
I was outside my parents place at 12:20 recording myself because I was seeing weird stuff in the sky and everything went quiet for a moment, and just not your normal quietness, anyways I saw a orb in the sky flying all directions until it took off towards the north and vanished. Then another showed up to the NE and was bobbing up and down like a yo-yo and vanished quite quickly. Suddenly no more than 5min after another craft showed up above the trees in front of me no more than 100-150ft from me with red and green lights pul- sating around the object and all of a sudden the lights went out and it started to glow red in the center a bit and it just kept getting more red and as it was turning more red it was making a humming or roaring sound and it kept getting louder the more red it got. as this was happening I was walking back closer to the house and gradge and it took off with the whitest light that I have ever seen and just as it was flying over me it stoped and I know this sounds crazy and Im not religious so anyways it stoped above me and opened up and it was a Angel I saw her wings face smiling at me and her feet were crossed and in that short moment she made me understand that everything is going to be ok for us, I never felt more at peace and anyways shortly after she folded up her wings and took off. My mom was heading home from work around 2:00am in the morning and when she was coming close to Harcourt she saw weird red orb in the sky and my mother does no believe in that kind of stuff, so when I was telling my story to my mom and dad,she said she also seen something the same night. I don’t think that I got anything on my cell but ill give u what ever I can to help? I took a little bit of video audio but I stopped recording shortly after I started hearing weird sounds because I stopped it and ran for the house, I wasn’t really concerned about my cell at the time but when I seen the glowing object I tried to get it to record but no success. not sure may have been my own fault because I was so stunned when I seen the glowing object. Sorry I wish I could have got it!3
This was given a reliability rating of “6” out of “10”. The highest rating I saw in the database was a “7”. This means this is one of the more reliable sightings in the database. Do we really consider a sighting of an “angel” to be an actual event? I admit the possibility exists he saw something unusual but when the sighting is laced with religious overtones bordering on miraculous visions, a certain amount skepticism begins to surface. Certainly, a reliability of “6” is a tad inflated in regards to this sighting.
I really had to wonder about this October 11, 2015 sighting, which read:
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This list is just a suggestion but it uses a graduated scale that makes the report more and more reliable as certain standards are met. A single witness case can be considered reliable but only to a point. Eventually, there needs to be some sort of confirmation to increase that reliability. Getting to a rating of 9 requires multiple witnesses, who provide information that can be quantified and be used to compute the object’s location, altitude, and speed. Looking at the scale above, I would state that most of the reports in the Canadian UFO survey would fall in the 1-5 category.
Despite the present ability of people to hoax photographs and videos, I decided to include them in the UFO report scale. Most pho- tographs in these databases are taken by honest people. However, the potential for hoax exists, especially when the photographs appear to contain some form of exotic craft or there are inconsistencies in the images compared to the report given.
The problem with assigning reliability ratings is that a majority of the people filing the reports are not very good at articulating their observations in a way that can be properly evaluated. It is my opinion that the survey has accepted this poor data as the norm and substandard reports are being given average ratings. This inflation of reliability ratings can produce questionable results.
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How much investigation?
The survey makes it clear that some, if not a majority, of the cases were never really investigated beyond evaluating the report found in the databases. Even the “most reliable/interesting” cases of 2015 apparently were not well investigated. One of the cases was explained in SUNlite 7-2 and I have to wonder about some of the others.
A mass sighting?
There were ten cases that the survey singled out as being the most interesting. Many were single witness cases but others seemed to include multiple witnesses, which might result in something meaningful being extracted from the report. Unfortu- nately, just because the report states there was more than one witness does not mean that this helped in evaluating the report’s reliability. One such case came from the NUFORC database and involved a large group of people seeing an enormous craft hovering over a metropolitan area:
This is the first time I have ever seen something like this. I live above a hotel niteclub and the noise keeps me awake til the early AM hours. I heard a bunch of people outside the bar at closing making a rackett after leaving the bar. They were shouting ohs and ahs and look look look very excitedly. I looked to where they were pointing and saw above the tall building across the street a brightly lit triangle. Now this is the same area of the sky that the planes travel for landing at the local airport, so at first I thought it was a very low and slow plane heading for the airport. But the craft was going too slow and too low. I guess it was only 500 feet above ground elevation. A RCMP police car pulled up as the people were standing in the street disrupting traffick, so there maybe a police report to this incident. But anyway, the vehicle seemed to notice the commotion below and stopped dead. It stayed stopped for about 2 minutes, I guess, as I was so awestruck I lost track of the time.
The craft was large.. I guess about more than 200 feet long from point to wide end of the triangle. But I could not see the whole thing as the back end was blocked by the highrise building across the street. I could only guess as I only saw the whole thing when it took off later. It brightened to twice the illumination as it stopped as it seemed to be aware of the people below and the flashing RCM Police car lights.. At this point in time two more police cars arrived with their sirens and lights flashing and when this happened the craft’s lights went out and it took off towards the airport very fast but without any noise at all! There were about 50 people in the street in various levels of intox- ication myself and my friend and three police witnessing this sight.10
This sighting had a reliability rating of “7”, which probably has a lot to do with the claims made in the report. Despite rating it a high quality sighting, there is little in the way of details. We do not even know which direction the witness was facing. More importantly, it is a report by one individual. With so many people and the local police involved, one would think that there would be more infor- mation/reports. A check of the Kamloops news media archives revealed no information about this incident despite the police being involved and there are no other reports in the NUFORC or MUFON database.
I asked Chris Rutkowski if he had more information. He responded that the RCMP confirmed that they were present that morning but there were no details. He also implied that there may be more reports from the 50 witnesses but they did not appear in any database or the survey. Without more details it is hard to accept this case’s “high reliability” because of a single report and the RCMP admitting that they were at the scene of a large gathering of people near a bar at 3AM.
A star or planet photograph?
Another “7” reliability sighting was on October 11th. It only involves one witness but they managed to take photographs to sup- port their claim. The MUFON report of this even reads:
At & about Sunrise on 11th & 12th of Oct 2015 , a radiating “object” in the shape of a large diamond has appeared , colour as witnessed was in gold tone , photographic evidence ( 12 in total but only 3 close-ups are attached in this report ) shows different rotating-changing shapes in all kinds of hues , from white to pink to green to near metallic to blue & so forth . Sighting in Toronto Canada , all info is included within the pictures as is my copyright included as well .
btw , I have been in some contact with Andre Morin the Director of MUFON Canada
I’m willing to forward to you all of the rest pictures of this particular sighting/s but only through email submission , not on public form . Peace .11
The photographs attached to the report were taken with a Kodak Easyshare M1063 camera, which is a simple point and shoot. Exposure times ranged from 1/2 second to 2 seconds. Again, we have a highly reliable report that lacks any real details that can be evaluated. Missing are basic directions of observation and estimated position in the sky.
The fact that the witness saw the event on two successive mornings (not the one listed in the survey) should ring alarm bells that it may have a potential astronomical observation. Besides many bright winter sky stars being visible that morning, the planet’s Ju- piter, Venus, and Mars were all close together in the east. Because the witness stated that it was about sunrise, I suspect his object might be Venus but it is difficult to say. The photographs really do not help resolve the case. They show some sort of point source that is out of focus and not stationary.
Hand holding an inexpensive point and shoot camera with a slow shutter speed is going to introduce apparent motion when the actual object is stationary. I tried to duplicate the effort using my smart phone (LG G4) and the star Capella (left image). I set the
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exposure time to 2 seconds (in manual mode) and I used the zoom feature (image on left). I did nothing more than crop the image with no enhancement.
Another photograph I imaged involved a two second exposure of the star Sirius using a digital SLR with a 300mm telephoto lens. The resultant multicolored trail illustrates how much the star was scintillating during the two second exposure.
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These images appear similar to the image submitted by the witness and lead me to believe that it is possible that the source might be astronomical and the operator of the camera created the motion seen in the images. Without more information, it is difficult to say.
The solution was there but...
On the first page of the Survey’s data table, we see two cases on the morning of January 10, 2015.12 A year ago, I had worked with Ted Molczan to identify these reports as a venting second stage following the launch of a Falcon rocket earlier that morning at 0947 UTC. This was published in SUNlite 7-213 and the track of the second stage across the sky was a reasonable match to what the observers reported. One of the sightings even had a video that looked a lot like a venting rocket stage. I was surprised to see the “U” label and a “6” value for strangeness on the two reports that I thought had been identified.
If those examining the report thought it was impossible for the sighting to have been visible from Elfros, SK, they are mistaken. Mol- czan computed an ephemeris which made the object visible in the Southeast and moving towards the East peaking at a generous elevation angle of about 12 degrees before decreasing in elevation as it moved towards the east. It is interesting to point out that witness gave a description of their UFO passing into the tree-line in the east as the sighting progressed.
It is peculiar that there is another entry on the list from Gimli, Manitoba only a few minutes after these two sightings. It also gave a description of a venting rocket stage but was listed as “probable”. Why was this case listed as “probable” when the others were rated as “unknown” even though the events appear related?
As a small nitpick, several of these sightings were listed as “daylight discs”. Sunrise in early January for Manitoba and Saskatchewan is after 8 AM. These objects would have been seen in darkness/ early twilight and not daylight.
This brings us to another one of 2015’s “most interesting” Canadian UFO sightings being visible from Lumsden, SK. The description sounds a lot like the venting rocket stage but the time was listed as 1300.
January 10, 2015 1:00 pm Lumsden, SK
Multiple aircraft reported a very large object with a small white light in the middle, surrounded by a halo, moving northbound in the vicinity of Lumsden, SK. One pilot reported the object appeared to descend from above FL410. The sighting lasted one to two minutes.14
One would think that the time would eliminate the Falcon 9 rocket as the source of the sighting. However, I suspected there might be a mistake in the time listed in the UFO survey. The source in the listing states “TC” or “Transport Canada”, which meant these re- ports came from airplanes in flight. Since airplanes are in different time zones, it would not be unusual for the times to be all listed in GMT/UTC/Zulu. If one converts 1300UTC to CST, the time is 0700, which is the time of the Falcon 9 venting event being visible! The fact that airliners saw this event at 0700 CST, and not 1300 CST, appeared to be confirmed by a comment by a pilot about the Elfros sighting at the UFO Stalker website15. He had remarked that a United Air Lines flight had seen it as well.
Chris Rutkowski provided me with a link to the source of the report16. In the e-mail exchange, he admitted that the original time of 1300 CST was incorrect and that it was Zulu time, as I had suspected. The report itself is not very informative but the general description indicates that this was, very likely, another observation of the Falcon 9 second stage venting!
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After our e-mail exchange, Chris implied that he was going to correct the “unknowns” associated with this event. One small step at a time.
Is this the best UFOlogy has to offer?
Is the Canadian UFO survey just another collection of UFO stories or is it a serious effort to help resolve the UFO mystery? Every year the report is released and UFOlogist heap praise on the effort and some media outlets fawn over the information. While I like to praise the report’s effort, I notice that it is the same old exercise being repeated over and over proving something we already know: People report events they see in the sky that they perceive as exotic objects.
The only measurable results from the survey are the statistics that can be extracted from these reports. However, Alan Hendry once noted:
Do UFO statistics represent a valid pursuit for more knowledge about this elusive phenomenon, or do they merely reflect frustration that none of the individual reports are capable of standing on their own two feet? Are UFO statistics a bold first step....or a desperate last resort?17
While statistics are nice to see, I have to wonder if these are really adding to what is already known about UFOs. How do these sta- tistics differ from those found in Blue Book records or other UFO datasets? It has been close to forty years since Hendry made this comment and we still see UFOlogists trying to present these same statistics as something significant.
While the Canadian UFO survey is an honest effort to do something with the UFO data, it really isn’t enough. There needs to be a next step for the study of UFOs other than simply collecting UFO stories the same way people collect stamps or coins. Will that next step be forward or sideways?
Quelle: SUNlite 3/2016

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1351 Views

Samstag, 18. Juni 2016 - 12:45 Uhr

Astronomie - Mond und Dreieck: Saturn, Mars und Antares

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Endlich einmal wieder klarer Himmel in den Abendstunden und schon macht es wieder Spaß den Mond mit Dreieck am Südhimmel zu erblicken:

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Blick auf Sternkarte:

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Und so sah es LIVE über dem Odenwald aus:

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Fotos: ©hjkc


Tags: Astronomie Mars und Antares 

1711 Views

Freitag, 17. Juni 2016 - 19:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Scott Kelly beschreibt Effekte im All auf den Körper: Wir können sie einfach nicht verstehen!

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NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly speaks to the media after returning from a one year mission in space at the Johnson Space Center in Texas on March 4, 2016.

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For the human body, Kelly said space travel has "permanent effects we simply do not fully understand"
Astronaut Scott Kelly, back from his year in space on the International Space Station, said the “permanent effects we simply do not fully understand” that astronauts experience in space must be mitigated before developing space travel for people.
Kelly cited serious carbon monoxide and radiation exposure, vision problems and a loss of bone or muscle mass due to low gravity as some of the adverse effects space travel takes on astronauts. He had been aboard the ISS to learn more about the effects of space on one’s body, with his twin brother Mark Kelly on earth as the control.
“The environment astronauts are exposed to while in space is unlike anything we experience here on earth,” he said in remarks to the House Science, Space and Technology committee. “Exposure to the space environment has permanent effects we simply do not fully understand.”
Kelly also detailed how his skin grew sensitive and irritable after not touching anything in space for nearly a year, and how his legs swelled because of the changes in gravity he experienced. He also started experiencing flu-like symptoms.
Kelly testified as the House committee considers requiring NASA to provide astronauts with lifelong health insurance.
Quelle: TIME

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1464 Views

Freitag, 17. Juni 2016 - 17:55 Uhr

Raumfahrt - China bereitet sich auf neue Ära der Raumökonomie vor

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China preparing for new era of space economy
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BEIJING, After six decades of aerospace development, it is high time for China to embrace the new era of space economy, participants at a forum agreed Thursday.
During the first China Space Economic Forum, in Beijing on Thursday, government officials, aerospace scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs exchanged views on China's space economy developments.
While addressing the forum, Tian Yulong, chief engineer of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence, noted that much of China's space technology and infrastructure achievements were ready for commercial use-oriented development.
Official data shows that, currently, more than 2,000 kinds of aerospace technology in China are being used in various industries, and 880 kinds of new materials have been developed based on aerospace technology in recent years.
The government is accelerating cooperation with the military, discussing plans to share military space resources with enterprises to ensure government investment better benefits the public, said Tian, who is also general-secretary of China National Space Administration.
Concurring with Tian, Yu Dengyun from China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation added that China must push ahead with further development of aerospace technology.
China has announced it will complete aerospace projects currently underway by around 2020, including manned space programs, lunar probes, the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Gaofen observation satellite program. A Mars exploration program is scheduled to begin around 2020.
Satellite applications should be central to space economic development in China at present, and the country must strengthen its commercial use of domestic remote sensing satellites and provide better services to the public, said Yu.
Attendees of the forum agreed that China initiatives including "Internet Plus," "China Manufacturing 2025" and the "Belt and Road" initiative have driven development of China's space economy.
Moreover, a law on aerospace has been listed in China's legislation plan, and the central government has signed over 100 aerospace cooperation agreements with more than 30 countries, which will provide a favorable environment for space economic development in the country, Tian said.
Quelle: Xinhua

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1483 Views

Freitag, 17. Juni 2016 - 17:45 Uhr

Astronomie - RED SPRITES und GREEN AIRGLOW über West-Oklahoma

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RED SPRITES AND GREEN AIRGLOW: Thunderstorm season is underway in the northern hemisphere. That means astrophotographers should point their cameras above the clouds. Thomas Ashcraft did so on June 14th, and he captured two forms of space weather--red sprites and green airglow:

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"A large jellyfish sprite appeared over a thunderstorm in the western Oklahoma panhandle last evening," says Ashcraft. "It was about three hundred miles away from my observatory."
"I also caught it in video with very low frequency (VLF) radio emissions, and the parent lightning stroke made a strong pop," he says. Turn up the volume and play the video.
Possibly triggered by cosmic rays, sprites are a form of upper atmospheric that reach up from the tops of thunderstorms toward the edge of space. Although sprites have been seen for at least a century, most scientists did not believe they existed until after 1989 when sprites were photographed by cameras onboard the space shuttle.
The "jellyfish sprite" Ashcraft captured is backlit by a band of green airglow. Airglow surrounds our entire planet, fringing the top of the atmosphere with aurora-like color. Although airglow resembles the aurora borealis, its underlying physics is different. Airglow is caused by an assortment of chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere. Auroras, on the other hand, are ignited by gusts of solar wind.
Quelle: Spaceweather

Tags: Astronomie 

1395 Views


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