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Sonntag, 23. November 2014 - 19:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Gespenstische Ausrichtung von Quasaren über Milliarden Lichtjahre hinweg

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Das VLT macht die Ausrichtung der Achsen supermassereicher Schwarzer Löcher und großräumiger Strukturen im Universum sichtbar
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Diese künstlerische Darstellung zeigt schematisch die rätselhafte Ausrichtung zwischen den Rotationsachsen von Quasaren und großräumigen Strukturen in denen sie sich befinden, die mit dem Very Large Telescope der ESO entdeckt wurde. Dieses Phänomen erstreckt sich über Milliarden von Lichtjahren und stellt die größten Zusammenhänge von kosmischen Objekten dar, die bisher bekannt sind.
Die großsräumigen Strukturen sind in blau dargestellt und die Quasare sind weiß markiert, wobei die Rotationsachsen ihrer Schwarzen Löcher mit einem Strich angedeutet sind.
Dieses Bild ist nur eine Veranschaulichung und stellt nicht die wirkliche Verteilung von Galaxien und Quasaren dar.
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Neue Beobachtungen mit dem Very Large Telescope (VLT) der ESO in Chile haben Systematiken bei der Ausrichtung von Quasaren und den größten Strukturen hervortreten lassen, die jemals im Universum entdeckt wurden: Ein europäisches Wissenschaftlerteam hat festgestellt, dass die Rotationsachsen der zentralen supermassereichen Schwarzen Löcher in einer Stichprobe von Quasaren über Milliarden von Lichtjahren parallel zueinander ausgerichtet sind. Die Astronomen stellten ebenfalls fest, dass die Rotationsachsen dieser Quasare dazu neigen, sich nach den riesigen Strukturen im kosmischen Netz auszurichten, in dem sie sich befinden.
Quasare sind Galaxien mit sehr aktiven supermassereichen Schwarzen Löchern in ihrem Zentrum. Diese Schwarzen Löcher sind von sich drehenden Scheiben aus extrem heißem Material umgeben, das oft in langgezogenen Strahlen, sogenannten Jets, entlang ihrer Rotationsachsen (also senkrecht zur Scheibenebene) hinausgeschleudert wird. Quasare können heller sein als all die Sterne in ihrer Wirtsgalaxie zusammengenommen.
Ein Wissenschaftlerteam unter der Leitung von Damien Hutsemékers von der Universität Liège in Belgien hat mit dem FORS-Instrument am VLT 93 Quasare untersucht, die wir zur Zeit so sehen, wie sie waren als das Universum nur ein Drittel so alt war wie heute. Von diesen Quasaren ist bekannt, dass sie riesige Gruppen bilden, die sich über Milliarden von Lichtjahren verteilen.
„Die erste seltsame Sache, die wir bemerkten, war, dass die Rotationsachsen von einigen der Quasare zueinander ausgerichtet waren – obwohl diese Quasare einige Milliarden Lichtjahre von einander getrennt sind”, erläutert Hutsemékers.
Das Team ging dann noch einen Schritt weiter und schaute sich an, ob die Rotationsachsen nicht nur zu einander eine Verbindung besitzen, sondern auch zu den großräumigen Strukturen im Universum zu dieser Zeit.
Wenn Astronomen sich die Verteilung von Galaxien auf Skalen von mehreren Milliarden von Lichtjahren anschauen, dann sehen sie, dass sie nicht gleichmäßig ist. Stattdessen bilden die Galaxien ein kosmisches Netz aus Filamenten und Klumpen um riesige Hohlräume, in denen kaum Galaxien zu finden sind. Diese fesselnd schöne Materieanordnung wird großräumige Struktur genannt.
Die neuen Ergebnisse vom VLT deuten darauf hin, dass die Rotationsachsen der Quasare dazu neigen, sich parallel zu den großräumigen Strukturen auszurichten, in denen sie sich selbst befinden. Wenn sich also die Quasare in einem langen Filament befinden, dann werden sich die Drehachsen ihrer zentralen Schwarzen Löcher entlang des Filaments ausrichten. Die Forscher schätzen die Wahrscheinlichkeit dafür, dass diese Ausrichtungen bloß Zufall sind auf weniger als 1% ein.
„Eine Korrelation zwischen der Ausrichtung von Quasaren und der Struktur, zu der sie gehören, ist eine wichtige Vorhersage numerischer Simulationen der Entwicklung unseres Universums. Unsere Beobachtungsdaten liefern den ersten experimentellen Beweis dieses Effekts auf Skalen, die viel größer sind als alles, was bisher für normale Galaxien beobachtet wurde”, fügt Dominique Sluse vom Argelander-Institut für Astronomie in Bonn und der Universität Liège hinzu.
Das Team konnte weder die Rotationsachsen noch die Jets der Quasare direkt sehen. Stattdessen maßen sie die Polarisation des Lichts jedes Quasars und für 19 von ihnen fanden sie ein maßgeblich polarisiertes Signal. Die Richtung dieser Polarisation konnte zusammen mit weiteren Informationen dazu verwendet werden, um den Neigungwinkel der Akkretionsscheibe zur Sehlinie und somit die Richtung der Drehachse des Quasars zu bestimmen.
„Die Ausrichtung in den neuen Daten auf Skalen, die sogar größer sind als aktuelle Vorhersagen von Simulationen, könnten ein Hinweis darauf sein, dass es eine fehlende Zutat in unserem heutigen Modell des Universums gibt”, erklärt Dominique Sluse abschließend.
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Diese besonders detaillierte Simulation der großräumigen Struktur des Universums entstand im Rahmen der Illustris-Simulation. Die Verteilung der Dunklen Materie ist in blau dargestellt, die Verteilung des Gases in orange. Diese Simulation zeigt den gegenwärtigen Zustand des Universums und ist auf einen massereichen Galaxienhaufen zentriert. Der dargestellte Bereich hat eine Kantenlänge von 300 Millionen Lichtjahren.
Quelle: ESO

Tags: Astronomie 

2000 Views

Sonntag, 23. November 2014 - 14:50 Uhr

Astronomie - MOND TRANSIT DER SONNE

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Yesterday, Nov. 22nd, the Moon passed in front of the sun off-center, producing a beautiful partial eclipse. No one on Earth saw it, because the lunar transit was visible only from Earth orbit. More than 22,000 miles above the planet's surface, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) snapped this picture:

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Using a bank of 16-megapixel cameras, SDO observed the event at multiple extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. Scan the edge of the Moon in the 171 Å high-resolution image, shown below. The little bumps and irregularities you see are lunar mountains backlit by solar plasma:
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Beyond the novelty of observing an eclipse from space, these images have practical value to the SDO science team. The sharp edge of the lunar limb helps researchers measure the in-orbit characteristics of the telescope--e.g., how light diffracts around the telescope's optics and filter support grids. Once these are calibrated, it is possible to correct SDO data for instrumental effects and sharpen the images even more than before.
Quelle: Spaceweather

Tags: Astronomie 

2075 Views

Sonntag, 23. November 2014 - 14:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Saturn im Focus von Cassini

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The Odd Trio 

The Cassini spacecraft captures a rare family photo of three of Saturn's moons that couldn't be more different from each other! As the largest of the three, Tethys (image center) is round and has a variety of terrains across its surface. Meanwhile, Hyperion (to the upper-left of Tethys) is the "wild one" with a chaotic spin and Prometheus (lower-left) is a tiny moon that busies itself sculpting the F ring.

To learn more about the surface of Tethys (660 miles, or 1,062 kilometers across), see PIA17164. More on the chaotic spin of Hyperion (168 miles, or 270 kilometers across) can be found at PIA07683. And discover more about the role of Prometheus (53 miles, or 86 kilometers across) in shaping the F ring in PIA12786.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 1 degree above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 14, 2014.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (1.9 million kilometers) from Tethys and at a Sun-Tethys-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 22 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (11 kilometers) per pixel.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

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Painted Saturn
Saturn's many cloud patterns, swept along by high-speed winds, look as if they were painted on by some eager alien artist.
With no real surface features to slow them down, wind speeds on Saturn can top 1,100 mph (1,800 kph), more than four times the top speeds on Earth.
This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 29 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on April 4, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers.
The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 68 miles (109 kilometers) per pixel.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.
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Mini Moons
Are the moons tiny or are the rings vast? Both, in a way! The moons visible in this image, Pandora and Atlas, are quite small by astronomical standards, but the rings are also enormous. From one side of the planet to the other, the A ring stretches over 170,000 miles (270,000 km), dwarfing these small moons of Saturn.
Pandora (50 miles, or 81 kilometers, across) orbits in the vicinity of the F ring, along with neighboring Prometheus, which is not visible in this image. These moons interact frequently with the narrow F ring, producing channels and streamers and other interesting features. Atlas (19 miles, or 30 kilometers across) orbits between the A ring and F ring in the Roche division.
This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 34 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 17, 2014.
The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.7 million miles (2.8 million kilometers) from Pandora and at a Sun-Pandora-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 110 degrees. Image scale is 11 miles (17 kilometers) per pixel.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.
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Sunrise on Saturn
A new day dawns on Saturn as the part of the planet seen here emerges once more into the Sun's light.
With an estimated rotation period of 10 hours and 40 minutes, Saturn's days and nights are much shorter than those on Earth.
This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 25 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 23, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 939 nanometers.
The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 127 degrees. Image scale is 67 miles (108 kilometers) per pixel.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.
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Mixing Paints
Nature is an artist, and this time she seems to have let her paints swirl together a bit.
What the viewer might perceive to be Saturn's surface is really just the tops of its uppermost cloud layers. Everything we see is the result of fluid dynamics. Astronomers study Saturn's cloud dynamics in part to test and improve our understanding of fluid flows. Hopefully, what we learn will be useful for understanding our own atmosphere and that of other planetary bodies.
This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 25 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 2014.
The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 127 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (11 kilometers) per pixel.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.
Quelle: NASA

Tags: Astronomie 

2202 Views

Sonntag, 23. November 2014 - 13:56 Uhr

Astronomie - Subaru Teleskop erkennt plötzliches Erscheinen von Galaxien im frühen Universum

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A team of astronomers using the Subaru Telescope's Suprime-Cam to perform the Subaru Ultra-Deep Survey for Lyman-alpha Emitters have looked back more than 13 billion years to find 7 early galaxies that appeared quite suddenly within 700 million years of the Big Bang (Note 1). The team, led by graduate student Akira Konno and Dr. Masami Ouchi (Associate Professor at the University of Tokyo's ICRR) was looking for a specific kind of galaxy called a Lyman-alpha emitter (LAE), to understand the role such galaxies may have played in an event called "cosmic reionization". (Figure 1)

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Figure 1: Color composite images of seven LAEs found in this study as they appeared 13.1 billion years ago. This represents the combination of three filter images from Subaru Telescope. Red objects between two white lines are the LAEs. The LAEs of 13.1 billion years ago have a quite red color due to the effects of cosmic expansion on their component wavelengths of light. (Credit: ICRR, University of Tokyo; NAOJ)
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LAE galaxies are illuminated by strong hydrogen excitation (called Lyman-alpha emission) (Note 2). The team's discovery of these LAEs at a distance of 13.1 billion light-years suggests that LAE galaxies appeared rather suddenly in the early universe.
The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot "soup" of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. That event is called "recombination" and resulted in a universe filled with a "fog" of these neutral atoms.
Eventually the first stars and galaxies began to form, and their ultraviolet light ionized (energized) the hydrogen atoms, and "divided" the neutral hydrogen into protons and electrons again. As this occurred, the "fog" of neutrals cleared. Astronomers call this event "cosmic reionization" and think that it ended about 12.8 billion years ago (about a billion years after the Big Bang). The timing of this event – when it started and how long it lasted – is one of the big questions in astronomy.
To investigate this cosmic reionization, the Subaru team searched for early LAE galaxies at a distance of 13.1 billion light years. Although Hubble Space Telescope has found more distant LAE galaxies, the discovery of seven such galaxies at 13.1 billion light-years represents a distance milestone for Subaru Telescope (Note 3).
Mr. Konno, the graduate student heading the analysis of the data from the Subaru Telescope pointed out the obstacles that Subaru had to overcome to make the observations. "It is quite difficult to find the most distant galaxies due to the faintness of the galaxies." he said. "So, we developed a special filter to be able to find a lot of faint LAEs. We loaded the filter onto Suprime-Cam and conducted the most distant LAE survey with the integration time of 106 hours."
That extremely long integration time was one of the longest ever performed at Subaru Telescope. It allowed for unprecedented sensitivity and enabled the team to search for as many of the most distant LAEs as possible. According to Konno, the team expected to find several tens of LAEs. Instead they only found seven.
"At first we were very disappointed at this small number," Konno said. "But we realized that this indicates LAEs appeared suddenly about 13 billion years ago. This is an exciting discovery. Figure 2 shows how the luminosities of LAEs changed based on this study. We can see that the luminosities suddenly brightened during the 700-800 million years after the Big Bang. What would cause this?
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Figure 2: This shows evolution of the Lyman-alpha luminosities of the galaxies. The yellow circle at 1 billion years after the Big Bang is used for normalization. The yellow circles come from previous studies, and the yellow dashed line shows the expected evolutionary trend of the luminosity. The current finding is shown by a red circle, and we can see that the galaxies appear suddenly when the universe was 700 million years old. This indicates that the neutral hydrogen fog was suddenly cleared, allowing the galaxies to shine out, as indicated by the backdrop shown for scale and illustration. Click here to see the diagram without the labels inside. (Credit: ICRR, University of Tokyo; Hubble Space Telescope/NASA/ESA)
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According to the team's analysis, one reason that LAEs appeared very quickly is cosmic reionization. LAEs in the epoch of cosmic reionization became darker than the actual luminosity due to the presence of the neutral hydrogen fog. In the team's analysis of their observations, they suggest the possibility that the neutral fog filling the universe was cleared about 13.0 billion years ago and LAEs suddenly appeared in sight for the first time."
"However, there are other possibilities to explain why LAEs appeared suddenly," said Dr. Ouchi, who is the principal investigator of this program. "One is that clumps of neutral hydrogen around LAEs disappeared. Another is that LAEs became intrinsically bright. The reason of the intrinsic brightening is that the Lyman-alpha emission is not efficiently produced by the ionized clouds in a LAE due to the significant escape of ionizing photons from the galaxy. In either case, our discovery is an important key to understanding cosmic reionization and the properties of the LAEs in early universe."
Dr. Masanori Iye, who is a representative of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project of Japan, commented on the observations and analysis. "To investigate which possibility is correct, we will observe with HSC (Hyper Suprime-Cam) on Subaru Telescope, which has a field of view 7 times wider than Suprime-Cam, and TMT currently being built on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii in the future. By these observations, we will clarify the mystery of how galaxies were born and cosmic reionization occurred."
This research is published in the November 20, 2014 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The work was supported by the Carnegie Observatory, World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan, and KAKENHI (23244025) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) through Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Notes:
The values of the cosmic age and distance in this press release are based on the latest Planck results. Planck observes the cosmic microwave background. A previous press release on this subject used values based on the cosmological parameters derived from the measurements by WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe).
The parameters used here are H_0=67.1 km/s/Mpc, Ω=0.317, Λ=0.683 instead of the ones used in the past articles at Subaru Telescope's website H_0=71, Ω=0.27, Λ=0.73.
Lyman-alpha emission line is a spectral line of hydrogen, with a wavelength of 121.6 nm (1nm is one billionth of a meter), and is in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. Galaxies illuminated by strong Lyman-alpha line are called "Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies" (LAEs).
In previous studies, astronomers have found hundreds of LAEs existing 12.9 billion years ago, which corresponds to the epoch when cosmic reionization finally ended.

Tags: Astronomie 

1888 Views

Samstag, 22. November 2014 - 09:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Blick auf die ESA-ISS-Futura-Mission-Vorbereitung von ESA-Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti - Expedition 42/43

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25.01.2014

European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut of Italian nationality, Samantha Cristoforetti

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Samantha Cristoforetti in Russland

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Alexander Gerst und Samantha Cristoforetti in Russland

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Samantha Cristoforetti bei NASA

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Werkzeugkasten der Astronauten

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Samantha Cristoforetti in Russland

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TU-144

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Samantha Cristoforetti bei ESA-Training

Alexander Gerst + Samantha Cristoforetti

Alexander Gerst + Samantha Cristoforetti

Samantha Cristoforetti bei NASA

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Alexander Gerst

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Samantha Cristoforetti

Quelle: ESA

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Update: 12.04.2014

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Vacuum chamber

ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti tests her custom-made Sokol spacesuit in a vacuum chamber. Samantha will wear this suit during the liftoff and landing for her six-month International Space Station mission set to start in November this year.

Quelle: ESA

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Update: 31.10.2014

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Samantha´s Start zur ISS rückt näher

ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti putting on her Sokol pressure suit at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre in Russia while preparing for her six-month Futura mission to the International Space Station.
The Sokol suit protects astronauts during launch and landing in the Soyuz space ferry. Simulations in a full-size Soyuz mockup are part of the final tests before flight.
Samantha will be launched with NASA astronaut Terry Wirts and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov on 23 November at 20:59 GMT (21:59 CET; 24 November 02:59 local time) from Baikonur in Kazakhstan.
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Quelle: ESA

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Update: 14.11.2014

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EUROPE´S 3D PRINTER SET FOR SPACE STATION

Funded by the Italian space agency ASI, the POP3D (Portable On-Board Printer) for 3D printing will reach orbit in 2015 as part of ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti’s Futura mission. The compact, cube-shaped printer measures 25 cm per side and weighs 5.5 kg in Earth gravity. It prints in biodegradable and harmless PLA plastic, using a heat-based process called ‘fused deposition modelling’. POP3D should take about half an hour to produce a single plastic part, which will subsequently be returned to the ground for detailed testing, including comparison to an otherwise identical part printed on the ground. The Italian Institute of Technology will assist with post-flight examinations.
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Europe’s very first 3D printer in space is scheduled for installation aboard the ISS next year.
Designed and built in Italy, it will be put to the test as part as ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti’s Futura mission, and is set to reach orbit in the first half of next year. Samantha herself will be launched on her six-month Station assignment on 23 November.
“The POP3D Portable On-Board Printer is a small 3D printer that requires very limited power and crew involvement to operate,” explained Luca Enrietti of Altran, prime contractor for the compact printer.
The unit is a cube with 25 cm sides and prints with biodegradable and harmless plastic using a heat-based process.
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ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti during a simulation inside the full-scale mockup of the Soyuz capsule, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre, on 14 October 2014.
Samantha Cristoforetti is assigned to fly on the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft to the ISS, scheduled for November 2014 and as part of Expedition 42/43.
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“Part of the challenge of designing a 3D printer for the Station was to ensure its operation does not affect the crew environment,” added Giorgio Musso of Thales Alenia Space Italy, principal investigator for the project.
Funded by Italy’s ASI space agency, POP3D should take about half an hour to produce a single plastic part, which will eventually be returned to Earth for detailed testing, including comparison with an otherwise identical part printed on the ground.
The project was presented during a workshop on 3D printing for space held at ESA’s technical centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.
More than 350 experts from across Europe came together to discuss the potential of 3D printing for space, both in orbit and in ground manufacturing. 
“There is big potential all along the value chain, to save cost and mass,” noted Reinhard Schlitt, heading OHB’s Engineering Services. 
“But right now the way parts are being produced in various different ways. As a satellite manufacturer, we need common standards in place so we can compare competing supplier parts on a like-for-like basis.
“Europe does have a lead in this technology – the latest laser machines are coming from here for export to the US and China – so we should build on that.”
Thales Alenia Space is taking a keen interest in terms of manufacturing, confirmed Florence Montredon, heading the company’s components group: “We’re looking in particular at applying it to complex secondary structures for satellites. This includes the design phase, where software places material as needed to help cut mass.”
Steffen Beyer, Head of Materials and Process Technology at Airbus Defence and Space added: “it is very promising for reducing costs particularly for complex structures and reducing lead time significantly. In the case of a complex injector of a rocket engine, we are able to take the total number of parts needed down from around 250 down to one or two; that represents a revolution in design and manufacturing.”
Quelle: ESA
 

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Expedition 42/43 Crew in Front of Soyuz
JSC2014e092620 --- (12 November 2014) --- In the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Expedition 42/43 crew members Terry Virts of NASA (left), Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (right) pose for pictures Nov. 12 in front of their Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft during a "fit check" dress rehearsal. The trio will launch Nov. 24, Kazakh time, from Baikonur for a 5 ½ month mission on the International Space Station. Credit: NASA/Victor Ivanov
 
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Expedition 42 crew members take a break from training at NASA's Johnson Space Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictured on the front row are NASA astronauts Barry Wilmore (left), commander; and Terry Virts, flight engineer. Pictured from the left (back row) are Russian cosmonauts Elena Serova, Alexander Samoukutyaev and Anton Shkaplerov and European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, all flight engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Stafford
Expedition 42 will begin in November 2014. The other half of the team is scheduled to launch in November 2014.
Soyuz 40
Crew: Barry Wilmore, Elena Serova, Alexander Samoukutyaev
Launch: Sept. 25, 2014, 4:25 p.m. EDT
Docking: Sept. 25, 2014, 10:11 p.m. EDT
Landing: March 2015
Soyuz 41
Crew: Anton Shkaplerov, Terry Virts, Samantha Cristoforetti
Launch: Nov. 23, 2014, 4:01 p.m. EST
Landing: May 2015
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JSC2012-E-237644 (9 Nov. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Expedition 42/43 flight engineer, prepares for a spacewalk training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Cristoforetti is wearing a liquid cooling and ventilation garment that complements the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit. A suit technician assisted Cristoforetti. Photo credit: NASA
Quelle: NASA

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Update: 17.11.2014

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The next trio to join Expedition 42 is in Kazakhstan counting down to a Nov. 23 launch aboard a Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft. They are set for a near six-hour ride to the International Space Station where they will live and work until May 2015.

Quelle: NASA

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Update: 18.11.2014

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Newcomers to test modified Soyuz-MS manned spacecraft — source

Crew members of the next expedition to the International Space Station, have been approved without the consent of Russia’s rocket and space corporation Energia a source in the space industry said

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Crew members of the next expedition to the International Space Station, aimed at testing modified Soyuz-MS manned spacecraft, have been approved without the consent of the prime developer, Russia’s rocket and space corporation Energia, a source in the space industry said on Monday.

“The head of (the Russian space agency) Roscosmos ordered to implement the decision by the intergovernmental commission to assign the crew, which the RSC Energia representative did not accept,” the source told TASS.
RSC Energia, the developer and manufacturer of Soyuz-MS spacecraft, suggested sending experienced cosmonauts, who had made several flights, to test their new equipment in 2015. But the crew had earlier been assigned and already started preparing for the mission, the source said. Russia's cosmonaut training center decided it was unnecessary to make changes, as it would mean the need to review the approved crew members for several years to come.
The decision by the intergovernmental commission assigning the crew was signed by the chief of the Yury Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Yury Lonchakov, and the director of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute for Biomedical Problems, Igor Ushakov, the source said, adding that the opinion of the RSC Energia representative was not taken into account and he did not sign the document.
RSC Energia suggested that Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, who had made five spaceflights and led the first mission of the Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft, the previous modernized version of the ship, should be assigned instead of cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin, who had no experience. Pavel Vinogradov, who had flown into space three times, was proposed as a flight commander instead of Andrey Borisenko, who had been in space only once.
Quelle: TASS

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Update: 19.11.2014

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ESA Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti with the Sokol suit

ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti with the Sokol suit she will wear in the Soyuz spacecraft that will take her to the International Space Station on 23 November at 20:59 GMT (21:59 CET), together with Roscosmos commander Anton Shkaplerov and NASA astronaut Terry Virts.
Sokol suits, tailored to each astronaut, are worn in Soyuz as protection against air leaks. Once Samantha arrives at the Space Station on 24 November at 02:59 GMT (03:59 CET), the astronauts will store their suits for their return flight to Earth. Before launch, the suits are checked for leaks by inflating them to high pressure, as shown here.
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At the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Expedition 42/43 crewmembers Terry Virts of NASA (top), Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (right) disembark from a Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center aircraft Nov. 11 after a flight from Star City, Russia to begin the final weeks of training for their launch to the International Space Station. The trio are preparing for their liftoff on the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft from Baikonur on Nov. 24, Kazakh time, for a five and a half month mission on the international outpost.
Quelle: ESA
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Update: 20.11.2014

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ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti talks about her six-month International Space Station mission provided by Italy’s ASI space agency . Samantha explains the story behind her mission name Futura, recounts the journey to becoming an astronaut and how her life has changed.


 

 

 


Tags: Samantha Cristoforetti astronaut of Italian nationality 

3571 Views

Freitag, 21. November 2014 - 19:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Asteroideneinschläge auf der Erde bilden strukturell bizarre Diamanten

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Diamond grains from the Canyon Diablo meteorite. The tick marks are spaced one-fifth of a millimeter (200 microns) apart.
Photo by: Arizona State University/Laurence Garvie
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Scientists have argued for half a century about the existence of a form of diamond called lonsdaleite, which is associated with impacts by meteorites and asteroids. A group of scientists based mostly at Arizona State University now show that what has been called lonsdaleite is in fact a structurally disordered form of ordinary diamond.
The scientists' report is published in Nature Communications, Nov. 20, by Péter Németh, a former ASU visiting researcher (now with the Research Centre of Natural Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), together with ASU's Laurence Garvie, Toshihiro Aoki and Peter Buseck, plus Natalia Dubrovinskaia and Leonid Dubrovinsky from the University of Bayreuth in Germany. Buseck and Garvie are with ASU's School of Earth and Space Exploration, while Aoki is with ASU's LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science.
"So-called lonsdaleite is actually the long-familiar cubic form of diamond, but it's full of defects," says Péter Németh. These can occur, he explains, due to shock metamorphism, plastic deformation or unequilibrated crystal growth.
The lonsdaleite story began almost 50 years ago. Scientists reported that a large meteorite, called Canyon Diablo after the crater it formed on impact in northern Arizona, contained a new form of diamond with a hexagonal structure. They described it as an impact-related mineral and called it lonsdaleite, after Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, a famous crystallographer.
Since then, "lonsdaleite" has been widely used by scientists as an indicator of ancient asteroidal impacts on Earth, including those linked to mass extinctions. In addition, it has been thought to have mechanical properties superior to ordinary diamond, giving it high potential industrial significance. All this focused much interest on the mineral, although pure crystals of it, even tiny ones, have never been found or synthesized. That posed a long-standing puzzle.
The ASU scientists approached the question by re-examining Canyon Diablo diamonds and investigating laboratory samples prepared under conditions in which lonsdaleite has been reported.
Using the advanced electron microscopes in ASU's Center for Solid State Science, the team discovered, both in the Canyon Diablo and the synthetic samples, new types of diamond twins and nanometer-scale structural complexity. These give rise to features attributed to lonsdaleite.
"Most crystals have regular repeating structures, much like the bricks in a well-built wall," says Peter Buseck. However, interruptions can occur in the regularity, and these are called defects. "Defects are intermixed with the normal diamond structure, just as if the wall had an occasional half-brick or longer brick or row of bricks that's slightly displaced to one side or another."
The outcome of the new work is that so-called lonsdaleite is the same as the regular cubic form of diamond, but it has been subjected to shock or pressure that caused defects within the crystal structure.
One consequence of the new work is that many scientific studies based on the presumption that lonsdaleite is a separate type of diamond need to be re-examined. The study implies that both shock and static compression can produce an intensely defective diamond structure.
The new discovery also suggests that the observed structural complexity of the Canyon Diablo diamond results in interesting mechanical properties. It could be a candidate for a product with exceptional hardness.
Quelle: Arizona State University

Tags: Astronomie 

2061 Views

Freitag, 21. November 2014 - 18:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von Pegasus -Rakete mit Ionospheric Connection Explorer ICON Satelliten im Juni 2017

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NASA has selected an Orbital Sciences Corp. air-launched Pegasus XL rocket to place a small research satellite in orbit in 2017 to study the connection between Earth’s weather and space weather, the space agency announced Thursday.
The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, mission will orbit 360 miles above Earth to investigate the boundary region between space and the atmosphere, a region subject to variability in charged particles that can disrupt radio transmissions and GPS navigation signals.
A Pegasus XL rocket dropped from the belly of an L-1011 carrier airplane will launch the ICON spacecraft in June 2017. The aircraft will take off from the U.S. Army’s Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, then fly to a predetermined location over the Pacific Ocean to deploy the three-stage Pegasus rocket.
NASA said the firm-fixed price launch services agreement is worth approximately $56.3 million. The figure includes spacecraft processing, payload integration, tracking, data and telemetry and other launch support requirements.
Orbital’s winged Pegasus launcher has flown 42 times since 1990, including a string of 28 successful flights in a row. The rocket’s last flight was in June 2013, and with ICON’s assignment, there are two Pegasus launches on the manifest in 2016 and 2017.
The refrigerator-sized satellite will weigh nearly 600 pounds fueled for launch. Orbital Sciences is also manufacturing the spacecraft, which is based on the company’s LEOStar 2 satellite bus.
The mission has a cost cap of $200 million, excluding launch costs.
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Artist’s concept of the ICON spacecraft. Credit: University of California at Berkeley/Space Sciences Laboratory
New discoveries show terrestrial weather systems — such as storms and disturbances in the lower atmosphere — can affect activity higher up. Scientists previously thought fluctuations in the ionosphere, a layer of charged particles between 60 and 600 miles in altitude, were primarily driven by the sun, according to NASA.
“ICON addresses a national need to predict these kinds of disturbed conditions in space,” said Thomas Immel, principal investigator for ICON at the University of California at Berkeley. “These disturbances can cause radio communication to suddenly and unexpectedly drop out, which is a problem for ships, airplanes, the global positioning system, and the military.”
The ICON spacecraft hosts four science instruments to measure the movements and temperatures of neutral particles, the thickness of the ionosphere, the composition of the atmosphere, and electric fields around the satellite.
ICON is managed by NASA’s Explorers program under the agency’s heliophysics division.
“For years people thought that energy coming in from above, through the solar wind or solar ultraviolet radiation, was the only cause of changes in the upper atmosphere,” said Doug Rowland, mission scientist for ICON at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. “But we now realize that atmospheric movements down below, closer to Earth, actually have a strong effect on what’s happening above.”
Diurnal and seasonal variations in the strength of the ionosphere indicate a linkage with what is happening in the lower atmosphere. Data collected by the two-year ICON mission could help forecasters better predict space weather in the future.
“Since 2000, we have seen more, very clear evidence that our previous theories about a solar-driven ionosphere does not match reality,” Immel said. “Instead, the structure of the ionosphere changes with weather and with the seasons. There must be another driver of these disturbances besides the sun, and whatever it is, it’s large and controlling.”
Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2108 Views

Freitag, 21. November 2014 - 13:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Foto+Filmaufnahmen bei der CENAP-Meldestelle

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Im November liefen neben "normalen Sichtungen" auch vermehrt Ufo-Foto+Filmaufnahmen auf, welche bei den Meldern für Rätsel sorgten.

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6.06.2014 / 12.26 MESZ Kleinostheim/Bayern

Mit Samsung in der Mittagspause einfach in den Himmel gehalten . 
Objekt kam aus der Wolke nahe der Sonne. Dachte erst an einen Lens Flare  .....
Mond und andere Himmelskörper kann man ausschließen 
da ich ein Programm von Ajoma.de benutze mit dem man den Tag,Stunde und Minuten zurückspulen kann . 
Damit die Stellung der Himmelskörper genau angezeigt wird.
MfG T. N.
Melder-Fotos:
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Auf Grund dieser Aufnahmen und der Aussage das der Zeuge "das Objekt" nicht gesehen hat und es erst auf der willkürlichen Aufnahme entdeckt hat, ist dies eine klare Linsen-Spiegelung durch die einstrahlende Sonne.
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28.1o.2014 / 18.03 MESZ
Hallo Herr Köhler,
Ihre Seite habe ich aus Zufall gefunden, denn ich bin im Netz auf der Suche nach Bildern, die mir erklären könnten, was ich da zufällig auf einem Foto vom Sonnenuntergang am 28.10.2014 um 17.03 oder 18.03 h - (die Systemzeit der Kamera war möglicherweise noch nicht auf Winterzeit gestellt, kann ich aber nicht mehr nachvollziehen) "eingefangen" habe.
Ich habe die ESA bereits angeschrieben, aber immer noch keine Antwort erhalten. Vielleicht wissen Sie, was es sein könnte. Ich sende Ihnen anbei drei Fotos - einmal das Foto in seiner Gänze, dann einen Ausschnitt bei 100% und dann eine Vergrößerung des "Objektes" ..
Da Sie sicherlich Erfahrung mit Fotos von vom "Himmel fallenden" Objekten haben, haben Sie vll. auf Anhieb eine Antwort für mich...
R.H.
Zeugen-Fotos: 
Original-Aufnahme
Ausschnitt-Vergrößerung
Vergrößerung
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Auch hier konnte CENAP schnell eine Antwort geben, auf den Zeugen-Fotos ist ein Flugzeug mit Kondensstreifen zu sehen welches Richtung Westen/Sonnenuntergang fliegt. Das Flugzeug selbst reflektiert das Sonnenlicht und ergibt diese "Unschärfe-Reflexionskugel" welche für Verwunderung der Zeugin führte. Die Aufnahme zeigt die hoch fliegende Maschine welche mit ihrem Kondensstreifen noch von der Sonne angestrahlt wird im Gegensatz zu den tieferen Wolken welche sich schon im Erdschatten befinden. Vergleichsaufnahmen aus dem CENAP-Archiv zeigen die Refklexionseffekte welche bei Digitalaufnahmen entstehen können.
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CENAP-Archiv
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7.11.2014 / 1.00-2.30 MEZ Duisburg
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Nachfolgende Fram ist aus mehreren Handy-Video´s welche über den Zeitraum 1,5 Stunden immer wieder für 2-7 Minuten aufgenommen wurden. Die Zeugin selbst gibt an diese Aufnahmen durch das geschlossene Fenster in Richtung Südost gemacht zu haben. Auffällig wurde ihr "ein heller Stern"  welchen Sie erst richtig einstufte, dann aber Aufnahmen machte und bemerkte das der Stern sich bewegte. Diese Bewegung kam jedoch aus der Situation heraus durch das Aufstützen auf der Fensterbank, sämtliche Aufnahmen zeigen starke Verwacklungen welche von der Zeugin auf dem Monitor als Bewegung eingestuft wurde.
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Zeugen-Video-Fram
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Nach Überprüfung der astronomischen Gegebenheiten zu der Beobachtungszeit, ergab sich als Stimuli und Aufnahme-Kandidat: SIRIUS, welcher immer wieder durch starke blauweiße Leuchtkraft am Horizont für UFO-Meldungen sorgt. Nachfolgend die aktuelle Sternkarte von Sirius in der Beobachtungs-Richtung der Zeugin:
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Beobachtungs-Richtung der Zeugin
Sternkarte



Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2219 Views

Freitag, 21. November 2014 - 11:17 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Raumfahrt-Technologie von Philae Lander im Einsatz bei Archäologen

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This image shows the power of reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) in an image of the Philae obelisk.
Credit: Ben Altshuler, Oxford University
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Benjamin Altshuler is on the classics faculty at the University of Oxford and is the current Classics Conclave fellow at the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents. Altshuler is a specialist in reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), a computational photographic method that illuminates surface features undetectable by direct observation. He contributed this article to Live Science's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.
"The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes." — Marcel Proust
Separated by two millennia, the Philae lander and the Philae obelisk illuminate two separate and shared paths of discovery. The Philae lander, recently launched from the European Space Agency (ESA) mothership Rosetta, is the robotic space vehicle that landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko last week in hopes of unlocking some of the secrets of ancient comets. The Philae obelisk, like the much better known Rosetta stone, helped unlock the ancient secrets of Egyptian hieroglyphs 200 years ago. Both are now connected by technology, as the same types of sensors aboard the Philae lander are now helping archaeologists unlock the obelisk's messages to reveal secrets about ancient Egypt.
A message in granite
The story begins 2,100 years ago, when a group of priests in Egypt successfully petitioned their king Ptolemy VIII for a tax cut. The priests created a permanent document of their success in the form of a 7-meter-tall (23 feet) granite obelisk. Never intending their success to be a hidden secret, the priests had their accomplishment inscribed onto the obelisk in Greek, with prayers written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, for all to see and understand forever.
However, by the fall of their eventual Roman conquerors 600 years later, the knowledge of hieroglyphs perished, and the obelisk's Egyptian inscription remained unreadable for centuries.
Then, in the 19th century, Egyptologist Jean-Francois Champollion used the recently discovered tri-lingual inscription on the Rosetta stone and the bilingual inscription on the Philae obelisk to decode hieroglyphs. While the importance of the Rosetta stone cannot be underplayed, the obelisk’s role in cementing hieroglyphs as a phonetic language was invaluable.
Digital eyes to see the past
Now, new computer-based imaging technologies called polynomial texture mapping (PTM) and multispectral imaging (MSI) are allowing researchers to revisit the Philae obelisk and reveal parts of the inscriptions that have eroded with time.
While archaeology has often benefited from expanded excavations and deeper trenches, the field is now entering an age in which the most spectacular finds are not coming out of the ground but out of existing museum collections. Digital archaeology is allowing experts to uncover secrets in plain sight; indeed, to go beyond the boundaries of human sight and document sketch lines under layers of paint, transcribe badly eroded inscriptions and recover the faintest manuscripts.
With the power of these technologies growing exponentially, the next ground-breaking find could just as easily be discovered in the basement of a museum as under the streets of Cairo.
PTM is a powerful computational photographic technology that is literally shedding new light on ancient objects. Its ability to analyze the smallest features of surface topology has led to breakthroughs in the fields of epigraphy, archaeology and papyrology. The discoveries have been so frequent and significant that museums and archaeologists around the world are seeking to make PTM the standard international protocol for artifact documentation. Indeed, the age of digital archaeology has begun a quiet revolution in classical studies. Scholars no longer feel limited by what they can see with their own eyes.
More than anything else, it is the sheer volume of data gathered by PTM that sets it apart from what is currently the most common documentation methods used in museums: simple photography. While a conventional photograph can adequately capture color information, it can only convey a very crude sense of shape and surface texture through a fixed number of highlights and shadows.
By contrast, PTM, in addition to capturing superb color data, can record detailed shape and texture measurements at the level of individual pixels. This massive quantity of incremental data not only provides a far more comprehensive method for object documentation than simple photography can, but it also opens up a range of opportunities for computer-driven rendering techniques — potentially including the use of 3D printers — for creating highly detailed depictions of objects for study and analysis. PTM combines digital photography, specialized lighting techniques and sophisticated computer software to combine dozens of images into an interactive image that enables researchers to read worn inscriptions or recover artistic details.
Current PTM work has already allowed researchers to confirm early transcriptions of the hieroglyphic and Greek text on the Philae obelisk and to begin studying the tool marks. In the coming weeks, epigraphists will also employ MSI and focus on the Greek text at the base of the obelisk where significant portions of the text are almost completely eroded, leaving huge swaths of text unaccounted for.
It is hoped that ultraviolet and infrared light will pick up some of the original paint that adorned the obelisk and help researchers read more of the text to get a better understanding of the exact correspondence between Ptolemy VIII and the priests of Philae. Moreover, in a language where a single word, or even a single letter, can change the entire meaning of a sentence, every single minim picked up by PTM could contribute to, or even change, our current understanding.
Digital eyes in space
Meanwhile, 300 million miles away at comet 67P, the Philae lander is equipped with ROLIS (Rosetta-Lander Imaging System) and CIVA (Comet Nuclear Infrared and Visible Analyzer), both of which use digital imaging technologies and multispectral analyzers to "see" the comet and send images back to Earth.
Over the next several months, scientists will use the same spectral properties that researchers are using to pick up traces of paint on the obelisk, albeit of different elements, to analyze and isolate the exact makeup of the comet. By understanding this, more can be learned about the origins of comet 67P, other comets in our solar system and the nature of the entire solar system.
Although the Philae lander has now run out of power due to a malfunction in the landing apparatus, the data gathered in its short time on the comet is currently being analyzed by scientists and looks to shed light on many of the questions posed at the beginning of the mission. As the comet gets closer and closer to the sun, Rosetta will have to take over the mission continue to use mapping technologies similar to PTM to assess the changes in the topography of the comet. By monitoring 67P's vital signs constantly, scientists look forward to seeing a process that has only ever been observed from millions of miles away.
It is powerful to recognize that so many technologies being used in space to lead scientists to the origins of the solar system have equally valuable uses on Earth, helping archaeologists uncover lost secrets of the past.
Quelle: SC

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2183 Views

Freitag, 21. November 2014 - 09:33 Uhr

Raumfahrt - XCOR Aerospace meldet jüngsten Meilenstein in ULA-Programm

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Rocket Engines Overview  
XCOR develops rocket-propelled vehicles, rocket propulsion systems, and propulsion components to customer order.  We have developed technologies in a number of subsystems that further the goal of operationally effective, reliable, low maintenance rocket propulsion systems. These systems are designed to maximize safety and minimize cost.  Since our rocket vehicles use our own rocket engines and systems, we have unique insight into the system-level tradeoffs needed for operationally responsive rocket propulsion.  We have developed the kind of rocket propulsion that real systems can use.  
Our team’s experience is current, and since inception we have become a leader in the development of dependable, low-cost rocket engines. We have developed a series of proprietary engines and igniters, and have built, tested, and flown the EZ-Rocket twenty-six times and the X-Racer 40 times. To date, we have continued the technological development of rocket engines, building and enhancing many designs from 15 lb thrust up to 7,500 lbf.  XCOR’s engines burn a variety of non-toxic fuels, including kerosene, hydrogen, methane, ethane, propane, alcohol and kerosene using oxidizers such as liquid oxygen and nitrous oxide.
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Press Release
 
XCOR Aerospace Announces Latest Milestone in ULA Program
Mojave, CA, November 20, 2014 – XCOR Aerospace today announced it has completed the latest test series for the liquid hydrogen engine it is developing for United Launch Alliance (ULA). This is an important milestone in the long-running LH2 (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) program. It is also a step toward running the engine in a fully closed cycle mode. 
In its most recent milestone, XCOR successfully performed hot fire testing of the XR-5H25 engine’s regeneratively cooled thrust chamber, with both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants supplied in pump-fed mode, using XCOR's proprietary piston pump technology.
“This test marks the first time liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen have been supplied to a rocket engine with a piston pump,” says XCOR Chief Executive Officer Jeff Greason. “It is also the first time an American LH2 engine of this size has successfully fired liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen together in pump-fed mode. We are happy to be making solid progress on the engines. This will also bring us to a new phase in our plans for orbital flight.”  
"ULA has an ongoing effort to develop rocket engines for our next generation upper stage, and we are thrilled to see that progress continuing with XCOR," added ULA Vice President George Sowers.
Upcoming test series will fully integrate the nozzle with the engine and piston pumps. Fully closed cycle testing will follow soon afterwards and will complete the sub-scale demonstration engine program.
The XR-5H25 engines are being developed under contract to ULA as potential successors to the Delta and Atlas series upper stage engines currently used. These engines will also help power orbital launches.
Quelle: XCOR

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2119 Views


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