Sonntag, 9. April 2017 - 20:45 Uhr

Astronomie - Upgrade für Hobby-Eberly Teleskop / Texas abgeschlossen


Upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope dedicated April 9; Dark energy survey, other cutting-edge science on the way

9 April 2017

FORT DAVIS, Texas — The world’s third-largest telescope, the 10-meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) located at McDonald Observatory in West Texas, has completed a multiyear $40 Million upgrade to enable it to take on the biggest challenges in astronomy today: unraveling the mystery of dark energy, probing distant galaxies and black holes, discovering and characterizing planets around other stars and much more. The HET Board is celebrating with a dedication ceremony today.

“The entire Board, as well as the HET astronomy community, are excited about the telescope upgrade and the new science it will enable,” said Dr. Larry Ramsey, chair of the HET Board and professor of astronomy at Penn State. “The upgraded HET will conduct the first major study of how dark energy changes over time and we all look forward to new and exciting results in this area and others.”

HET’s upgrade included a variety of aspects. The telescope’s field of view has been expanded to 70 percent of the diameter of the full Moon and now views an area of sky 120 times larger than before. And HET now sports an innovative new set of optics. “The Harold C. Simmons Dark Energy Optical System is one of the most complex optical systems ever deployed in astronomy,” said McDonald Observatory Director Dr. Taft Armandroff of The University of Texas at Austin. The Simmons System rides on the telescope’s new tracker, or “top end,” which enables tracking and guiding on cosmic targets.

A practically new telescope deserves a new set of instruments to make the most of its capabilities. Astronomers and engineers have built a suite of four instruments, each optimized for a different kind of research, for the new HET. (See appendix for details.)

The upgrade is an integral part of the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), a four-year project starting later this year that will study dark energy, the mysterious force causing the universe’s rate of expansion to speed up. This survey will look back 11 billion years and determine if dark energy has changed over time.

The HET was originally dedicated in 1997. It is a partnership between The University of Texas at Austin, Penn State, and two German institutions, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.

Today's event will welcome Texas elected officials, philanthropic donors, leadership from The University of Texas at Austin and Penn state, officials from the National Science Foundation and scientists. The telescope upgrade was funded by a combination of federal, state and private sources 

Appendix: HET’s New Instruments


The Low Resolution Spectrograph 2 (LRS2) became fully operational last July. It enables highly sensitive studies of faint, distant galaxies; supermassive black holes and more. A spectrograph enables the study of cosmic objects' chemical composition, temperature and motion. LRS2 does this for the faintest objects and utilizes an innovative input that divides up an area of sky and efficiently reformats it to feed into the spectrograph. LRS2 was developed by The University of Texas at Austin.


The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) will enable a major study of dark energy, the mysterious force that’s causing the expansion of the universe to speed up over time. It consists of 156 spectrographs that analyze light captured by HET and fed through 35,000 optical fibers to be captured by cameras with a total of 633 megapixels. The combination of the upgraded HET and VIRUS creates the world’s most powerful spectroscopic capability for surveying large areas of sky. VIRUS is led by The University of Texas at Austin with contributions from the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Texas A&M University and  The University of Oxford with support from a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant.


The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) is an ultra-stable, optical-fiber-fed, high resolution infrared spectrograph system designed for high precision velocity measurements of nearby small, cool stars. HPF will search for and detect the small Doppler wobble caused by planets orbiting in their “habitable zones,” where liquid water can exist. Planets in this zone could potentially foster life. The red dwarf stars HPF will study are the most common stars in the Milky Way galaxy. The construction of HPF is funded by NSF Major Research Instrumentation and Advanced Technology and Instrumentation grants to Penn State. Delivery of the instrument to HET is expected before the end of this year.


The High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) is one of HET’s original instruments that has been upgraded substantially in support of various missions. HRS is used to study how stars synthesize the elements and how the chemistry of our Milky Way galaxy changes with time. HRS also searches for planets around other stars and observes exoplanets discovered by the NASA spacecraft Keplerand the future TESS mission. The combination of HRS and spacecraft data allows detailed characterization of the exoplanets that neither can provide alone. HRS was developed by The University of Texas at Austin.


HET with star trails, vertical

HET with Star Trails (vertical)

Harold C. Simmons Dark Energy Optical System Installed on HET

HET Back View

Quelle: The University of Texas McDonald Observatory 


Sonntag, 9. April 2017 - 20:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - JUNO SPACECRAFT-Jupiter-Mission Update-8


When Jovian Light and Dark Collide


This image, taken by the JunoCam imager on NASA’s Juno spacecraft, highlights a feature on Jupiter where multiple atmospheric conditions appear to collide.


This publicly selected target is called “STB Spectre.” The ghostly bluish streak across the right half of the image is a long-lived storm, one of the few structures perceptible in these whitened latitudes where the south temperate belt of Jupiter would normally be. The egg-shaped spot on the lower left is where incoming small dark spots make a hairpin turn.


The image was taken on March 27, 2017, at 2:06 a.m. PDT (5:06 a.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed a close flyby of Jupiter. When the image was taken, the spacecraft was 7,900 miles (12,700 kilometers) from the planet.


The image was processed by Roman Tkachenko, and the description is from John Rogers, the citizen scientist who identified the point of interest. 

Quelle: NASA


Update: 9.04.2017


Photos of Jupiter From NASA Spacecraft, Both Near and Far

The Hubble Space Telescope took this photograph of Jupiter on Monday as part of an annual global survey to look for changes in the storms, winds and clouds. CreditAmy A. Simon/NASA/European Space Agency 

NASA is getting new looks at Jupiter, from close up and far away.

Its Juno spacecraft made its fifth just-above-the-cloud-tops dive of Jupiter on March 27, its eight instruments gathering data on the planet’s interior as it accelerated to 129,000 miles per hour.

On each flyby, the public nominates and then votes on the atmospheric features Juno’s camera should record. This time, one of the winning targets was a boundary between two atmospheric regions. The bluish streak on the right is part of a persistent storm. Juno snapped this image 7,900 miles from the planet.

An image of colliding atmospheric regions on Jupiter taken by Juno spacecraft on March 27.CreditRoman Tkachenko/NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory-Caltech/Southwest Research Institute/Malin Space Science Systems 

This week, NASA released an image of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, which is in orbit around Earth. The distance, 415 million miles, is the closest that Earth gets to Jupiter, which makes it a good time for Hubble to perform a once-a-year survey of the solar system’s largest planet. The space telescope is able to discern features on Jupiter as small as 80 miles across.

“We can map out the full planet,” said Amy A. Simon, an astronomer at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observations. “On a first glance, the Great Red Spot is still strikingly colored. It stands out quite well.”

Dr. Simon said that Jupiter’s atmosphere appears to be more turbulent than in the past couple of years. “That’s telling us something about the deeper atmosphere,” she said. “We’re going to be analyzing this over the next few months.”

Because the Hubble observations roughly coincided with Juno’s flyby, scientists will be able to match the close-ups with a wider view of the planet.

“We could do a two-for-one there and help out Juno at the same time,” Dr. Simon said.

An enhanced-color image of a dark spot on Jupiter revealed a tangle of swirling storms reminiscent of a van Gogh painting.
Quelle: The New York Times

Tags: Raumfahrt Jupiter JUNO SPACECRAFT 


Sonntag, 9. April 2017 - 20:15 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA und Roscosmos planen ISS Einsatz bis 2028 zu verlängern


The exterior of the International Space Station seeing during a spacewalk in September 2016. Credit: NASA

Top officials from NASA and Roscosmos, the Russian space agency, could decide soon to commit to keeping the International Space Station staffed and flying through at least 2028, four years after the research lab’s current retirement date.

The head of Roscosmos told reporters Tuesday that the Russian space agency is ready to discuss plans to keep operating the huge research complex another four years until 2028.

“We think that we should continue working in low Earth orbit,” said Roscosmos chief Igor Komarov in a press conference Tuesday at the 33rd Space Symposium in Colorado Springs.

Komarov’s comments came after NASA’s senior human spaceflight manger, Bill Gerstenmaier, said March 29 that a decision by Congress and the Trump administration whether to commit to continuing space station operations through 2028, one way or another, will create certainty for scientists, engineers and businesses working on the program.

“Getting another decision about what we do beyond 2024 with station is really important,” Gerstenmaier said in a presentation to the NASA Advisory Council’s human exploration and operations committee .

With an eye toward construction of a deep space habitat around the moon in the mid-to-late 2020s, NASA intends to test out new life support systems on the space station that are not as prone to failure and do not require as much maintenance as the technologies currently on the outpost.

NASA’s goal is to iron out the kinks of the next-generation life support system, and learn more about how humans respond to long-duration spaceflight, before abandoning the space station and turning attention to deep space exploration.

“The life support system on the station today is not of the reliability or the low maintenance that is needed for a Mars-class mission,” Gerstenmaier said March 30. “We need to really step that up. A great place to test that, in fact the only place to really test that kind of stuff, is on-board the space station.”

The Obama administration announced in early 2014 its intention to extend the U.S. commitment to the space station through 2024, a decision that Gerstenmaier lauded as allowing NASA to cement plans to deploy new technology and develop new experiments for the space station.

The decision also helped close the business case for commercial companies working on crew and cargo capsules flying to the space station, giving the service providers a steady stream of business until a potential commercial space station is built in Earth orbit.

If the White House and Congress wait too long extend the space station program, it “really limits what the commercial companies are willing to experiment with on space station,” Gerstenmaier said. “It limits what we need to do with cargo resupply and crew resupply. It changes plans for what we test on station.

“The sooner we know that, the better off we are, and waiting until just four years before end of station, I personally think is not as helpful as if we can decide a lot earlier, like soon,” Gerstenmaier said.

He added that there is little margin in NASA’s schedule to complete the biological and technological experiments needed for deep space missions by 2024.

It took three years for all of the space station’s partners to endorse the last extension, with the European Space Agency last year becoming the final participant to lengthen its commitment from 2020 to 2024.

Russia announced in 2015 that it would keep up its support of the space station through 2024, and Komarov said Tuesday that the Russian government will maintain a complex in low Earth orbit throughout the 2020s, whether it’s the International Space Station or a Russian-led vehicle.

But he implied that Russia’s preference is to keep the International Space Station going.

“As long as we have this instrument, the ISS, it’s logical to continue this work,” Komarov said.

Igor Komarov, head of Roscosomos, speaks with reporters at the 33rd Space Symposium. Credit: Space Foundation

He said the Russian government, like the other space station partners, wants “more experiments, more results and more efficiency” from the space station.

Roscosmos has a contingency plan that could involve detaching some of its newer modules from the International Space Station, including a research lab set for launch next year, to form a standalone outpost.

“It doesn’t mean that we don’t want to continue our cooperation,” Komarov said. “We just want to be on the safe side, and in any case, and in any decision, to continue our research in low Earth orbit.”

Komarov echoed Gerstenmaier’s concerns about using the International Space Station to evaluate astronaut and cosmonaut health and radiation shielding before launching a crewed mission to Mars.

NASA has spent about $67 billion on the space station to date, according to Gerstenmaier. With the contributions of international partners, the orbiting research lab’s total cost likely reaches above $100 billion.

“We ought to be planning, from an policy standpoint, an approach that allows us to maximize the utility of our $67 billion investment in low Earth orbit, and not pick an arbitrary (retirement) date for some other concerns,” Gerstenmaier said.

NASA spends more than $3 billion to operate the space station each year, and most of that cost goes toward crew and cargo transportation to and from the complex. The outpost’s “sustaining” operating budget is closer to $1 billion per year, Gerstenmaier said.

Engineers have concluded the space station is structurally sound to keep flying through 2028. Some repairs, such as replacement of the research lab’s oldest power-generating solar arrays, may be required if the program is extended longer than 2028, Gerstenmaier said.

Once officials opt to retire and decommission the station, a series of Russian Progress supply ships will dock with the outpost to gradually lower its orbit, eventually driving the complex to a destructive re-entry over the South Pacific Ocean.

Besides the scientific justification, Gerstenmaier floated two other considerations for U.S. government decision-makers.

Around 15 percent of the global orbital launch attempts in 2015 and 2016 targeted the space station.

“Let’s say we pick the end, and we’re now going to pull (15 percent) out of the global launch market. Do you think I’m going to be allowed to do that? Probably not.”

“The other wild card is in 2023 potentially the Chinese will have their space station,” Gerstenmaier said. “What is the dynamic with the U.S. with a space station that’s going away in 2024, with the Chinese having a government-operated space station in 2023? Is that the right time to cede and hand over national and global human spaceflight to another country? You should ponder some of these things.”

Quelle: SN


Sonntag, 9. April 2017 - 20:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Kosmonaut Grechko verstorben (85); er machte 3 Raumflüge



Russian cosmonaut Grechko dies at 85; made 3 space trips



The Russian space agency Roscosmos says Soviet-era cosmonaut Georgy Grechko has died at age 85.

Grechko made three trips into space between 1975 and 1985, spending a total of 134 days above the Earth. His longest was a stay of more than three months aboard the Salyut-6 space station in 1977-78.

Grechko later became a cosmonaut instructor and joined the faculty at the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Atmospheric Physics.

The Roscosmos statement Saturday did not state a cause of death or give information on survivors.

Quelle: abc-News


Sonntag, 9. April 2017 - 08:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Ankunft von Delta-IV-Rakete mit Cargo-Schiff bei AFB-Vandenberg









VAFB unloads Delta IV rocket from cargo ship

A rocket delivered by cargo ship to Vandenberg Air Force Base was unloaded on Thursday.

The United Launch Alliance Delta IV rocket came from a production facility in Alabama via the MV Mariner.

The 30th Space Wing posted a time-lapse video of the rocket's arrival and the subsequent offloading by Air Force personnel at Vandenberg's dock, which was specially built to receive deliveries from the ship.

Officials say the rocket had to be delivered by boat because it's so large. No word on a launch date for the massive rocket.

Quelle: KSBY6


Samstag, 8. April 2017 - 23:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Projekt Blue Book - Teil-28


The 701 club: Case 1550: April 30, 1966 Sacramento, CA

Don Berlinner describes this case as follows:

April 30, 1966; Sacramento, California. 3:15 a.m. Witness: Anita Miller. One light moved around the sky for 2.5 hours. No further detail in files.1

While Berlinner states there are no further details in the files, there is actually a few details not mentioned.

The Blue Book file

The file consists of the witness’ report form (completed on 23 May), several letters between her and Blue Book, notes regarding communications with Mather AFB, and a defense intelligence report from nearby McClellan Air Force Base.

The witness, Mrs. Miller, actually had three sightings that she mentioned in her report form2:

Sighting 1 - April 29th. 4:30-6:00 AM PDT. Seen from open garage door. Object displayed multiple lights but did not twinkle like stars. It was a steady light that blinked on and off three times. Witness did not see any stars and stated sky was “overcast”. Weather records for Sacramento show clear skies at 5 AM but “smoke” at 8 AM. Witness reported the sky as hazy after daybreak. Object first seen in the east and then slowly moved towards the southeast as it rose. The object rose from an elevation of 10 degrees and then moved upwards 30 degrees. At that point, the object moved towards the southeast 75 degrees. During observation the light moved erratically (back and forth, up and down) as it increased in elevation. The witness added she did not see if the object disappeared because she was too busy getting the kids ready for school. She also mentioned it to a neighbor and they agreed to look for it the next morning.

Sighting 2 - April 30th. 4:15-6:30 AM PDT. This was seen from a neighbors yard. The witness gave a similar description as the 29th. The one major difference is that she stated the object was first seen in the Southeast and moved towards the East. Her sketches indicated that the object went horizontally from right to left in a erratic pattern and had an elevation change from near the horizon to overhead. The witness described the object “disintegrating” or becoming “translucent” when it disappeared after sunrise. Her description also indicated the object was rising upward with time:

“It was in a completely different course, direction than it had been the morning before. It rose over the backyard fence and continued to rise at a fast moving pace, till it seemed it found its position.”

Sighting 3 - This sighting was in the remarks section of the report form and occurred on May 18th. No time given. A light was seen flying straight up that dropped a red light. About 10 PM, the witness reported a fire had occurred in a field across from their home. When Blue Book sent her a report form for this sighting, she did not fill it out because she felt she gave enough information already.

The report from McClellan AFB indicated that Mrs. Miller had called them at 0754 on the 30th of April.3 They reported the sighting was between 0500 and 0600 and the object was sighted north of her location. The object was obscured by clouds or the rising sun when it disappeared. The witness used a ten power telescope and army binoculars to observe it and reported it had a rough surface and a dark center. The base reported little or no cloud cover at the time of the sighting.

What followed was a sequence of letter exchanges between Blue Book and Mrs. Miller:

  • On 19 July, Major Quintanilla wrote a letter to Mrs. Miller telling her they explained the April 29th sighting as the planet Venus. It makes no mention of the 30th April sighting.4

  • On 23 July, Mrs. Miller wrote back and appeared to agree with the explanation for the 29 April sighting. However, she makes mention of the 30th April sighting not being explained and then mentioned the third sighting that had started a fire. However, she gave no date for the fire in this letter.5

  • On 28 July, Mather AFB reported that fuel testing every morning in March through May at Jack Ass flats Nevada to the east. They could find no records of a fire near the base on 29 or 30 April.6

  • In a response to her request about the 30 April sighting and fire, Major Quintanilla wrote a letter to Mrs. Miller on August 2. He stated that her 30th April sighting was fuel testing from Jackass flats in Nevada. This was based on a 28 July communication with Mather AFB, who felt that such testing might explain the sighting. He also stated they had no record of a fire on 30 April. 7

  • On 8 August, Mather AFB called back and stated the fuel testing was an invalid explanation.8

  • On 11 August, Mrs. Miller wrote a nasty letter to Blue Book where she pointed out the fire was on another date and the Major Quintanilla must not have even read her report. 9

  • On 22 August, Major Quintanilla wrote another letter. Apparently, after reading the report closely, the Major repeated the con- clusion that Venus was the source of the April 29th sighting but he could not identify the object on the 30th. He did suggest Venus might be a possible source but added that her description ruled this out. 10

  • On 24 August, Mrs. Miller responded and repeated her acceptance of the Venus explanation for the 29th observation. However, she also felt they had not explained her other sightings. Mr.s Miller also felt that too much time had passed for her to complete any more observation forms. 11

In a final letter to Mrs. Miller on September 2, Major Quintanilla told her the 30th observation was being classified as unidenti- fied. He also apologized for the misunderstandings that had transpired in their previous letters. 12


One has to look at the April 29th observation to help identify the source of the April 30th event. Since the 29th observation was apparently Venus, we have to wonder about the April 30th event. The witness did not see the UFO and Venus, which would also have been visible. So why did the witness see it move in a different direction? The likely reason is that witness got their directions mixed up because they were observing from a different location (their neighbors yard). This was probably compounded by the fact that it was three weeks after the event that she had filled out the report form. Her recollections may not have been accurate and the directions wrong.



The observations of the object through a 10X telescope/binoculars makes me wonder about what kind of instruments they were. The telescope might have been an inexpensive one owned by one of the children and the conditions of the binoculars is unknown. Getting the focus correct and holding them still is never an easy task for those not familiar with them. It is very possible, she could have been observing an out of focus image. Allan Hendry presented a sketch one witness made of an out of focus star viewed through binoculars in his UFO Handbook.13 This sketch is similar to what the witness described.

In my opinion, there is a good possibility that the witness had misidentified Venus and the only reason Blue Book could not identify it was because she confused her directions on the second morning’s observations. I would reclassify this as “probably Venus”.

The third sighting has insufficient information associated with it for analysis. We don’t have a time or direction of observation. Any possible answer would be pure speculation.

Quelle: SUNlite 2/2017



Samstag, 8. April 2017 - 23:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Unzureichende Informationen in NICAP-Dokument als UFO-Beweis -TEIL 27



The Ryan case: April 8, 1956

In the chronology, the case is described as:

April 8, 1956--Nr. Schenectady, N. Y. American Airlines pilot followed UFO across state. [V, IX]1 (p. 135)

NICAP lists quite a bit in their UFO evidence file concerning the case in sections V and IX. Section V contains a transcript from a Buffalo television program called, “Meet the Millers”, which was recorded on April 16, 1956.2 In that interview, Captain Ryan and first officer Neff described what transpired:

  • The flight left Albany and was flying to Buffalo via Syracuse and Rochester.

  • Shortly after takeoff from Albany, the crew saw a brilliant white light, which Neff described as “like an approaching aircraft with its landing lights on” and “standing still”.

  • Ryan described the direction as over Schenectady. He also described it as “standing still”.

  • Ryan then states they turned a bit to pass to the south of the light. At this point, the light was off their wingtip.

  • The object then went towards the west in front of them at a speed estimated to be 800-1000 mph.

  • The object went out momentarily and then changed color to orange as it went to the west.

  • They contacted Griffiss AFB and asked them track it on radar. Griffiss did not have their radar set operating and stated it would take 30 minutes to warm up.

  • Ryan reported that the AFB saw a light south of their base and could see a silhouette.

  • Communications with various locations revealed that Watertown and Albany could also see it. Ryan is not clear but the Albany tower saw the object to the west.

  • Ryan reported it was staying ahead of them. He was directed by Griffiss to temporarily abandon their next stop and maintain course and altitude. They also stated they were going to scramble some fighters.

  • Ryan states that the sky was overcast so it could not have been a star. He also stated that he was flying at 250 mph and the object must have slowed down and it was at low altitude.

  • Ryan stated they followed the object all of the way to Oswego. He also stated they had passed up their landing at Syracuse.

  • The scrambled jets never arrived and the object simply disappeared in the northwest towards Toronto.


Section IX contains some discussion of the case and notes that investigation by the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA), Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), and American Airlines (AA) discovered that the aircraft logs, and official testimony of Captain Ryan, refuted parts of the story and there never was a pursuit by the airplane. 3

The Blue Book file

The Blue Book file contains some documents from the date in question that sheds some light on the subject.

  • The first item is a message from Griffiss AFB.4 They reported seeing the silhouette of a plane going from east to west and pass- ing south of their location for three minutes at 03332 GMT (the extra 3 or 2 may have been a typo), which was either 1032 or 1033 EST. The estimated size was larger than a C-47 but a follow-up message states it was about the same size as C-47.

  • The next report came from Albany tower, which states they saw a star-like object for 4-6 minutes at 0314 GMT to the northwest at an azimuth of 310 degrees, which disappeared over the horizon.5 The message also mentioned that a jet fighter (jumping jack able) had been scrambled at 0344 GMT and had been airborne by 0351 GMT. They could not locate the target and returned to base.

  • The next message is in relation to Ryan’s sighting.6 In that message, we discover that the sky was clear in most locations but there was a thin overcast over Schenectady. As he stated in the broadcast, the object was seen off his starboard wing and then disappeared after 45 minutes when it was only 5 degrees relative to his aircraft’s flight (297 degrees).

    At the insistence of Donald Keyhoe, the CAA investigated the case in 1957. Found in the Blue Book file is a proof for Menzel’s book “The world of flying saucers”and it mentions the investigation but there are no original reports or transcripts.7 They stated that Ryan never deviated from his course and had landed at Syracuse ahead of schedule. Blue Book would eventually determine that Ryan had pursued the planet Venus, which set around 1045 PM EST in a northwest direction.


The CAA investigation

In his collection of UFO history with the title “Fifth Horseman of the Apocalypse UFOs: A history January - April 1956”, Loren Gross gives us a copy of a letter the CAA wrote to Keyhoe in the fall of 1957. They addressed the story Ryan had told the press about pursuing the UFO as far as Oswego:

This matter was looked Into by the Board’s Bureau of Safety after your request in September 1957 for an investigation of Captain Ryan’s reported deviation from course to follow the object. Captain Ryan stated most emphatically that he did not deviate from his prescribed course, nor was he requested to do so. He had filed a VFR flight plan at Albany, New York, with Syracuse as the destination. Scheduled time for American Airlines Flight 775 (the one involved in this incident) between Albany and Syracuse is 49 minutes; elapsed log time for that flight on April 8, 1956, was 40 minutes. Since it Is obvious that this schedule could not have been maintained had the flight deviated from its prescribed course as reported by the Buffalo Evening News on April 10, 1956, and since safety does not appear to have derogated, further investigation into the matter by the Board Is not considered warranted.9

Missing from NICAP’s best evidence document was this letter and a statement made by the Vice President of American Airlines, Willis Player:

Capt. Ryan states unequivocally that he did sight an object. He also states unequivocally that he did not chase it. His flight time between Syracuse and Albany confirms that statement. 10

It appears that there was a disconnect between what Ryan told the press and what his official statements were. The records ap- peared to show there was no deviation in course and it brought into question some of the other statements made by Ryan and Neff. Ryan had disappeared from the record shortly after April of 1956 and did not respond to any letters sent from Keyhoe.

The results of the CAB/CAA investigation were not what NICAP expected and, as a result, they took the only route they could after having promoted the case so heavily. The declared it was a conspiracy.

After a 7-month probe of a UFO encounter by an American Airlines plane N[CAP has evidence indicating that important facts have been officially withheld and that Capt. Raymond Ryan, the pilot involved, may have been pressured into changing his original report.

Since the case raises the question of airline-passenger safety, all documents, including reports of investigations by the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board, will be submitted to appropriate Senate and House subcommittees. Both the CAA and CAB Investigations were made at NICAP’s request.

Since April 10th 1956, two days after the incident occurred, this UFO case has remained a “sleeper.” Requests for further details have been repeatedly refused by the Air Force, American Airlines and Captain Ryan himself.11

It seems that NICAP missed another possibility. Ryan and Neff could have exaggerated what transpired when they were approached by the press. Like any good sea story, there was a kernel of truth to their version of events but they may have embellished the de- tails. This would also explain why Ryan refused to respond to Keyhoe’s letters.


The Nuclear connection

In 2009, Joel Carpenter proposed a nuclear connection to the Ryan case.12 Schenectady was the location of Knolls Atomic Power laboratories (KAPL) and Joel thought the UFO was hovering over the facility. Ac-
cording to Carpenter, KAPL operated a Separations Process Research Unit at the
site from 1950 and 1953. He also adds that they operated nuclear prototypes in

West Milton at the Kesselring site. Having been to the Kesselring site in 1979 as a trainee, I was familiar with the area. As best I can recall KAPL only had offices in Schenectady and whatever had been there, associated with actual fuel, had left by 1953. In 1956, only one reactor existed at the Kesselring site, which was rough- ly 20 miles due north of Albany airport (azimuth 339 near Ballston Spa). This was the prototype reactor for the liquid metal cooled design being used with the USS Seawolf.13 It was enclosed in a large ball to contain any sodium-water explosions. This can be seen in aerial images taken in 1965.14 When I was stationed there, that design had long since been removed and it was referred to as D1G prototype. The “ball” still exists and can be seen in Google earth images.


The explanation

Blue Book explained this as the planet Venus. While most of the sighting appears to have been of the planet Venus, there are some issues that suggest problems with the explanation. None of these appear to be fatal and rule out Venus as the source.

The first reason to reject Venus was the sky conditions. Ryan claimed it was cloudy but the weather reports indicate that there was only a thin overcast near Schenectady and the rest of the locations had clear skies. A low pressure cell had moved along the coast and was situated near Cape Cod at 0130 EST on the 9th.15 Weather underground observations for Albany in- dicated light snow early in the day.16 Unfortunately, there are no observations for Albany in the evening but Utica reported clear sky conditions at 10PM.17 There is a good evidence to suggest that the weather report found in the Blue Book files is accurate and conditions were clear enough to see Venus.

A second reason to reject the Venus explanation might be that Ryan had report- ed seeing the object between 1015 and 1100 PM EST. Venus set around 1045 PM EST for Syracuse. This may be a mistake made by Ryan as far as recalling the duration of the event. The official log for the flight indicated it lasted only forty minutes. Assuming they took off at 1015PM, they would have landed around 

1055 PM EST. The disappearance of the “object” was before landing, which means it could have been around, or before 1045PM EST when the UFO “disappeared”.

The third, and probably biggest, reason to reject the Venus explanation was that Ryan and Neff stated the object, at one point, was seen off their starboard wing and then sped towards the front of the aircraft. They also stated the object was over Schenectady when they took off. Venus could not have moved through 90 degrees of azimuth, which appears to reject Venus as the source of the report. I think there might be an explanation for this.


The runway at Albany was north-south and east-west. The wind was from the West-Northwest at 10PM17 indicating that the plane probably departed on the east-west runway. Once the plane was airborne, they would have started their normal track, which was towards an azimuth of 285-300 degrees. Venus, at azimuth of about 301 degrees, would have been seen over Schenectady and appear to have been in their flight path. The crew stated they turned towards the south to avoid the light because they thought it might be an approaching aircraft. A turn towards the southwest would have placed Venus close to the starboard wing tip as they described. Once they resumed their track westward of 285-300 degrees , Venus would have moved towards the front of the aircraft at about 5-20 degrees relative to their heading. If they took off using the north-south runway, the scenario would have been similar. While some may think that Ryan and Neff could never make such a mistake, one has to remember that the story about them pur- suing the UFO had been exaggerated. The excitement of retelling the story on a television program might have introduced some “omissions” by Neff and Ryan.

These arguments against Venus are based on what Captain Ryan had stated and not on verifiable facts. Ignored is the biggest reason to support the Venus explanation. It is significant that Ryan or Neff never mentioned the planet Venus being also visible in the area the UAP was seen. Since conditions were clear enough to allow seeing the bright planet, there would have been no reason to miss it. Its absence in the story indicate that the UFO was probably Venus.

On a final note, Blue Book had another case file for the following night.18 Airmen at Griffiss AFB, east of Syracuse, reported seeing a light in the northwest and interceptors were sent to chase it. Aircraft in the area and the interceptor agreed that it probably was a planet. It disappeared at 1043 PM EST, the same time Venus was setting.

Like the Killian case, mentioned last issue, the Ryan case is another one of those UFO cases where NICAP clashed with Blue Book on the conclusions. This controversy continues even today where proponents insist that the solution is not correct because they believe that a conspiracy has withheld the truth.

In my opinion, the evidence to reject the Venus explanation is insufficient and the evidence to support it is sufficient to conclude that it probably was Venus. This case is not “best evidence” and should be removed from the best evidence document.

Quelle: SUNlite 2/2017


Samstag, 8. April 2017 - 20:10 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Japanische Minirakete bekommt eine zweite Chance


Japanese minirocket getting a second shot at life

Liftoff would come only months after failed first attempt

The SS-520 rocket ran into a communications problem after taking off smoothly from the Uchinoura Space Center on Jan. 15. © Kyodo

TOKYO -- Quickly dusting itself off from an unsuccessful maiden flight in January, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency plans to try launching a low-cost minirocket again this fiscal year.

"The market for small satellites is expanding around the world," JAXA President Naoki Okumura said in a regular monthly news conference Friday. "We would like to demonstrate our technology and make the miniature rocket available for private-sector satellite launches."


The telephone-pole-sized SS-520, developed with Canon Electronics, is touted as the world's smallest satellite launch vehicle. It holds down costs by employing consumer components, such as those used in mobile phones.

JAXA will carry out the launch after addressing such issues as wiring, the suspected cause of January's failure. Like last time, the rocket will carry a nanosatellite.

The unusually short gap between launches was made possible by support from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as private-sector aid in funding and components.

Quelle: Asian Review


Samstag, 8. April 2017 - 20:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA funds ideas from science fiction


A scene from the 2012 movie “John Carter” shows an airship engaged in a Martian battle. The NASA-backed concept for a Martian airship isn’t quite as ambitious. (© 2011 Disney / John Carter™ ERB, Inc.)


Truth can be stranger than fiction, but it shouldn’t be strange to hear that NASA spends millions of dollars on efforts to turn science-fiction concepts into true technologies.

The NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts program, also known as NIAC, has been backing far-out aerospace concepts for almost 20 years. It started out as the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, modeled after the Pentagon’s DARPA think tank.

NIAC’s latest crop of 22 tech projects was announced this week, and they include a few concepts that were virtually ripped from the headlines of science fiction’s pulp magazines. Here are our favorite five:

Evacuated airship for Mars missions
Proposed structure of an evacuated airship. (Illustration: John-Paul Clarke)

Flying airships of Mars: The idea of sending airships floating through the Red Planet’s skies dates back to Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Barsoom novels of the early 20th century.

One big problem: Mars’ actual atmosphere is so thin that an airship would have to maintain a vacuum to become buoyant. That’s exactly what Georgia Tech’s John-Paul Clarke intends to do with an experimental double-shelled, reinforced vacuum airship.

Maybe he should call it an “airless-ship.”

Transformation of Mars from red to green
Could bioengineered bacteria turn the Red Planet into a green planet? (Illustration: Adam Arkin)

Bioengineered bugs for Mars: To transform the Red Planet from a cold, lifeless world to something greener, astronauts lay down a layer of bioengineered algae in the 2000 movie “Red Planet.”

Berkeley’s Adam Arkin and his colleagues plan to look into bioengineering strains of a type of bacteria known as Pseudomonas stutzeri, with the aim of detoxifying the perchlorate in Martian soil and enriching it with ammonia. That’ll make it easier for Mars settlers to grow potatoes, like fictional astronaut Mark Watney did in “The Martian.”

Solar Gravitational Lens
Could the sun serve as a gravitational lens for spotting alien planets? (Illustration: Slava Turyshev)

Solar gravitational lens: Earthlings figure out how to use the sun’s gravitational field to focus light rays from the Milky Way galaxy’s distant frontiersin “Existence,” a novel by David Brin.

Slava Turyshev of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory will look into how a robotic probe sent to the far reaches of the solar system could actually use the sun as a gravitational lens to detect and study life on Earthlike planets up to 100 light-years away.

Turbolift for astronauts
The Turbolift system would assist astronauts during long-duration space exploration missions. (Illustration: Jason Gruber)

Artificial gravity: How do astronauts in space operas ranging from “Star Trek” to “The Expanse”keep their feet on the floor as the walk around their interplanetary spaceships? It’s challenging enough for real-life astronauts to keep their muscles and bones healthy in the zero-G conditions on the International Space Station.

Jason Gruber of Medical Solutions Group and his colleagues want to develop an unorthodox method to give astronauts a dose of artificial gravity during long-duration space missions: Their “Turbolift” system is basically an elevator that lifts and drops an astronaut for one-second bouts of 1G acceleration. “The experience is likely to be analogous to bouncing mildly on a trampoline,” Gruber says.

Continuous electrode IEC fusion concept
Continuous electrode inertial electrostatic confinement fusion is the focus of one of the NIAC-supported projects. (Illustration: Raymond Sedwick)

Fusion thrusters: Until the warp drive is invented, propulsion fueled by nuclear fusion is about the best we can do. Fusion power plants are built into fleets of fictional spaceships, including Discovery One in “2001: A Space Odyssey” and the starship Avalon in “Passengers.”

Several NIAC projects will look into fusion power and other unorthodox propulsion technologies: Check out the concepts from Michael LaPointe at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Raymond Sedwick at the University of Maryland, John Brophyat NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Heidi Fearn at the Space Studies Institute.

Check NASA’s website for the full list of 15 Phase I projects, including ideas for asteroid-mining robots and solar-surfing probes.

Each of the Phase I projects is slated to receive up to $125,000 for a nine-month feasibility study. If those studies are successful, the teams can apply for Phase II grants, worth as much as $500,000, that are meant to support follow-up studies for two years.

NASA says five Phase II projects have been selected for the class of 2017:

NASA selects NIAC projects through a peer-review process that evaluates innovativeness and technical viability. The program is designed to support technologies in the early stages of development. Most of them are expected to require at least 10 more years of development before they’re incorporated into a NASA mission.

Quelle: GeekWire


Samstag, 8. April 2017 - 19:45 Uhr

Astronomie - ALMA gelingt Aufnahme eines stellaren Feuerwerks


Image Release: ALMA Captures Explosive Star Birth

Composite image of the OMC-1 cloud in Orion showing the sometimes explosive nature of star birth, when several young stars were ejected from the region about 500 years ago. The colors in the ALMA data represent the relative Doppler shifting of the millimeter-wavelength light emitted by carbon monoxide gas. The ALMA image is combined with a near infrared image from the Gemini South telescope showing shock waves produced by the explosion.
Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), J. Bally; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF); Gemini Observatory/AURA

Star birth can be a violent and explosive event, as dramatically illustrated in new ALMA images.

Around 500 years ago, a pair of adolescent protostars had a perilously close encounter that blasted their stellar nursery apart.

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have examined the widely scattered debris from this explosive event, gaining new insights into the sometimes-fierce relationship among sibling stars.

Shortly after starting to form some 100,000 years ago, several protostars in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), a dense and active star factory about 1,500 light-years from Earth just behind the Orion Nebula, latched onto each other gravitationally and gradually drew closer.

Eventually, two of these stars either grazed each other or collided, triggering a powerful eruption that launched other nearby protostars and hundreds of giant streamers of dust and gas into interstellar space at speeds greater than 150 kilometers per second. This cataclysmic interaction released as much energy as our Sun emits over the course of 10 million years.

Today, the remains of this spectacular explosion are visible from Earth.

“What we see in this once calm stellar nursery is a cosmic version of a 4th of July fireworks display, with giant streamers rocketing off in all directions,” said John Bally with the University of Colorado and lead author on a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Groups of stars such as those in OMC-1 are born when a cloud of gas hundreds of times more massive than our Sun begins to collapse under its own gravity. In the densest regions, protostars form and begin to drift about randomly. Over time, this random motion can dampen, which allows some of the stars to fall toward a common center of gravity, usually dominated by a particularly large protostar.

If these stars draw too close to each other before they drift away into the galaxy, violent interactions can occur.

According to the researchers, such explosions are expected to be relatively short lived, with the remnants like those seen by ALMA lasting only centuries.

“Though fleeting, protostellar explosions may be relatively common,” said Bally. “By destroying their parent cloud, as we see in OMC-1, such explosions may also help to regulate the pace of star formation in these giant molecular clouds.”

Bally and his team observed this feature previously with the Gemini-South telescope in Chile. These earlier images, taken in the near infrared, reveal the remarkable structure of the streamers, which extend nearly a light-year from end to end.

Hints of the explosive nature of this outflow were first uncovered in 2009 with the Submillimeter Array in Hawaii. The new ALMA data, however, provide much greater clarity, unveiling important details about the distribution and high-velocity motion of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas inside the streamers. This helps astronomers understand the underlying force of the blast and the impact such events could have on star formation across the galaxy.

“People most often associate stellar explosions with ancient stars, like a nova eruption on the surface of a decaying star or the even more spectacular supernova death of an extremely massive star,” Bally says. “ALMA has given us new insights into explosions on the other end of the stellar life cycle, star birth.”

# # #

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).

ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

This research is presented in a paper titled “The ALMA view of the OMC1 explosion in Orion,” by J. Bally et al., published in Astrophysical Journal. []

Quelle: NRAO


ALMA gelingt Aufnahme eines stellaren Feuerwerks


Mit Sternexplosionen verbindet man in der Regel Supernovae, die spektakulären Explosionen am Lebensende von Sternen. Neue Beobachtungen mit ALMA geben nun jedoch Einblicke in Explosionen, die zu Beginn des Lebenszyklus eines Sterns stattfinden. Astronomen gelangen die einzigartigen Aufnahmen, als sie die feuerwerksähnlichen Überreste der Geburt mehrerer massereicher Sterne untersuchten, und konnten damit zeigen, dass nicht nur der Tod von Sternen, sondern auch ihre Entstehung ein brutaler und explosiver Prozess sein kann.

In einer Entfernung von 1350 Lichtjahren liegt im Sternbild Orion eine dichte und aktive Sternentstehungsregion, die den Namen Orion-Molekülwolke 1 (OMC-1) trägt und Teil desselben Komplexes wie der bekannte Orionnebel ist. Sterne entstehen, wenn eine Gaswolke, deren Materieinhalt mehreren hundert Sonnenmassen entspricht, aufgrund ihrer eigenen Schwerkraft kollabiert. In den dichtesten Regionen entzünden sich Protosterne und beginnen sich willkürlich zu bewegen. Im Laufe der Zeit fallen manche Sterne zunehmend in Richtung eines gemeinsamen Schwerkraftzentrums, das in der Regel von einem besonders großen Protostern dominiert wird – kommen sie noch in die Nähe eines anderen Sterns, bevor sie die Sternentstehungsregion verlassen, können mitunter heftige Wechselwirkungen stattfinden.

Vor etwa 100.000 Jahren begannen sich tief im Herzen von OMC-1 mehrere Protosterne zu bilden. Die zunehmende Schwerkraft hielt sie gegenseitig fest, wobei ihre Geschwindigkeit immer größer wurde, bis vor 500 Jahren zwei Sterne schließlich kollidierten. Astronomen sind sich nicht sicher, ob sie sich nur gegenseitig streiften oder ob sie frontal aufeinandergeprallt sind. Auf jeden Fall hatte der Zusammenstoß eine gewaltige Eruption zur Folge, die andere Protosterne in der Nähe und große Mengen Gas und Staub mit über 150 Kilometern pro Sekunde in den interstellaren Raum schleuderte. Dabei wurde so viel Energie frei, wie die Sonne in 10 Millionen Jahren emittiert.

500 Jahre später gelang es einem Astronomenteam unter der Leitung von John Bally von der University of Colorado in den USA mit dem Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), tief in die Wolke hineinzublicken. Die Spuren der explosiven Geburt der massereichen Sterne, die sie dort zu Gesicht bekamen, hatten große Ähnlichkeiten mit einem gerade explodierten Feuerwerk, dessen bunte Farben sich in alle Richtungen ausbreiten.

Man geht davon aus, dass solche Explosionen zu Beginn eines Sternlebens für astronomische Maßstäbe nur von vergleichsweise kurzer Dauer sind. Spuren von Explosionen wie jene, die mit ALMA beobachtet wurden, sind nur wenige hundert Jahre sichtbar. Trotz ihrer Vergänglichkeit kommen solche protostellaren Explosionen relativ häufig vor. Durch die Zerstörung der Wolke, in der sie geboren wurden, könnten diese Ereignisse auch dazu führen, dass die Geschwindigkeit, mit der Sternentstehung in solchen riesigen Molekülwolken stattfindet, abnimmt.

Hinweise darauf, dass die in OMC-1 beobachteten Spuren von einer Explosion herrühren könnten, gab es erstmals bei Beobachtungen mit dem Submillimeter Array auf Hawaii im Jahr 2009. Mit dem Gemini-South-Teleskop in Chile untersuchten Bally und sein Team das Objekt auch im Nahinfraroten, wodurch die einzigartige Struktur der farbigen Ströme deutlich wurde, die sich von einem Ende zum anderen über fast ein Lichtjahr erstrecken.

Deutlich wird die explosive Vergangenheit des Objektes jedoch vor allem durch die neuen hochauflösenden Aufnahmen von ALMA, die wichtige Details über die Verteilung und die hohe Geschwindigkeit des Kohlenstoffmonoxidgases (CO) innerhalb dieser Strukturen liefern. Solche Informationen werden es Astronomen ermöglichen, die zugrundeliegenden Kräfte zu verstehen und welchen Einfluss solche Ereignisse auf die Sternentstehung in der gesamten Galaxie haben könnten.


ALMA beobachtet Sternenexplosion im Sternbild Orion


Mit Sternexplosionen verbindet man in der Regel Supernovae, die spektakulären Explosionen am Lebensende von Sternen. Neue Beobachtungen des Orionnebelkomplexes mit ALMA geben nun jedoch Einblicke in Explosionen, die zu Beginn des Lebenszyklus eines Sterns stattfinden. Astronomen gelangen die einzigartigen Aufnahmen, als sie die feuerwerksähnlichen Überreste der Geburt mehrerer massereicher Sterne untersuchten und konnten damit zeigen, dass nicht nur der Tod von Sternen, sondern auch ihre Entstehung ein brutaler und explosiver Prozess sein kann.

Die Farben in den ALMA-Daten zeigen die relative Dopplerverschiebung des Lichts im Millimeter-Wellenlängenbereich, das von Kohlenstoffmonoxidgas emittiert wird. Die blaue Farbe in den ALMA-Aufnahmen zeigt Gas, das sich mit Höchstgeschwindigkeit in unsere Richtung bewegt; die rote Farbe stammt von Gas, das sich weniger schnell nähert.

Das Hintergrundbild enthält optische und nahinfrarote Aufnahmen des Gemini-South-Teleskops, sowie des Very Large Telescope der ESO. Die berühmten Trapezsterne, heiße junge Sterne, sind im unteren Teil des Bildes zu sehen. Die Daten, die mit ALMA gesammelt wurden, decken nicht den kompletten hier gezeigten Bereich ab.


ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), J. Bally/H. Drass et al.



Mit Sternexplosionen verbindet man in der Regel Supernovae, die spektakulären Explosionen am Lebensende von Sternen. Neue Beobachtungen des Orionnebelkomplexes mit ALMA geben nun jedoch Einblicke in Explosionen, die zu Beginn des Lebenszyklus eines Sterns stattfinden. Astronomen gelangen die einzigartigen Aufnahmen, als sie die feuerwerksähnlichen Überreste der Geburt mehrerer massereicher Sterne untersuchten und konnten damit zeigen, dass nicht nur der Tod von Sternen, sondern auch ihre Entstehung ein brutaler und explosiver Prozess sein kann. Die Farben in den ALMA-Daten zeigen die relative Dopplerverschiebung des Lichts im Millimeter-Wellenlängenbereich, das von Kohlenstoffmonoxidgas emittiert wird. Die blaue Farbe in den ALMA-Aufnahmen zeigt Gas, das sich mit Höchstgeschwindigkeit in unsere Richtung bewegt; die rote Farbe stammt von Gas, das sich weniger schnell nähert.


ALMA- und VLT-Aufnahmen einer Explosion im Sternbild Orion


Mit Sternexplosionen verbindet man in der Regel Supernovae, die spektakulären Explosionen am Lebensende von Sternen. Neue Beobachtungen des Orionnebelkomplexes mit ALMA geben nun jedoch Einblicke in Explosionen, die zu Beginn des Lebenszyklus eines Sterns stattfinden. Astronomen gelangen die einzigartigen Aufnahmen, als sie die feuerwerksähnlichen Überreste der Geburt mehrerer massereicher Sterne untersuchten und konnten damit zeigen, dass nicht nur der Tod von Sternen, sondern auch ihre Entstehung ein brutaler und explosiver Prozess sein kann.

Die Farben in den ALMA-Daten zeigen die relative Dopplerverschiebung des Lichts im Millimeter-Wellenlängenbereich, das von Kohlenstoffmonoxidgas emittiert wird. Die blaue Farbe in den ALMA-Aufnahmen zeigt Gas, das sich mit Höchstgeschwindigkeit in unsere Richtung bewegt; die rote Farbe stammt von Gas, das sich weniger schnell nähert.

Das Hintergrundbild ist eine Infrarotaufnahme mit der HAWK-I-Kamera am Very Large Telescope der ESO. Die Daten, die mit ALMA gesammelt wurden, decken nur den mit der Box gekennzeichneten Bereich ab.

Quelle: ESO



Tags: ALMA Astronomie  


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