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Samstag, 14. Juni 2014 - 22:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von Sojus-Trägerrakete mit GLONASS-Satelliten-Start

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11.06.2014

A Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket is ready for the launch of the GLONASS-M spacecraft scheduled for June 14, Col. Alexei Zolotukhin, a spokesman for Russia’s Aerospace Defense Forces, said Tuesday.
Technological operations to assemble the Soyuz rocket have just been completed at the Plesetsk Space Center in northern Russia’s Arkhangelsk region, Zolotukhin said.
Operators have completed the assembly of the fourth stage consisting of a Fregat booster and GLONASS spacecraft and the docking with the Soyuz-2.1b rocket, Zolotukhin said. The decision on the date of the launch is expected to be announced Wednesday.
The Global Navigation Satellite System, which came online in 1993, is a Russian equivalent to the US Global Positioning System (GPS). The GLONASS network provides real-time positioning and speed data for land, sea and airborne receivers.
Quelle: RIA NOVOSTI
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Update: 13.06.2014
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Russian Soyuz-2.1b rocket to undergo final testing

Russia's Aerospace Defense Forces proceeded to the final cycle of prelaunch tests of Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket, installed onto the Plesetsk State Testing Cosmodrome, spokesman for Russiaa's Aerospace Defense Forces Colonel Alexei Zolotukhin told RIA Novosti.
"On Thursday, June 12, Plesetsk Cosmodrome specialists rolled out Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket onto the launch pad a?? 43, where personnel will accomplish testing of carrier rocket systems and launching equipment," he said. Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket is to launch GLONASS-M satellites into orbit on June 14. The Soyuz-2.1b modernized booster was designed according to the Russian technology, from materials manufactured in Russia.
The rocket differs from all previous models in its digital control system, which significantly increases the accuracy of orbiting over a point on the Earth. Plesetsk has been the site of Russia's GLONASS satellite launches since February 26, 2011, when the first new generation GLONASS-K spacecraft was launched into orbit by a Soyuz-2.1 medium booster. Until that time, all launches of GLONASS-K satellites were carried out on Proton rockets from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is the Russian equivalent to the US Global Positioning System (GPS). The GLONASS network provides real-time positioning and speed data for land, sea and airborne receivers. 
Quelle: RIA NOVOSTI
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Update: 14.06.2014
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Soyuz-2.1b rocket with the Glonass-M satellite onboard will blast off from Plesetsk

A Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket with the Glonass-M satellite onboard will blast off from Plesetsk space launch facility at 21:17 Moscow time on Saturday.

“The Soyuz 2.1b carrier rocket with the Frigate booster and Glonass-M navigation space satellite will be launched by a combat crew of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, an official spokesperson for the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, told Itar-Tass on Saturday.

The satellite is expected to reach the calculated orbit at 00:53 Moscow time on June 15.

GLONASS is a Russian navigation system. Its orbital grouping consists of 29 satellites of which 24 are used according to the intended purpose.

The Soyuz -2.1b rocket is a modification of the Soyuz-2 carrier rocket. It has a modernized engine and better controllability.

Quelle: ITARTASS

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Russian Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket to send second GLONASS-M satellite into orbit

A Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket with the Fregat space tug is to blast off Saturday from a launch pad at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia's Arkhangelsk region and put into orbit second GLONASS-M satellite in 2014.

On June 11 the rocket was rolled out onto the Plesetsk State Testing Cosmodrome where it underwent the final cycle of prelaunch tests and was finally approved for the scheduled June 14 launch.

This will be the second launch of GLONASS-M satellite this year and the fourth time when it was sent to orbit from Plesetsk.

All assembly operations were completed June 10.

The operators finished the assembly of the fourth stage consisting of the Fregat booster and GLONASS spacecraft and its docking with the Soyuz-2.1b rocket.

The Soyuz-2.1b modernized rocket was designed according to Russian technology using materials manufactured in Russia.

The rocket differs from all previous models in its digital control system, which helps adjust its heading in flight more accurately.

Plesetsk has been the site of Russia's GLONASS satellite launches since February 26, 2011, when the first new generation GLONASS-K spacecraft was orbited by Soyuz-2.1 medium booster.

Until that time, all GLONASS-K satellites were launched on Proton rockets from Baikonur Cosmodrome.

Quelle: The Voice of Russia

 

 



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Samstag, 14. Juni 2014 - 07:53 Uhr

Astronomie - Cassini erfasst in Atmosphäre von Titan aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, die Stickstoff, eine Untergruppe namens polyzyklische aromatische Stickstoffheterozyklen enthalten

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NASA Experiments Recreate Aromatic Flavors of Titan

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NASA scientists have created a new recipe that captures key flavors of the brownish-orange atmosphere around Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.
The recipe is used for lab experiments designed to simulate Titan’s chemistry. With this approach, the team was able to classify a previously unidentified material discovered by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft in the moon’s smoggy haze.
“Now we can say that this material has a strong aromatic character, which helps us understand more about the complex mixture of molecules that makes up Titan’s haze,” said Melissa Trainer, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
The material had been detected earlier in data gathered by Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer, an instrument that makes observations at wavelengths in the far infrared region, beyond red light. The spectral signature of the material suggested it was made up of a mixture of molecules.
To investigate that mixture, the researchers turned to the tried-and-true approach of combining gases in a chamber and letting them react. The idea is that if the experiment starts with the right gases and under the right conditions, the reactions in the lab should yield the same products found in Titan’s smoggy atmosphere. The process is like being given a slice of cake and trying to figure out the recipe by tasting it. If you can make a cake that tastes like the original slice, then you chose the right ingredients.
The challenge is that the possibilities are almost limitless in this case. Titan’s dirty orange color comes from a mixture of hydrocarbons (molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon) and nitrogen-carrying chemicals called nitriles. The family of hydrocarbons already has hundreds of thousands of members, identified from plants and fossil fuels on Earth, and more could exist.
The logical starting point was to begin with the two gases most plentiful in Titan’s atmosphere: nitrogen and methane. But these experiments never produced a mixture with a spectral signature to match to the one seen by Cassini; neither have similar experiments conducted by other groups.
Promising results finally came when the researchers added a third gas, essentially tweaking the flavors in the recipe for the first time. The team began with benzene, which has been identified in Titan’s atmosphere, followed by a series of closely related chemicals that are likely to be present there. All of these gases belong to the subfamily of hydrocarbons known as aromatics.
The outcome was best results were obtained when the scientists chose an aromatic that contained nitrogen. When team members analyzed those lab products, they detected spectral features that matched up well with the distinctive signature that had been extracted from the Titan data by Carrie Anderson, a Cassini participating scientist at Goddard and a co-author on this study.
“This is the closest anyone has come, to our knowledge, to recreating with lab experiments this particular feature seen in the Cassini data,” said Joshua Sebree, the lead author of the study, available online in Icarus. Sebree is a former postdoctoral fellow at Goddard who is now an assistant professor at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls.
Now that the basic recipe has been demonstrated, future work will concentrate on tweaking the experimental conditions to perfect it.
“Titan’s chemical makeup is veritable zoo of complex molecules,” said Scott Edgington, Cassini Deputy Project Scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “With the combination of laboratory experiments and Cassini data, we gain an understanding of just how complex and wondrous this Earth-like moon really is.”
The laboratory experiments were funded by NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres program. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Goddard built and manages the Composite Infrared Spectrometer.
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This Cassini image from 2012 shows Titan and its parent planet Saturn.
Quelle: NASA

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Freitag, 13. Juni 2014 - 23:47 Uhr

Planet Erde - Neue Beweise für 'Ozeane von Wasser tief in der Erde: Wasser im Mantelgestein gebunden verändert Blick auf die Erde

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Schematic cross section of the Earth’s interior. The study by Steve Jacobsen and Brandon Schmandt used seismic waves to find magma generated at the base of the transition zone, around 410 miles deep. Dehydration melting at those conditions, also observed in the study’s high-pressure experiments, suggests the transition zone may contain oceans worth of H2O dissolved in high-pressure rock. The findings alter previous assumptions about the Earth’s composition.

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Researchers from Northwestern University and the University of New Mexico report evidence for potentially oceans worth of water deep beneath the United States. Though not in the familiar liquid form -- the ingredients for water are bound up in rock deep in the Earth's mantle -- the discovery may represent the planet's largest water reservoir.

The presence of liquid water on the surface is what makes our "blue planet" habitable, and scientists have long been trying to figure out just how much water may be cycling between Earth's surface and interior reservoirs through plate tectonics.
Northwestern geophysicist Steve Jacobsen and University of New Mexico seismologist Brandon Schmandt have found deep pockets of magma located about 400 miles beneath North America, a likely signature of the presence of water at these depths. The discovery suggests water from the Earth's surface can be driven to such great depths by plate tectonics, eventually causing partial melting of the rocks found deep in the mantle.
The findings, to be published June 13 in the journal Science, will aid scientists in understanding how the Earth formed, what its current composition and inner workings are and how much water is trapped in mantle rock.
"Geological processes on the Earth's surface, such as earthquakes or erupting volcanoes, are an expression of what is going on inside the Earth, out of our sight," said Jacobsen, a co-author of the paper. "I think we are finally seeing evidence for a whole-Earth water cycle, which may help explain the vast amount of liquid water on the surface of our habitable planet. Scientists have been looking for this missing deep water for decades."
Scientists have long speculated that water is trapped in a rocky layer of the Earth's mantle located between the lower mantle and upper mantle, at depths between 250 miles and 410 miles. Jacobsen and Schmandt are the first to provide direct evidence that there may be water in this area of the mantle, known as the "transition zone," on a regional scale. The region extends across most of the interior of the United States.
Schmandt, an assistant professor of geophysics at the University of New Mexico, uses seismic waves from earthquakes to investigate the structure of the deep crust and mantle. Jacobsen, an associate professor of Earth and planetary sciences at Northwestern's Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, uses observations in the laboratory to make predictions about geophysical processes occurring far beyond our direct observation.
The study combined Jacobsen's lab experiments in which he studies mantle rock under the simulated high pressures of 400 miles below the Earth's surface with Schmandt's observations using vast amounts of seismic data from the USArray, a dense network of more than 2,000 seismometers across the United States.
Jacobsen's and Schmandt's findings converged to produce evidence that melting may occur about 400 miles deep in the Earth. H2O stored in mantle rocks, such as those containing the mineral ringwoodite, likely is the key to the process, the researchers said.
"Melting of rock at this depth is remarkable because most melting in the mantle occurs much shallower, in the upper 50 miles," said Schmandt, a co-author of the paper. "If there is a substantial amount of H2O in the transition zone, then some melting should take place in areas where there is flow into the lower mantle, and that is consistent with what we found."
If just one percent of the weight of mantle rock located in the transition zone is H2O, that would be equivalent to nearly three times the amount of water in our oceans, the researchers said.
This water is not in a form familiar to us -- it is not liquid, ice or vapor. This fourth form is water trapped inside the molecular structure of the minerals in the mantle rock. The weight of 250 miles of solid rock creates such high pressure, along with temperatures above 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, that a water molecule splits to form a hydroxyl radical (OH), which can be bound into a mineral's crystal structure.
Schmandt and Jacobsen's findings build on a discovery reported in March in the journal Nature in which scientists discovered a piece of the mineral ringwoodite inside a diamond brought up from a depth of 400 miles by a volcano in Brazil. That tiny piece of ringwoodite -- the only sample in existence from within the Earth -- contained a surprising amount of water bound in solid form in the mineral.
"Whether or not this unique sample is representative of the Earth's interior composition is not known, however," Jacobsen said. "Now we have found evidence for extensive melting beneath North America at the same depths corresponding to the dehydration of ringwoodite, which is exactly what has been happening in my experiments."
For years, Jacobsen has been synthesizing ringwoodite, colored sapphire-like blue, in his Northwestern lab by reacting the green mineral olivine with water at high-pressure conditions. (The Earth's upper mantle is rich in olivine.) He found that more than one percent of the weight of the ringwoodite's crystal structure can consist of water -- roughly the same amount of water as was found in the sample reported in the Nature paper.
"The ringwoodite is like a sponge, soaking up water," Jacobsen said. "There is something very special about the crystal structure of ringwoodite that allows it to attract hydrogen and trap water. This mineral can contain a lot of water under conditions of the deep mantle."
For the study reported in Science, Jacobsen subjected his synthesized ringwoodite to conditions around 400 miles below the Earth's surface and found it forms small amounts of partial melt when pushed to these conditions. He detected the melt in experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory and at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Jacobsen uses small gem diamonds as hard anvils to compress minerals to deep-Earth conditions. "Because the diamond windows are transparent, we can look into the high-pressure device and watch reactions occurring at conditions of the deep mantle," he said. "We used intense beams of X-rays, electrons and infrared light to study the chemical reactions taking place in the diamond cell."
Jacobsen's findings produced the same evidence of partial melt, or magma, that Schmandt detected beneath North America using seismic waves. Because the deep mantle is beyond the direct observation of scientists, they use seismic waves -- sound waves at different speeds -- to image the interior of the Earth.
"Seismic data from the USArray are giving us a clearer picture than ever before of the Earth's internal structure beneath North America," Schmandt said. "The melting we see appears to be driven by subduction -- the downwelling of mantle material from the surface."
The melting the researchers have detected is called dehydration melting. Rocks in the transition zone can hold a lot of H2O, but rocks in the top of the lower mantle can hold almost none. The water contained within ringwoodite in the transition zone is forced out when it goes deeper (into the lower mantle) and forms a higher-pressure mineral called silicate perovskite, which cannot absorb the water. This causes the rock at the boundary between the transition zone and lower mantle to partially melt.
"When a rock with a lot of H2O moves from the transition zone to the lower mantle it needs to get rid of the H2O somehow, so it melts a little bit," Schmandt said. "This is called dehydration melting."
"Once the water is released, much of it may become trapped there in the transition zone," Jacobsen added.
Just a little bit of melt, about one percent, is detectible with the new array of seismometers aimed at this region of the mantle because the melt slows the speed of seismic waves, Schmandt said.
The USArray is part of EarthScope, a program of the National Science Foundation that deploys thousands of seismic, GPS and other geophysical instruments to study the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the processes the cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
The National Science Foundation (grants EAR-0748797 and EAR-1215720) and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation supported the research.
Quelle: ScienceDaily

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Freitag, 13. Juni 2014 - 22:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - UFO-Absturz bei Roswell 1947 ? Teil-21

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“Drooling idiots” and “elite” units
One argument presented by the Roswell proponents, is that skeptics portray Jesse Marcel and the other officers of the 509th bomb group as “drooling idiots”. According to them, the unit was “elite” and could NEVER mistake the materials in the photographs
at Fort Worth as being parts of a flying disc. An additional argument is that, if this were the case of mistaken identity, the Air Force would never promote a “drooling idiot” like Blanchard to General because he could not tell the difference between weather balloon materials and a “flying disc”.
The “elite” status of the 509th had more to do with the training of their air crews to handle and drop nuclear weapons.
That elite status can not be transferred to other abilities. Each military unit is full of specialists, who are trained in a specific area so that the entire unit has the knowledge to do its job. It is up to the commanding officer to call for that expertise if he needs it. There is no evidence that any of the weather personnel were asked to look at the debris. We do not even know if any of them had training/experience with the ML-307s. Meanwhile, crashologists speculate that Blanchard or Marcel must have seen ML-307 reflectors before this:
They saw them in use on base• . There was no radar capable of tracking RAWIN target balloons on base in July of 1947. The base probably used the standard visual tracking with theodolites for their weather balloon launches. There was no need for the base to keep these items in stock if they were not going to use them.
They saw them in use at Kwajalein during “Operation Crossroads”• . RAWIN balloons were launched four times a day (at approximately 0300, 0900, 1500, 2100 local time) according to the Aerological report on Operation Crossroads. Half of these balloon launches were at night and the others were in the middle of the work day. There would be no reason for Blanchard and Marcel to take the time out of their busy schedule to go over to the weather observers area and watch a balloon launch. The perimeter of this horseshoe-shaped island is about three miles in length and their work offices/area could have been far away from the weather balloon launch area. Additionally, not all balloon launches had RAWINs. The one photograph of a balloon launch in The official photographic record of Operation Crossroads had no ML-307 attached (see below)! Stating they must have seen these RAWIN launches is just speculation and is not a proven fact.
Marcel’s radar training exposed him to RAWIN targets.• His training had everything to do with bombing targets from an airplane using the radar and not with tracking balloons. There is nothing in the training schedule that shows Marcel was exposed to ML-307 reflectors. (see below from Marcel’s service record provided by Robert Todd)
The passage of flight #5 miles about four miles south of the base in early June exposed Blanchard and Marcel to the • activities of the NYU group at Alamogordo, which included the use of ML-307 reflectors. Just because the flight passed south of base does not guarantee they knew about the NYU group or would make the connection to the debris that Marcel brought to Blanchard. There is no evidence they held meetings with the NYU group prior to July 8th and no evidence they were overly concerned about this balloon flight near their base. Ignored by these proponents is that flight #5 had no radar targets. So, even if Blanchard saw flight #5 in a pair of binoculars from the base (and there is no evidence he did), he saw something that was different than what was recovered by Marcel. We don’t even know if Blanchard or Marcel were on base that day. According
to the yearbook, the 509th was on field maneuvers at Wendover AFB from May 27th to June 13th.
These are the arguments presented to state that Marcel and Blanchard absolutely knew about ML-307 reflectors. None of them can be considered close to conclusive and are based more on speculation and wishful thinking.
In order to reinforce the argument, skeptics are accused of referring to the Blanchard and Marcel as “drooling idiots”. This is not accurate and ignores the times in which this all transpired. In July of 1947, nobody really had any idea what a “flying disc” might be. There are no records of messages being sent out to various commands in early July 1947 describing what they were or how they were constructed. The only thing anybody knew about them appears to be from what the media was describing and speculating about. Ignored by proponents is the article that appeared in the Roswell Morning
Dispatch the morning Jesse Marcel presented the debris to Blanchard. This article described two discs that were found in Texas and that they were flimsy objects made of some foil just like the ML-307s in the Fort Worth photographs. They also stated the Army Air Force was investigating one of these discs. If somebody involved in the decision on what to do, had read this article, they might have drawn the conclusion that maybe they also recovered the remains of a flying disc.

Christopher Allan and Gilles Fernandez also raised the point that the 509th may have felt a need to issue some sort of press release since the local media was aware, or might become aware, that several people had gone out to the ranch to retrieve a “crashed disc”. Unfortunately, the wording of the press release was unclear as to exactly what was recovered.

In order to reinforce the “drooling idiots” argument, it has also been stated that Colonel Blanchard could not be promoted to the rank of General because of the errant press release. This is a completely inaccurate portrayal of how the military would react to such a scenario. Other than a bit of embarrassment by jumping the gun on a press release, I see nothing seriously wrong that could jeopardize Blanchard’s career or change the opinion of his superiors about him. Nobody was hurt, nothing was damaged, and no regulations were broken. Compare that to what happened to these two famous officers:

Chester Nimitz grounded a destroyer as a young officer. A court-mar• tial found him guilty of “neglect of duty”. He was relieved of command and received a reprimand. 

Hap Arnold tried to petition congressmen to create a separate Air • Force in 1926. He was publicly reprimanded by General Patrick, the head of the Army Air Corps and left Washington DC in disgrace. 

Both of these men overcame these incidents (which were more severe than Blanchard’s minor mistake) to become the great Admirals/Generals that they were. To suggest that Blanchard, who was an officer that was probably earmarked for promotion prior to the incident, be removed from the promotion list because of a simple mistake in public relations is ludicrous. 

Contrary to what the crashologists state publicly, the skeptics do not consider the men of the 509th incompetent or stupid. Skeptics simply state that, in the excitement of the moment, Blanchard, Marcel, and the others involved thought they had recovered a “flying disc” since nobody had any idea what a “flying disc” was. It was an honest mistake that was probably treated as such by the upper chain of command with no repercussions. Those presenting the “drooling idiots” straw man argument are doing so in order to make their argument of a conspiracy involving a crashed alien spaceship sound more reasonable. If this is the kind of argument they are resorting to, they must not consider their evidence very convincing.

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Flip-Flopping
Recently, Kevin Randle took me to task concerning the testimony of Thomas Dubose regarding “the switch” that supposedly had occurred at Fort Worth. He recognizes “the switch” is the cornerstone to the entire alien spaceship conspiracy theory and any suggestion it did not occur collapses the entire crashed alien spaceship scenario.
In my time line article (SUNlite 4-4), I laid out the situation in a short one page description. I pointed out how Jesse Marcel Sr. had stated on several occasions that he had brought the debris into General Ramey’s office and, at some point, the debris transformed into weather balloon debris. I did not want to spend multiple pages going over the various stories but Randle insists I was just cherry picking what I wanted and took the one statement by Dubose to Shandera (which I even identified as a controversial interview in the article!) as gospel while ignoring all the video and audio tape statements by Dubose. This is not exactly correct. I evaluated the evidence and thought I laid out my case why there was no switch. Since Randle seems to think I hid things from the reader, I now will lay out my case in far greater detail so Mr. Randle and his fellow crashologists can see where I reasoned there was no switch.
Jesse Marcel Sr.
Mr. Randle enjoys promoting the testimony of Johnny Mann, who interviewed Marcel back in the 1980s. He stated that Marcel told him that the photographs don’t show him with the actual debris. This was not recorded, which makes it just as good as the Shandera interview with Dubose and Moore’s description of what Marcel had told him. Kevin Randle frequently points out how William Moore’s interview had presented several versions of the interview he published in The Roswell Incident.
What Randle is not very fond of acknowledging are the other statements I quoted in SUNlite 4-4.
Marcel was clear to Bob Pratt that he brought the debris to Fort Worth and gave it to General Ramey. •
Marcel was clear in the movie, • UFOs are real, that the newsmen saw some of the debris. This tends to confirm the statement by Moore that Marcel said he was photographed with the real debris.
Marcel was clear in his interview with Linda Corely that he had brought the debris into the office and that the debris was covered up BY HIM (under the orders of Ramey) with brown paper on the floor.
The later interview is important to examine because none of the photographs appear to show anything beneath the brown paper unless it was as flat as the floor. It is almost as if Marcel was trying to get himself out of the corner when the photographs showed that his memories of all of this were not accurate. More importantly, the last two statements completely invalidates the second hand testimony of Walter Haut, who told everybody that Marcel told him he went into the map room with Ramey and when they came back the real debris was gone and replaced with the balloon/reflector materials. Marcel never mentioned this in any of the interviews. Not surprisingly, Randle and Schmitt attempted to force fit statements by Dubose into this scenario.
Thomas Dubose
It is important to note that hypnosis was used on Dubose in their very first interview conducted by Randle and Schmitt. In his book, The abduction enigma, Randle cites the Royal College of Psychiatrists. According
to Randle, they stated using hypnosis to recover memories can introduce false memories. Randle also made a note that memories are not repeated the same way twice and are influenced by one’s beliefs. Did hypnosis play a role in influencing Dubose’ memories and how he recalled the event based on leading questions by those conducting the interview?
In the MUFON journal of April 1991, Randle and Schmitt presented the testimony from Dubose in their interviews. The main points from these interviews were:
Dubose stated the weather balloon explanation was a cover story to get the press off their backs.
They were told to forget everything else.•
Two or three days prior to the Marcel showing up, the only debris that came from Roswell that Dubose ever saw was flown from • Roswell to Fort Worth in a B-25. It was in a sealed bag, which he gave to Colonel Clark so he could take it to Washington in a B-26.
Dubose never actually saw any of the debris from Roswell other than the sealed bag.•
Dubose had no idea where the debris in Ramey’s office came from. •
Dubose stated the debris in the office did not come from Roswell.•
Dubose stated the debris from Roswell was a bunch of garbage.•
According to Don Schmitt and Tom Carey, Dubose had also stated that the debris in the office "couldn't have come from Fort Worth. We didn't launch balloons!" 1
There was never any statement that he switched the debris or Ramey ordered a switch of the debris. If Ramey was going to order a switch, he would have turned to somebody he trusted to accomplish it in a secretive manner with no loose ends. His chief of staff, Thomas Dubose, would have been that person. Since he did not know where the debris came from, how can he state it never came from Roswell or that it had been switched? If the only time the “real debris” ever came to Fort Worth was on July 6th, what was on the plane that Marcel flew into Fort Worth? Is Randle actually suggesting that an empty plane came to Fort Worth or that there was some alien debris on it that Dubose was unaware of? When compared to what Marcel Sr. stated, Thomas Dubose statements in this interview are inconsistent.
However, the interview of Dubose with Shandera is consistent with most of Marcel’s testimony. I must point out that Randle has implied that Shandera either made this all up or severely distorted what Dubose told him in order to make it fit Marcel’s testimony. This is why I sttated, in SUNlite 4-4, that the interview was controversial. Despite this caveat, one must still read the interview to see what was stated. The basic content of this interview revealed the following:
There never was a switch and that neither he or Ramey would ever do something like this.•
The photographs show the debris that Marcel brought from Roswell.•
The weather balloon explanation was a cover story to get the press off their backs.•
He took the debris in Ramey’s office, put it into a container, gave it to Colonel Clark, who flew the debris to Washington in a B-25.
The debris in the office was not from a weather balloon because it did not have weather balloon markings. However, he described the debris as garbage.
The debris from Roswell came in a B-29 and he had met the plane. He took the debris from that plane and brought it to Ramey’s • office.
He could not remember if Marcel was on this plane or not but does remember Marcel being present at the press conference.•
Shandera’s track record regarding accuracy is not the best so one has to consider this when evaluating his version of events since he did not record it. However, Randle and Schmitt have also had problems with being accurate about what they wrote about Roswell. So their interpretation of what Dubose meant should also be considered as I pointed out above. What I found important about the Shandera interview was that Dubose was asked, point blank, if he or Ramey had switched the debris. Meanwhile, Randle and Schmitt seemed to dance around this or Dubose did not ever directly answer the question when asked.
Others interviewed Dubose but it is not clear what was stated. Randle points out that Don Ecker received two different stories from Dubose. The first was what he told Randle/Schmitt. The second came after Shandera called Dubose and “refreshed” his memory. Ecker then heard Dubose tell the story he told Shandera.
I have a CD-ROM called The UFO Anthology, which contains part of a Dubose interview that seemed to contradict what Randle and Schmitt have stated about the debris:
Well, Butch sent this fella you mentioned his name… (Interviewer says “Marcel”)…yeah…out to look at it and he scooped it up and put it in this bag and brought it back to Roswell…that went direct to Blanchard and from Blanchard into Fort Worth and then to Washington…that took less than 48 hours.2
I am not sure of the interview’s provenance but it clearly is Dubose talking. The description appears to confirm what Dubose told Shandera and contradict what he told Schmitt/Randle about the debris from Roswell that went to Washington. He is stating that this debris was the debris that Marcel had picked up and not something that came a few days before.
Another interview that was conducted came from Billy Cox. He got Dubose to say that they dropped a balloon from several hundred feet and that was the debris that is in the office. Dubose also told Cox that he did not think the debris came from an alien spaceship. An examination of the materials in the photographs indicate that this was something dropped from a few hundred feet is not accurate. The ML-307 would not shatter into hundreds of pieces and fragment. Additionally, the balloon material would not 
turn this black even if the balloon had been left out for a few hours in the sun (see my balloon testing articles in SUNlite 4-4 and 4-5).Of course, how could Dubose know that the material had been dropped from a few hundred feet when he told Randle and Schmitt that he had no idea where that debris had come from!
Brazel’s interview
There is no reason to repeat Mack Brazel’s interview but it is important to note that his description involved rubber, sticks and paper
backed tin foil. The photographs at Fort Worth show some of the same type of debris except he described larger quantities of it. This indicates the photographs shows some of the debris Brazel and Marcel had recovered. As a result, crashologists invoke the conspiracy theory, where Brazel was forced to give this description. This argument ignores what I have I stated in my SUNlite 4-4 time line.
Bessie Brazel described the same types of debris in her 1993 affidavit.•
The early news wires described the disc as a small tin foil target.•
The FBI teletype suggests that the debris was a RAWIN target.•
Jesse Marcel is reported to have stated, in the 1947 media, that the debris consisted of tin foil and rubber.•
Other than a lot of speculation and hearsay evidence, there is really no evidence that Brazel was forced to give this testimony. Brazel’s
testimony, supported by the other statements made in 1947, indicates the debris in the photographs came from the Foster ranch and was never switched.
Making sense of it all
Thomas Dubose and Jesse Marcel may have been describing events as best they could recall at the time they were interviewed. However, personal beliefs, the ravages of time, and the power of suggestion may have influenced those interviews. Dubose believed in most of the interviews that:
The weather balloon explanation was a cover story for the press.•
The debris in the office was just a bunch of garbage.•
At some point he gave Colonel Clark some debris that was flown to Washington.•
Assuming that Marcel was being accurate when he stated he had brought the actual debris into Ramey’s office, the statements by Dubose about the debris in the office not being from Roswell or that the only debris from Roswell was the flight on the 6th must be inaccurate or a jumbled memory from the events that transpired on July 8th. The interview from The UFO anthology appears to confirm this point of view.
This is why I drew my conclusion that the debris retrieved by Brazel on the fourth was what was given to Colonel Clark for transport to Washington DC/Wright Field. Meanwhile, the debris Marcel had picked up off the ground on Monday evening was what came into Ramey’s office. Dubose seems to have gotten confused about which debris was which. He knew the debris he gave to Clark was the “real stuff” but seems to have forgotten where the debris in the office came from in his interview with Schmitt/Randle. Shandera
may have jogged some of those details loose by asking direct questions instead of letting Dubose ramble on.
Ignored or never mentioned by Randle in his complaints about this are the conclusions that Schmitt and Carey drew regarding the interviews with Dubose. In the Summer 2000 issue of the International UFO Report, they wrote the following:
In the interviews that he (Dubose) gave to researchers over the years several themes in his testimony were clear: (1) he never saw any debris other than weather balloon debris; (2) the debris was not switched (because all he ever saw was the balloon); and (3) the weather-balloon debris came from Roswell on the flight with Marcel.3
If it were so clear that Dubose stated there was a switch in his interviews, as Randle claims, how could Schmitt/Carey draw the conclusion there was no switch? Is it because, as I have stated, they never really asked the question or received an answer to such a question? It appears that what Dubose stated was open to interpretation, which makes Shandera’s interview important. I only mentioned this interview because it was the only one published where somebody asked him that question directly.
My conclusion in the time line I published was not based solely on what Shandera says Dubose told him. It is a conclusion based on looking at the statements that were least likely to be contaminated by the popular Roswell legend and it does not require a complex conspiracy for which there is little, or no, supporting evidence.
Notes and references
Carey, Thomas J. and Donald R. Schmitt. 1. Witness to Roswell. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 2007. p. 94
The UFO anthology2. Vol.#1 1998 Dreamland interactive.
Carey, Thomas J. and Donald R. Schmitt. “From complicity to cover-up”. 3. International UFO Reporter. Summer 2000 P. 9-10.
Quelle: SUNlite 6/2012

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2278 Views

Freitag, 13. Juni 2014 - 07:34 Uhr

Astronomie - Mond+Sterne Spechtel-Abend vom 8.Juni 2014

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Fotos von letzten Weekend, als super Beobachtungsbedingungen für Planeten, Mond und Sterne waren:

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Fotos:©-hjkc


2424 Views

Freitag, 13. Juni 2014 - 07:26 Uhr

Astronomie - Herschel sieht bei NGC 7538 entstehende Sterne und ein merkwürdigen Ring

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The Herschel Space Observatory has uncovered a weird ring of dusty material while obtaining one of the sharpest scans to date of a huge cloud of gas and dust, called NGC 7538. Image credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Whitman College

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The Herschel Space Observatory has uncovered a weird ring of dusty material while obtaining one of the sharpest scans to date of a huge cloud of gas and dust, called NGC 7538. The observations have revealed numerous clumps of material, a baker's dozen of which may evolve into the most powerful kinds of stars in the universe. Herschel is a European Space Agency mission with important NASA contributions.
"We have looked at NGC 7538 with Herschel and identified 13 massive, dense clumps where colossal stars could form in the future," said paper lead author Cassandra Fallscheer, a visiting assistant professor of astronomy at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington, and lead author of the paper published in The Astrophysical Journal. "In addition, we have found a gigantic ring structure and the weird thing is, we're not at all sure what created it."
NGC 7538 is relatively nearby, at a distance of about 8,800 light-years and located in the constellation Cepheus. The cloud, which has a mass on the order of 400,000 suns, is undergoing an intense bout of star formation. Astronomers study stellar nurseries such as NGC 7538 to better learn how stars come into being. Finding the mysterious ring, in this case, came as an unexpected bonus.
The cool, dusty ring has an oval shape, with its long axis spanning about 35 light-years and its short axis about 25 light-years. Fallscheer and her colleagues estimate that the ring possesses the mass of 500 suns. Additional data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii, further helped characterize the odd ovoid. Astronomers often see ring and bubble-like structures in cosmic dust clouds. The strong winds cast out by the most massive stars, called O-type stars, can generate these expanding puffs, as can their explosive deaths as supernovas. But no energetic source or remnant of a deceased O-type star, such as a neutron star, is apparent within the center of this ring. It is possible that a big star blew the bubble and, because stars are all in motion, subsequently left the scene, escaping detection.
The observations were taken as part of the Herschel OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. The "OB" refers to the two most massive kinds of stars, O-type and B-type. These bright blue, superhot, short-lived stars end up exploding as supernovas, leaving behind either incredibly dense neutron stars or even denser black holes.
Stars of this caliber form from gassy, dusty clumps with initial masses dozens of times greater than the sun's; the 13 clumps spotted in NGC 7358, some of which lie along the edge of the mystery ring, all are more than 40 times more massive than the sun. The clumps gravitationally collapse in on themselves, growing denser and hotter in their cores until nuclear fusion ignites and a star is born. For now, early in the star-formation process, the clumps remain quite cold, just a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. At these temperatures, the clumps emit the bulk of their radiation in the low-energy, submillimeter and infrared light that Herschel was specifically designed to detect.
As astronomers continue probing these budding O-type giants in NGC 7358, the follow-up observations with other telescopes should also help in solving the puzzle of the humongous, dusty ring. "Further research to determine the mechanism responsible for creating the ring structure is necessary," said Fallscheer.
Herschel is a European Space Agency mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. While the observatory stopped making science observations in April 2013, after running out of liquid coolant as expected, scientists continue to analyze its data. NASA's Herschel Project Office is based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel's three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the U.S. astronomical community.
Quelle: NASA

2083 Views

Freitag, 13. Juni 2014 - 07:16 Uhr

Astronomie - Asteroid 2014 KH39 zog nur 1,1 LD von der Erde entfernt am 3. Juni vorbei und der nächste ist schon im Anmarsch mit HQ124 - Update

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2,06.2014

Near Earth asteroid 2014 KH39, discovered on May 24, 2014, is the faint ‘star’ in the crosshairs in this photo made on May 31. The telescope tracked the asteroid, so the stars are trailed. A satellite trail is visible too. Credit: Gianluca Masi
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Got any plans Tuesday? Good. Keep them but know this. That day around 3 p.m. CDT (20:00 UT) asteroid 2014 KH39 will silently zip by Earth at a distance of just 272,460 miles (438,480 km) or 1.14 LDs (lunar distance). Close as flybys go but not quite a record breaker. The hefty space rock will buzz across the constellation Cepheus at nearly 25,000 mph (11 km/sec) near the Little Dipper at the time.
Observers in central Europe and Africa will have  dark skies for the event, however at magnitude +17 the asteroid will be too faint to spot in amateur telescopes. No worries. The Virtual Telescope Project, run by astrophysicist Gianluca Masi, will be up and running with real-time images and live commentary during the flyby. The webcast begins at 2:45 p.m. CDT June 3.
2014 KH39 was discovered on May 24 by the automated Mt. Lemmon Sky Survey. Further observations by the survey and additional telescopes like Pan-STARRS 1 in Hawaii nailed down its orbit as an Earth-approacher with an approximate size of 72 feet (22 meters). That’s a tad larger than the 65-foot Chelyabinsk asteroid that exploded into thousands of small stony meteorites over Russia in Feb. 2013.
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Diagram showing the orbit of 2014 KH39. Yellow shows the portion of its orbit above the plane of Earth’s orbit (grey disk); blue is below the plane. When farthest, the asteroid travels beyond Mars into the asteroid belt. It passes closest to Earth around 3 p.m. CDT June 3. Credit: IAU Minor Planet Center
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Since this asteroid will safely miss Earth we have nothing to fear from the flyby. I only report it here to point out how common near-Earth asteroids are and how remarkable it is that we can spot them at all. While we’re a long ways from finding and tracking all potentially hazardous asteroids, dedicated sky surveys turn up dozens of close-approaches every year. On the heels of 2014 KH39, the Earth-approaching asteroid 2014 HQ124 will pass 3.3 LDs away 5 days later on June 8. With a diameter estimated at more than 2,100 feet (650-m) it’s expected to become as bright as magnitude +13.7. Southern hemisphere observers might track it with 8-inch and larger telescopes as its speeds across Horologium and Eridanus the morning before closest approach.
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The chart shows the cumulative known total of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) vs. time. The blue area shows all NEAs while the red shows those roughly 1 km and larger. Thanks to many ground-based surveys underway as well as space probes like the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), discovery totals have ramped up in recent years. There are probably millions of NEOs smaller than 140 meters waiting to be discovered. Credit: NASA
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Perusing the current list of upcoming asteroid approaches, these two will be our closest visitors at least through early August. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are comets and asteroids whose original orbits have been re-worked by the gravity of the planets – primarily Jupiter – into new orbits that allow them to approach relatively close to Earth. The ones we’re most concerned about are a subset called Potentially Hazardous Asteroids or PHAs, defined as objects that approach within 4.65 million miles (7.48 million km) of Earth and span 500 feet (150-m) across or larger. The key word here is ‘potential’. PHAs won’t necessarily hit the Earth – they only have the potential to do so over the vastness of time. On the bright side, PHAs make excellent targets for sampling missions.
As of May 30, 2014, 11,107 near-Earth objects have been discovered with 860 having a diameter of 1 km or larger. 1,481 of them have been further classified as potentially hazardous. NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program estimates that over 90% of NEOs larger than 1 km (the most potentially lethal to the planet) have been discovered and they’re now working to find 90% of those larger than 459 feet (140 meters) across. Little by little we’re getting to better know the neighborhood.
The probability that either 2014 KH39 and 2014 HQ124 will hit Earth on this round is zero. Nor do we know of any asteroid in the near future on a collision course with the planet. Enjoy the day.
Quelle: UT
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Update: 6.06.2014
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Riesenasteroid beinahe übersehen: „The Beast“ nähert sich der Erde

Zehnmal so groß wie der Tscheljabinsk-Meteorit: Der Asteroid HQ124 „The Beast“ rast am Sonntag an der Erde vorbei. Für unseren Planeten besteht keine Gefahr. Dennoch schlagen Experten Alarm, weil der Riesenasteroid erst im letzten Moment entdeckt worden ist.
HQ124 fliegt am 8. Juni in rund einer Million Kilometer Entfernung an die Erde vorbei. Das entspricht etwa der dreifachen Entfernung von der Erde zum Mond. Mit einem Durchmesser von 325 Metern ist der Himmelskörper mindestens zehnmal so groß und schwer wie der 12-Tonnen-Meteorit, der im Februar 2013 über der russischen Ural-Stadt Tscheljabinsk explodiert war und schwere Schäden verursacht hatte. Experten verweisen darauf, dass ein derart großes kosmisches Geschoss erst am 23. April entdeckt worden sei. Es wäre also möglich, dass ein anderer Asteroid, der unseren Planeten zerstören kann, zu spät entdeckt wird.
„Was besonders beunruhigend ist, dass ein derart großer steinerner beziehungsweise metallener Körper, der so nahe an der Erde vorbei fliegt, so kurz vor seiner größten Annäherung entdeckt wurde“, sagte Astronom Bob Berman vom australischen Astronomieprojekt Slooh. „HQ124 ist 10- bis 20mach größer als der Asteroid, der im vergangenen Jahr in Tscheljabinsk tausend Menschen verletzt hat“, sagte Bergman nach Angaben von Space.com.
Am 15. Februar 2013 war ein Meteorit im russischen Gebiet Tscheljabnisk eingeschlagen. Durch seine Druckwelle gingen Fensterscheiben in mehr als 7000 Gebäuden zu Bruch. Über 1600 Menschen zogen sich Verletzungen zu.
Quelle: RIANOVOSTI
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Update: 7.06.2014
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Big 'Beast' Asteroid Flies by Earth Sunday: What Would Happen if It Hit Us?

The near-Earth asteroid 2014 HQ124 is seen via telescope from Australia in this June 5, 2014 photo captured by the online Slooh community observatory. The asteroid will fly by Earth, outside the orbit of the moon, on June 8.

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Humanity should be thankful "The Beast" doesn't have Earth in its crosshairs.

This Sunday (June 8), the near-Earth asteroid 2014 HQ124 — which some observers have nicknamed "The Beast" — will give the planet a relatively close shave, coming within 777,000 miles (1.25 million kilometers) at its closest approach, or about 3.25 times the distance from Earth to the moon.

There is no chance of an impact on this pass, researchers stress. But at 1,100 feet (335 meters) wide, 2014 HQ124 could do some serious damage if it slammed into us.

"This one would definitely be catastrophic if it hit the Earth," asteroid impact expert Mark Boslough, of Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico, said Thursday (June 5) during a webcast produced by the online Slooh community observatory that previewed 2014 HQ124's upcoming flyby.

"If it hit a city, it would definitely wipe out an entire metropolitan area," Boslough added.

The orbit of near-Earth asteroid 2014 HQ124, first discovered on April 23, 2014, is shown in this NASA graphic. The asteroid will fly by Earth Sunday, June 8, at a safe distance of three times the Earth-moon distance.

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"This one would definitely be catastrophic if it hit the Earth," asteroid impact expert Mark Boslough, of Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico, said Thursday (June 5) during a webcast produced by the online Slooh community observatory that previewed 2014 HQ124's upcoming fly
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Update: 13.06.2014 
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'Beast' Asteroid Looks Like a Beauty in Radar Images

Before it flew past Earth, the asteroid 2014 HQ124 was nicknamed "the Beast" — but now that astronomers have captured pictures of it using a couple of the world's biggest radio dishes, they have a different name for it.
"These radar observations show that the asteroid is a beauty, not a beast," Alessondra Springmann, a data analyst at the Arecibo Observatory, said Thursday in a news release.
The radar images, acquired using Arecibo's 1,000-foot-wide (305-meter-wide) dish in Puerto Rico and the 230-foot (70-meter) Goldstone DSS-14 antenna in California, show that 2014 HQ124 looks something like a bowling pin. This pin is at least 1,200 feet (370 meters) wide and spins on its axis every 20 hours or so.
Arecibo and Goldstone are able to see the detail in radar reflections where most ground-based telescopes would see only a point of light. Recently installed equipment in Puerto Rico made it possible to combine Goldstone's superior 3.75-meter image resolution with Arecibo's greater sensitivity.
Mike Nolan, a staff scientist at the Arecibo Observatory, said that double-team capability makes it possible to characterize the structure of asteroid far more precisely. That level of detail will affect how asteroid-watchers deal with the perils and prospects to come.
"Say you wanted to send a mission to push on an asteroid," Nolan told NBC News. "It would help a lot to know if it was a pile of gravel or solid rock. And if you're going to mine an asteroid, you'd want to know if you should bring a shovel or some dynamite."
It's a bit too early to say exactly what kind of animal the Beast is. But Lance Benner, a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who led the radar observations at Goldstone, suggested in a news release that 2014 HQ124 may have been formed from two smaller asteroids that came together as a "contact binary."
The asteroid was discovered on April 23, and was judged big enough to destroy entire cities if it were to hit Earth in the wrong place. That's what led to the "Beast" nickname. Fortunately, the Beast flew past us on Sunday at a completely safe distance of 776,000 miles (1.25 million) kilometers, or slightly more than three times the distance between Earth and the moon.
The radar views were acquired shortly after the closest approach, while 2014 HQ124 was zooming away at a distance of 864,000 to 902,000 miles (1.39 million to 1.45 million kilometers).
Update for 1:50 p.m. ET June 12: I've added in some comments from Nolan, and also had a chance to ask Springmann what she thought the Beast looked like. "I have a little toy penguin on my desk," she said, and the radar images remind her of that penguin — right down to a radar shadow that looks like the bird's beak.
Quelle: NBC
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Frams: NASA-Video


2333 Views

Donnerstag, 12. Juni 2014 - 22:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Ein Wissenschaftler testet Spargelanbau auf Meteoriten, für zukünftige Raumfahrt Landwirtschaft

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A Scientist Is Growing Asparagus In Meteorites to Prepare Us for Space Farming

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For those of us without a green thumb, growing even the most hardy plants in perfect conditions can seem impossible. How about trying to grow plants on a meteorite? Well, at least one scientist is doing it, with moderate levels of success.
The thinking goes—if we're going to have space colonies, we're going to need some way to eat. Transporting all food from Earth isn't realistic, and neither is bringing tons of bags of topsoil. Photos of asteroids, meteors, and other planets in our solar system look incredibly desolate, but, in fact, some of them contain many of the nutrients necessary to grow plants.
"People have been talking about terraforming, but what I'm trying to do is give some concrete evidence that it's possible to do this, that it's possible to grow in extraterrestrial materials," Michael Mautner, a Virginia Commonwealth University researcher and one of the world's only "astroecologists" told me. "What I've found is that a range of microorganisms—bacteria, fungi, and even asparagus and potato plants—can survive with the nutrients that are in extraterrestrial materials."
Asteroids and meteorites often contain phosphate, nitrates, and even water that plants can feed on. Mautner thinks it's not outside the realm of possibility to directly grow certain plants on other planets, in some sort of protected environment. 
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An asparagus seedling in meteorite soil. Image: Michael Mautner
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He's not simply tossing asparagus seeds onto a meteorite, however—he's grinding up the rock into something more closely resembling soil. His plan is to eventually find several different plants and extraterrestrial soils that make the most sense to farm, and use his experiments to develop a "rating system" for which are likely to fare best—a kind of interplanetary farmer's almanac, if you will.
Of course, Mautner is doing these experiments on Earth, and it's worth taking his results with more than a grain of salt—he's not considering the lack of oxygen on other planets and the different gravity conditions.
"The conditions outside Earth are presumably anaerobic—that's an order of magnitude harder to do," he said. "But, if we can find things that can grow in extraterrestrial materials under Earth conditions, you can start to talk about it. We can maybe start to use those materials in artificial, oxygen-containing environments."
Our best bet for colonizing another planet could be printing humans there—but, if the goal is simply to seed the universe with life and let evolution do its work, Mautner's work could end up being extremely important. 
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As the calls for humans to hedge our survivalist bets by spreading out through the universe grow louder, researchers are looking for ways to make "directed panspermia," the purposeful transportation of life from one planet to another, a reality. 
Mautner says his work could be used to kickstart a directed panspermia program.
It's an idea that has real scientists thinking about it—including Adam Steltzner, NASA's lead engineer on the Curiosity mission. The most fanciful idea he suggested at the conference was the possibility of "printing" humans on another planet, which you can learn all about here—but there are other ways to go about spreading life through the universe. 
"Imagine hurtling durable, terraforming bacteria to other worlds with the idea of shaping that environment," Steltzner said last month at Smithsonian Magazine's Future Is Here conference. "We could send instructions in that bacteria to create descendent organism." 
Mautner says that, within our lifetimes, we might be able to create mini ecosystems, "maybe a mixture of more tolerant organisms and extremophiles that can adapt to various conditions," load them into rockets, and shoot them off towards promising planets. 
"If we start to manage these plants and microbes, we could help secure life on other planets for millions or trillions of years," he said.
Quelle: Motherboard

2683 Views

Donnerstag, 12. Juni 2014 - 13:11 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Überflug von ISS über Darmstadt/Germany

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This image is a composite of nine photos taken 5–10 minutes after midnight on 6–7 June 2014 and shows the International Space Station with the Expedition 40 crew, including ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst, orbiting 410 km above Earth. The Station passed through the northern sky, with the Big Dipper and Cygnus (the Swan) seen in the starry background. 
Alexander Gerst arrived on the orbital outpost on 28 May 2014 to begin his six-month Blue Dot mission, which will see him conducting 100 experiments in many areas, including biology, biomedicine and material sciences.
The images were taken from Darmstadt, Germany, home of ESA's Space Operations Centre, and from where 15 satellites are being controlled, with 20 new satellite missions in preparation.
Quelle: ESA

2469 Views

Donnerstag, 12. Juni 2014 - 12:48 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NOAA schaltet NOAA-16-Polar-Satelliten ab - er überschreitet erwartete Lebensdauer mit 10 Jahren

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Hurricane Katrina image taken by NOAA-16 on August 28, 2005. (Credit: NOAA)

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After more than 13 years of helping predict weather and climate patterns and save lives in search and rescue operations, NOAA announced today it has turned off the NOAA-16 Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES). It was one of NOAA's longest operating spacecraft, which have a planned lifespan of three to five years.
NOAA-16 was launched in 2000 and replaced by NOAA-18 as the primary POES satellite in 2005. The shutdown will result in no data gap, as NOAA-16 was being used as a back-up satellite.
NOAA will continue operating multiple POES spacecraft – NOAA-15, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 – in addition to Suomi NPP, which is now NOAA’s primary operational polar satellite. NOAA’s POES spacecraft fly a lower, pole-to-pole orbit, capturing atmospheric data from space that feed NOAA’s weather and climate prediction models.
The deactivation process of NOAA-16 started this morning, with the final shut down occurring today at 10:20 a.m. EDT. Launched in September 2000, NOAA-16 made 70,655 successful orbits of the globe, traveling more than 2.1 billion miles, while collecting huge amounts of valuable temperature, moisture and image data.
“NOAA-16 helped our forecasters detect the early stages of severe weather from tornadoes and snow storms to hurricanes, including the busiest hurricane season on record – 2005,” said Mary Kicza, assistant administrator of NOAA’s Satellite and Information Service. “NOAA-16’s long life is a credit to the engineers, who built and operated it and the technology that sustained it. Although NOAA-16 is retired, we still operate a dependable, robust fleet of satellites that continue to provide crucial data.”
NOAA-16 was also part of the international Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) network of satellites. SARSAT, which began in 1982, has rescued more than 37,000 people worldwide, including more than 7,300 in the United States and its surrounding waters by detecting distress signals from emergency beacons.
NOAA exclusively operates afternoon polar orbit spacecraft, while its key international partner, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), flies mid-morning orbit spacecraft. This teamwork results in significant savings for U.S. taxpayers, because sharing data helps produce more accurate and uniform data for forecasters. Through the Initial Joint Polar System agreement, NOAA and EUMETSAT established a shared satellite system by exchanging instruments and coordinating the operations of their polar-orbiting satellites to provide operational meteorological and environmental forecasting and global climate monitoring services worldwide. 
NOAA and its partners at NASA are continuing to build the next generation of polar-orbiting satellites, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), which is scheduled to launch the JPSS-1 satellite in 2017.
NOAA’s JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advances for more accurate weather forecasting, helping build a Weather Ready Nation — saving lives and property, while promoting economic prosperity. JPSS provides continuity for critical observations of our vast atmosphere, oceans, land, and cryosphere — the frozen areas of the above planet. NOAA, working in partnership with NASA, ensures an unbroken series of global data for monitoring and forecasting environmental phenomena and understanding our Earth.
NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources.
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Cristina Moving Westward Well Offshore of the Coast of Mexico
After an overnight period of strengthening, conventional and microwave satellite imagery suggest that Cristina's intensity has leveled off. Cristina is expected to move westward today, followed by a west-northwestward motion. Cristina has consistently been intensifying at night during the convective maximum period, which seems likely to continue for another 24-48 hours. This image was taken by GOES-13 at 1445Z on June 11, 2014.
Quelle: NOAA

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