Blogarchiv

Sonntag, 1. Dezember 2013 - 18:30 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 436-469

.

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on October 28, 2013, Sol 436 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 05:14:01 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 436 (2013-10-28 02:00:17 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 436 (2013-10-28 04:19:14 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 436 (2013-10-28 04:18:37 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 05:49:26 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 04:33:18 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 05:51:43 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 05:54:12 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 05:57:24 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 06:20:28 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 04:26:11 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 437 (2013-10-29 04:26:42 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 438 (2013-10-30 04:52:46 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 438 (2013-10-30 06:06:43 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 438 (2013-10-30 06:08:43 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 438 (2013-10-30 05:54:49 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 438 (2013-10-30 05:53:42 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 439 (2013-10-31 05:03:21 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 439 (2013-10-31 05:04:38 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 439 (2013-10-31 05:18:14 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 439 (2013-10-31 06:53:45 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 439 (2013-10-31 06:50:23 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 440 (2013-11-01 03:39:15 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 440 (2013-11-01 03:46:53 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 440 (2013-11-01 05:23:34 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 440 (2013-11-01 06:52:36 UTC).
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 440 (2013-11-01 06:48:13 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 441 (2013-11-02 06:16:14 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 441 (2013-11-02 07:19:34 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 441 (2013-11-02 06:07:27 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 441 (2013-11-02 04:12:44 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 442 (2013-11-03 10:34:11 UTC). 
.
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on November 3, 2013, Sol 442 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 07:01:55 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 13013. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 442 (2013-11-03 06:16:38 UTC).
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 442 (2013-11-03 07:39:23 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 453 (2013-11-14 15:14:07 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 453 (2013-11-14 16:14:52 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 453 (2013-11-14 16:17:18 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 453 (2013-11-14 11:59:36 UTC).
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 455 (2013-11-16 13:21:41 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 455 (2013-11-16 13:18:45 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 456 (2013-11-17 18:57:47 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 456 (2013-11-17 19:08:20 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 463 (2013-11-24 22:02:03 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 463 (2013-11-24 22:02:19 UTC). 
.
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on November 24, 2013, Sol 463 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:21:06 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12606. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
.
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on November 24, 2013, Sol 463 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:27:56 UTC.
.
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on November 24, 2013, Sol 463 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:27:56 UTC.
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 466 (2013-11-27 23:38:16 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 467 (2013-11-29 02:11:28 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 467 (2013-11-29 02:11:53 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 467 (2013-11-29 02:27:34 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 467 (2013-11-29 02:28:37 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 467 (2013-11-29 02:29:39 UTC). 
.
This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 468 (2013-11-30 01:56:00 UTC). 
.
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on November 30, 2013, Sol 469 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 23:16:39 UTC.
.
This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 469 (2013-11-30 23:14:15 UTC). 
.
Fotos: NASA

Tags: Mars Rover Curiosity Sol-436-469 

2569 Views

Sonntag, 1. Dezember 2013 - 12:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Progress 53 Frachter auf Kurs zur ISS

.

22.11.2013

NASA Television will broadcast the Monday, Nov. 25, launch and the Friday, Nov. 29, docking of an unpiloted Russian resupply spacecraft, loaded with almost three tons of food, fuel and supplies for the six Expedition 38 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

The Progress 53 cargo ship is scheduled to launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 3:53 p.m. EST Monday (2:53 a.m. Baikonur time Nov. 26). Live coverage of the launch on NASA TV will begin at 3:30 p.m.

The Progress vehicle will pass within a mile of the station Nov. 27 to test an upgraded automated rendezvous system, then return for docking Nov. 29. Video of the flyby will be recorded and replayed as part of docking coverage.

The Progress 53 craft is scheduled to complete its automated docking to the aft port of the space station's Zvezda service module at 5:28 p.m. EST Nov. 29. NASA TV coverage will begin at 4:45 p.m.

Quelle: NASA

.

Update: 24.11.2013

.


ILV " Soyuz-U " with THC "Progress M -21M " taken out to the launch pad
23.11.2013 16:42 ::

At Baikonur continues preparations for the launch of a space rocket ( RKN ) " Soyuz-U " to transport cargo vehicle (THC) "Progress M -21M " .
November 23 in accordance with the schedule of prelaunch specialists of the space industry Russia performed the operation for removal of RKN to the launch pad .
Space rocket installed on the launch pad . Operations carried out on schedule the first launch day .
Start ILV " Soyuz-U " with THC "Progress M -21M " is scheduled for November 26, 2013

.


Quelle: Roscosmos

.

A new Russian resupply craft will launch Monday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, delivering food, fuel and supplies to replenish the station crew. The Progress 53 cargo craft will take a longer route to the station so mission controllers can test a new automated rendezvous system.

Quelle: NASA

.

Update: 26.11.2013

.

Russia's Progress M-21M Cargo Ship Launches Toward Space Station

Russia has successfully launched its 53rd Progress resupply craft toward the International Space Station (ISS), carrying 5,285 pounds (2,398 kg) of payload and consumables to the Expedition 38 crew. Liftoff of Progress M-21M—also known as “Progress 53P” in ISS Program-speak—from Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan took place on time at 2:53 a.m. local time Tuesday, 26 November (3:53 p.m. EST Monday). At the time of writing, the spacecraft had successfully separated from the third stage of the rocket and was beginning a two-day flight profile to rendezvous with the ISS. It will evaluate the new Kurs-NA (“Course”) navigation system before retreating to a distance of about 250 miles (400 km), then re-rendezvousing with the space station, and finally docking at the aft longitudinal port of the Zvezda module late Friday evening.
Processing of this mission has gone exceptionally smoothly, and the tanks for Progress’ maneuvering thrusters were loaded with nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine propellants and high-pressure helium. Last Thursday, the spacecraft was transferred to Baikonur’s Launcher Integration Building for installation atop the rocket—a direct descendent of Sergei Korolev’s R-7 missile—and the complete vehicle was rolled out to the Site 31/6 launch complex on Saturday, 23 November.
Fueling with liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene (known as “RP-1″) concluded shortly before today’s liftoff and transitioned into a topping-off mode, whereby all cryogenic boil-off was rapidly replenished. This ensured that the liquid oxygen tanks were maintained at Flight Ready levels, ahead of the ignition of the single first-stage engine and the engines of the four tapering strap-on boosters. Internal avionics were initiated and on-board flight recorders were spooled-up to monitor the vehicle’s myriad systems. At T-10 seconds, the turbopumps on the core and strap-on boosters came to life and the engines were confirmed to be running at full power, producing a retraction of the fueling tower and a perfect, on-time launch into the darkened Baikonur sky. Fifteen seconds after liftoff, as noted by AmericaSpace’s Launch Tracker, a pitch and roll maneuver was completed, placing the vehicle onto the correct trajectory to insert Progress M-21M into orbit.
Rising rapidly, the vehicle passed 1,100 mph (1,770 km/h) within a minute of liftoff, during which time the maximum amount of aerodynamic stress (known as “Max Q”) impacted the vehicle’s airframe. At T+118 seconds, at an altitude of about 28 miles (45 km), the four strap-on boosters exhausted their supply of liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) and were jettisoned, leaving the central core and its single engine to continue the ascent. By two minutes into the flight, the rocket was traveling at over 3,350 mph (5,390 km/h). The payload shroud and escape tower were jettisoned shortly afterward, and, some four minutes and 47 seconds after leaving Baikonur, the core separated at an altitude of 105 miles (170 km) and the third and final stage ignited to boost Progress M-21M to a velocity in excess of 13,420 mph (21,600 km/h). By the time the third stage separated, nine minutes into the flight, at 3:02 a.m. Baikonur time Tuesday (4:02 p.m. EST Monday), the vehicle was in space.
Separation of the Progress was scheduled to take place into a target orbit of approximately 120 x 152 miles (193 x 245 km), inclined 51.6 degrees to the equator, and the process of unfurling its solar arrays and Kurs rendezvous and navigational appendages got underway. Unlike several earlier Progresses—which, like recent piloted Soyuz craft have pursued six-hour, four-orbit “fast rendezvous” profiles—this current mission is unusual in that it will actually spend around four days and 65 orbits in flight before docking. The reason for the lengthy rendezvous is linked to tests of the new Kurs-NA navigation system, which boasts improved performance characteristics, reduced weight, and more efficient power consumption. It was first flown aboard Progress M-15M last year with mixed results.
“The spacecraft will perform three rendezvous burns on November 25 and 26 to link up with ISS for a rendezvous test on November 27,” Spaceflight101 noted. “Being equipped with the new Kurs-NA system, teams require the spacecraft to perform a close approach to ISS, but safely fly past the station, so that the performance of the new navigation system can be assessed.” In the aftermath of the test, Progress M-21M will retreat to a distance of about 250 miles (400 km), then execute three further burns to re-rendezvous with the ISS, ahead of docking with the Zvezda service module, at the station’s aft longitudinal port, at 5:28 p.m. Friday, 29 November (4:28 a.m. Baikonur time Saturday).
Progress M-21M will deliver 5,285 pounds (2,398 kg) of payload to the multi-national Expedition 38 crew, which consists of Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, Sergei Ryazansky, and Mikhail Tyurin, Japan’s Koichi Wakata, and NASA astronauts Mike Hopkins and Rick Mastracchio. The supply ship’s pressurized compartment houses 2,770 pounds (1,260 kg) of dry cargo, including systems maintenance hardware, hygiene equipment, food provisions, medical supplies, and personal protection and emergency equipment. Also aboard the craft are science experiments and EVA equipment, presumably to support a planned spacewalk on around 20 December by Kotov and Ryazansky. The Progress will also deliver 1,480 pounds (670 kg) of propellant and is slated to perform a periodic “re-boost” of the space station’s orbital altitude in mid-December.
This mission marks the first visiting vehicle of the Expedition 38 increment, which officially began on 10 November, with the departure of Expedition 37 crew members Fyodor Yurchikhin, Karen Nyberg, and Luca Parmitano. Plans envisage that Progress M-21M will remain docked at the Zvezda aft port until 11 June 2014, whereupon it will separate and perform a destructive re-entry in the upper atmosphere. Further Progresses are slated for launch in February, April, July, and October 2014.
Progress has a storied history. Its development began in 1973 in response to the anticipated problem of resupplying and refueling the Soviet Union’s Salyut 6 space station, whose cosmonauts went on to spend more than six months at a time in orbit. Modeled closely on the Soyuz spacecraft, its interior was redesigned to house foodstuffs, water, experiments, and fuel for the station’s manoeuvring thrusters. Since its maiden voyage, Progress has seen many changes, but its role has remained largely unchanged … and the numbers speak for themselves. Between its first launch in January 1978 and today’s flight, no fewer than 144 Progresses have roared aloft. Only one has failed to reach its destination: the unlucky Progress M-12M in August 2011, whose launch vehicle suffered an engine malfunction and re-entered the atmosphere to destruction over the Altai region.
Writing in 1998, astronaut Jerry Linenger—one of the handful of U.S. astronauts to reside aboard Russia’s Mir space station—recounted the sheer joy of receiving a Progress-delivered shoebox full of goodies from his wife and children. “Once found, and munching on fresh apples that had also arrived in the Progress,” he described in his memoir, Off the Planet, “we individually retreated from our work and sneaked off to private sections of the space station, eager to peruse the box’s contents.” Fellow astronaut John Blaha once described similar excitement. “Once we found our packages,” he wrote, “it was like Christmas and your birthday, all rolled together, when you are five years old. We really had a lot of fun reading mail, laughing, opening presents, eating fresh tomatoes and cheese.” In more recent times, ISS crew members have done much the same. In February 2008, Peggy Whitson, commander of Expedition 16, remembered crewmate Dan Tani calling one Progress “the onion express,” as the latest delivery of letters from home and fresh foodstuffs arrived.
In their book Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft, David Shayler and the late Rex Hall speculated that the term “Progress” may have originated from the implication of having made significant progress in space station operations, although the precise heritage of the name remains unclear. What is clear, though, is that aside from the technical and functional role of Progress over the decades, it has provided an indispensable psychological crutch for dozens of cosmonauts and astronauts—a crutch which has enabled them to overcome the profound isolation of the strange microgravity environment, far from family and friends.
Quelle: AS
.
Update: 22.00 MEZ
.
Progress M-21M is carrying aboard more than 2.5 tons of various life support cargoes for the crew and for the technical maintenance of the station,
.
A Soyuz-U carrier rocket that took off at 00:53 Moscow Standard Time Tuesday /20:53 GMT Monday/ from the Baikonur Space Center in Kazakhstan has delivered into space the Progress M-21M cargo ship, which is expected to dock with the International Space Station three days later.
A spokesman for Russia's Federal Space Agency /Roscosmos/ told Itar-Tass the launch was performed at launching pad No. 31 of the space center strictly on time, and the separation of the cargo ship from the carrier vehicle took place at 01:01 Moscow Standard Time.
This time, a three-day approach pattern has been chosen for the Progress, in contrast to the shortened 6-hour pattern that was used as of October 2012.
In the process of the docking maneuver that is due to take place November 30, flight testing of a new system of approach, Kurs-NA, will be done. The previous testing of the same system that was done in the summer of 2012 ended in a failure.
Progress M-21M is carrying aboard more than 2.5 tons of various life support cargoes for the crew and for the technical maintenance of the station, including fuel, equipment, oxygen, water, clothes for the crewmembers, foodstuffs, equipment for experiements, medical aids, and spare parts.
Apart from the standard food rations, the crew working at the ISS -- Russian cosmonauts Mikhail Tyurin, Sergei Ryazansky, and Oleg Kotov, NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins and Richard Mastracchio, and Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata -- will get fresh vegetables and fruit, as well as candies and other sweets from psychologists and family members.
Quelle: ITARTASS
.

Update: 29.11.2013

.

Russian Cargo Craft Approaches Station for Test

 

While the Expedition 38 crew of the International Space Station tackled a variety of biological research and maintenance activities Wednesday, an unpiloted Russian cargo craft approached the complex for a “flyby” to test upgraded rendezvous equipment.

 

The ISS Progress 53 resupply vehicle, which launched Monday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, made its closest approach at 4:53 p.m. EST during a “flyby” to test upgraded Kurs automated rendezvous equipment. The Progress flew to within a mile of the complex, providing Russian flight controllers with valuable data on the revamped Kurs system that will be integrated into advanced Progress and piloted Soyuz vehicles in the future. During the “flyby,” Commander Oleg Kotov monitored the Kurs data from a laptop computer aboard the complex.

 

After passing the station, the Progress will fly above and behind the outpost over the next 48 hours, setting it up for a final rendezvous and docking to the aft port of the Zvezda service module Friday at 5:28 p.m. NASA Television will provide live coverage of the docking beginning at 4:45 p.m.
.
A video camera aboard the International Space Station captured this view of the ISS Progress 53 cargo craft as it approached within a mile of the complex for a test of upgraded Kurs automated rendezvous system equipment.
Image Credit: NASA
.
A camera on the ISS Progress 53 cargo craft captured this image of the International Space Station during Wednesday's "flyby."
Image Credit: NASA
Quelle: NASA

.

Update: 30.11.2013

.

Last phase of Progress M-21M docking with ISS was controlled manually

"A new approach system, Kurs-NA, controlled the close-up and docking,” an MC spokesman said

.

KOROLYOV, Moscow Region, - Russia’s cargo spacecraft Progress M-21M has docked with the international space station ISS with the use of the new automatic approach control system Kurs-NA. However, when Progress was just meters away from the station, the crew had to take over and complete the manoeuvre manually, Mission Control, near Moscow, told ITAR-TASS.

“The approach was run automatically all the way, but when the cargo spacecraft and the ISS were just tens of meters away from each other, practically before the moment of contact, ISS commander Oleg Kotov took over,” a Mission Control spokesman said without explaining why the docking had to be completed manually.

A reliable source has said “an error in the Kurs-NA system must have been the reason.”

The system Kurs (Course) is the main instrument controlling the approach and docking the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are equipped with. It has been in use since the 1990s. Its latest version, Kurs-NA is significantly smaller, consumes less energy and is far more accurate.

Quelle: Itar-Tass

.

Russian Progress cargo ship docks with space station

International Space Station commander Oleg Kotov took over manual control of an approaching Progress supply ship Friday after an undisclosed problem and deftly guided the craft in for a smooth docking at the aft end of the Russian Zvezda command module to wrap up a four-day rendezvous.The Progress 53/M-21M spacecraft lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 3:53:06 p.m. EST (GMT-5) on Nov. 25. Packed away on board were 1,763 pounds of fuel, 48 pounds of oxygen, 57 pounds of air, 925 pounds of water and another 3,119 pounds of spare parts, research equipment and holiday gifts for the station's six-member crew.

Progress cargo ships typically take two days to reach the station, but this time around flight controllers built in extra time for tests of the spacecraft's upgraded KURS rendezvous system, replacing four navigation and positioning antennas with one.

The M-21M spacecraft flew past the station Wednesday, passing within about a mile of the lab complex to give Russian engineers a chance to test the upgraded KURS system. Kotov monitored data from the Progress on a laptop computer as it flew past the outpost and then dropped behind before moving back in for docking Friday.

The final stages of the automated rendezvous appeared to go smoothly but at a distance of about 200 feet, the Progress apparently halted the approach and unexpectedly went into station-keeping mode. Flight controllers told Kotov to take over manual control with the TORU tele-robotic control system in the Zvezda module, using a computer display and a joystick to operate the approaching cargo ship.Russian cosmonauts are always on standby to take over manual control if the automated system has problems, but there was no immediate explanation as to what prompted the switch to manual control or whether it was related to the KURS upgrades.

In any case, Kotov had no problems lining the Progress up and guiding it in for docking at 5:30 p.m. as the two spacecraft sailed over eastern Asia.

Quelle: CBS

.

Update: 1.12.2013

.

Russian Cargo Craft Docks With Station

.

 

 

A Russian space freighter docked to the aft port of the International Space Station’s Zvezda service module at 5:30 p.m. EST Friday, delivering almost three tons of food, fuel, supplies and holiday gifts for the Expedition 38 crew.
.
Frams:NASA
.
The ISS Progress 53 cargo ship, which launched Monday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, performed an automated approach to the station using upgraded Kurs automated rendezvous equipment.  The on-orbit performance of the new Kurs hardware was tested earlier by Russian flight controllers during a “flyby” of the station Wednesday during which the Progress came to within one mile of the orbiting complex.  The lighter, revamped Kurs system will be integrated into advanced Progress and piloted Soyuz vehicles in the future.
.
When the Progress was about 60 meters from the docking port, it went into an unexpected station keeping mode. Station Commander Oleg Kotov took over manual control of the vehicle using TORU, the telerobotically operated docking system, and guided the vehicle in for a successful docking.   At the time of docking, the station was flying about 260 miles over Kazakhstan.
On Saturday, the crew will open the hatch to the Progress to begin unloading its cargo. Progress 53 is filled with 2.9 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the station crew, including 1,763 pounds of propellant, 48 pounds of oxygen, 57 pounds of air, 925 pounds of water and 3,119 pounds of spare parts, experiment hardware and holiday gifts.
The Expedition 38 crew also supported a range of research activities and maintenance work aboard the orbiting complex Friday.
Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio began his workday with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test science payload, which takes a look at colloids -- microscopic particles suspended in a liquid -- and may lead to improvements in manufacturing processes here on Earth.  Mastracchio mixed some new test samples for the experiment and photographed the hardware.
Quelle: NASA

.

Commander Oleg Kotov practices manual docking techniques with TORU, the telerobotically operated rendezvous system, on Nov. 22. Kotov used TORU on Friday to manually dock the ISS Progress 53 resupply ship.

 

Quelle: NASA

 

 


Tags: Progress 53 Launch 25.11.2013 

2743 Views

Sonntag, 1. Dezember 2013 - 11:31 Uhr

Astronomie - Max-Planck-Institute wirken bei den nächsten Großmissionen (Athena und eLISA) der ESA mit

.

Bei seiner heutigen Sitzung in Paris hat sich das wissenschaftliche Programmkomitee der europäischen Weltraumorganisation ESA für zwei Themen entschieden, an denen die Max-Planck-Institute für extraterrestrische Physik und für Gravitationsphysik maßgeblich beteiligt sind: „Das heiße und energiereiche Universum“ sowie „Das gravitative Universum“ mit den Projekten Athena und eLISA.

.

Späher am Röntgenhimmel: Athena könnte die entscheidenden Antworten auf die Fragen liefern: Wie bildeten sich die großräumigen Strukturen aus gewöhnlicher Materie, die wir heute sehen? Wie wachsen schwarze Löcher und wie beeinflussen sie das Universum?

.

Wie bildeten sich die großräumigen Strukturen aus gewöhnlicher Materie, die wir heute sehen? Wie sind schwarze Löcher gewachsen und wie prägten sie das Universum? Diese Fragen gehören zu den wichtigsten offenen Problemstellungen der modernen Astrophysik, und die nächste große ESA-Mission könnte die nötigen Antworten liefern.
„Wir freuen uns sehr, dass die ESA das heiße und energiereiche Universum als eines seiner Hauptziele ausgewählt hat“, sagt Kirpal Nandra, Direktor am Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik. Nandra leitet eine internationale Kollaboration, die das Thema vorgeschlagen hat. „Unsere Arbeit ist damit aber noch längst nicht getan. Jetzt müssen wir daran arbeiten, ein Röntgenteleskop zu definieren, das uns die gewünschten Antworten liefern kann.“
Gewöhnliche Materie liegt im Universum größtenteils als heißes Gas vor. Dieses ist etwa für die Galaxienhaufen ursächlich, die größten zusammenhängenden Strukturen, die wir heute kennen. Bei Temperaturen von mehr als zehn Millionen Grad emittiert das Gas besonders hell im Röntgenbereich. Deshalb ist ein Röntgenobservatorium im Weltraum mit hoher Empfindlichkeit, guter spektraler Auflösung und einem großen Sichtfeld der Schlüssel dazu, die Entstehung und Entwicklung dieser Strukturen zu verstehen.
Zu diesem Zweck wurde das Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) konzipiert. Mit einem derartigen Teleskop könnten Astronomen spektroskopische Beobachtungen von weit entfernten Galaxien erhalten und die physikalischen Parameter der größten gebundenen Objekte vermessen. Diese Informationen würden unser Verständnis davon, wie sich die Strukturen aus heißem Gas in der Kinderstube des Universums bildeten, einen großen Schritt voranbringen.
Nachdem das Wissenschaftsthema von der ESA jetzt festgelegt wurde, folgt als nächster Schritt die Suche nach einem Röntgenobservatorium, das diese Ziele erreichen kann. Da das Team von Athena dieses Thema vorgeschlagen hatte und bereits die erforderlichen Technologien vorweisen kann, sind die Wissenschaftler zuversichtlich, dass ihre Mission das Rennen machen wird.Sobald ein Missionskonzept ausgewählt wird, sollte die Technologieentwicklung in einem Zeitraum von drei bis vier Jahren konsolidiert werden. Anschließend dürfte es weitere zehn Jahre dauern, um das Observatorium fertig zu stellen. Von 2028 an könnte Athena dann das heiße und energiereiche Universum mit bisher unerreichter Genauigkeit durchleuchten und eine Antwort auf die grundlegende Frage finden, warum unser All so aussieht, wie wir es heute beobachten.
.
Ohr ins All: Die geplante Mission eLISA soll nach Gravitationswellen lauschen. Sie wird aus drei Satelliten im Abstand von Millionen Kilometern bestehen. Mittels Laserlicht werden die Forscher winzige Abstandsänderungen messen, die vorbeirauschende Gravitationswellen erzeugen.
.
Als zweites Missionskonzept hat die Europäische Raumfahrtagentur ESA „Das gravitative Universum“ festgelegt. Als Mission wurde eLISA vorgeschlagen. Diese evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna unterscheidet sich von jedem anderen Weltraumobservatorium, denn die Mission soll das All in einer neuen und einzigartigen Weise erforschen: eLISA wird Gravitationswellen messen und damit energiereiche Vorgänge im gesamten All hören können.
Mit der weltraumgestützten Beobachtung von Gravitationswellen werden sich grundlegende astrophysikalische Fragen zur Entwicklung des Universums unmittelbar nach dem Urknall sowie zur Physik und Entwicklung in späteren Stadien beantworten lassen. eLISA soll als dritte große L-Class-Mission nach Juice und Athena ins All starten.
„Wir sind sehr glücklich über diese Entscheidung. Sie bietet uns revolutionäre Forschungsmöglichkeiten“, sagt Karsten Danzmann, nominierter Sprecher der eLISA Mission, Direktor am Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut / AEI) und Professor an der Leibniz Universität Hannover. Man werde sofort beginnen, die bereits für eLISA entwickelten Technologien weiter zu optimieren. „Schon im Jahr 2015 werden wir diese Schlüsseltechnologien während der ESA-Mission Lisa Pathfinder im Weltraum testen“, so Danzmann.
Die Beobachtung von Gravitationswellen wird weitreichende Erkenntnisse liefern die helfen, die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie besser zu verstehen. Albert Einstein hatte die Existenz von Gravitationswellen 1916 erstmals vorausgesagt. Mit einem Gravitationswellen-Observatorium im Weltraum werden die Wissenschaftler nun auch das für andere astronomische Methoden unzugängliche frühe Universum beobachten.
Dabei werden sie Gravitationswellen hören, die von frühen schwarzen Löchern, Tausenden Doppelsternsystemen und vielleicht sogar dem Urknall selbst stammen. Sogar die rätselhafte Dunkle Energie könnte eLISA untersuchen.
Die vorgeschlagene Mission wird die bestehenden und geplanten erdgebundenen Gravitationswellen-Observatorien ergänzen. Diese Detektoren suchen nach winzigen Kräuselungen in der Struktur der Raumzeit, verursacht von den kraftvollsten kosmischen Ereignissen im All, etwa verschmelzenden schwarzen Löchern. Gravitationswellen transportieren Informationen über ihren Ursprung und über die Natur der Gravitation, die sich nicht mit anderen astronomischen Beobachtungsmethoden erfassen lassen.
Quelle: MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT, MÜNCHEN

Tags: ESA Mission Athena ESA Mission eLISA 

2814 Views

Samstag, 30. November 2013 - 23:07 Uhr

Astronomie - Extrem Schwarzes Loch ist leuchtender als Astronomen für möglich gehalten

.

ANN ARBOR—For decades, astronomers have puzzled over an odd source of X-ray light in an arm of the Pinwheel Galaxy, just off the handle of the Big Dipper.

.

Astronomers have, for the first time, directly measured the mass of a mysterious source of X-ray light in the Pinwheel Galaxy, one of our nearest spiral neighbors. Turns out it's composed of an ultra-bright stellar-mass black hole and an orbiting star. Image credit: Jifeng Liu

.

The object, like other so-called ultraluminous X-ray sources, is a system made of a star and a black hole that orbit each other. But its brightness and estimated mass haven't seemed to add up.

Either the system is twice as bright as it should be or it's much more massive than scientists have surmised. The answer matters, in part, because it could inform theories about how the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies came to be.

"This has been a very frustrating field to work in," said Joel Bregman, professor of astronomy at the University of Michigan. "We've been looking for indirect measurements that we thought would tell us something, but you'd get 10 pieces of information and five would be on one side and five on the other. You'd think, 'This could all be solved if I could just measure the mass directly.'"

Now Bregman is part of an international team that has done that. In findings published in the Nov. 28 issue of Nature, they show that the black hole in the system is a fairly typical one, at least in terms of its mass. It's a so-called stellar black hole—the kind that forms when a star up to about 200 times the size of the sun collapses at the end of its life. This one, they discovered, is between 20 and 30 times the mass of its companion star.

"As if black holes weren't extreme enough, this is a really extreme one that is shining as brightly as it possibly can. It's figured out a way to be more luminous than we thought possible," Bregman said.

"These findings show that our understanding of black hole accretion is incomplete and needs revision," said Jifeng Liu, first author of the paper.

Liu began working on ultraluminous X-ray sources while he was a doctoral student at U-M and the principal investigator of the observations at the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii. He is now a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.

Accretion is the process of black holes consuming material, growing and indirectly radiating. While nothing—not even light—can escape black holes, the swirling stuff falling into them emits X-rays. Astronomers study these X-rays in an effort to understand how black holes grow.

"Now that we know the mass, we can move on to figuring out why it's so bright," Bregman said.

Maybe it's feeding off its companion's stellar wind—a stream of charged particles emanating from its upper atmosphere. That mechanism was previously thought to be too inefficient, but it's a possibility the researchers suggest in their paper. Or maybe bubbles are forming in the disk of material that's falling in, creating additional radiation, the astronomers said.

To measure the mass of this system, known as ULX-1, Liu and colleagues first looked at the system through the Gemini telescope. Then they conducted a spectroscopic analysis of the images, which involved analyzing the color of the light to figure out which elements the star in the system contained. They found that there wasn't much hydrogen in the star. That helped them determine it's a type known as a Wolf-Rayet. Such stars are rare, large and hot. And they're shrinking fast due to their strong stellar winds.

Once the researchers knew the kind of star, they could infer its mass from its brightness. That told them it was roughly 19 times the mass of the sun.

By comparing images over three months, they were able to determine how often the star and black hole orbit each other—roughly once every 8 days. Once they had all this information, they took into account the likelihood of various viewing angles and used Newton's Laws of Motion to estimate the black hole mass at 20 to 30 times the mass of the sun.

The findings have broader astronomical implications. They mean that the search is still on for what astronomers refer to as "intermediate mass black holes," Liu said.

Intermediate mass black holes could be the seeds of the supermassive black holes at the core of most, if not all, galaxies. How the supermassive ones form is still an open question in astrophysics. The theory that involves coalescing an intermediate species sounds promising, but scientists have yet to find any intermediate black holes to start with. Nor do they have a strong theory to explain how the middle-weights would form.

"Our findings may turn the trend of taking ultraluminous X-ray sources as promising intermediate black hole candidates," Liu said.

The paper is titled "Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M101 ULX-1." The work was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation of China. Bregman is the Heber D. Curtis Collegiate Professor of Astronomy and also the department chair.

.

Quelle: University of Michigan


2676 Views

Freitag, 29. November 2013 - 21:45 Uhr

Astronomie - Komet ISON Timeline-Update

.

28.09.2013

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Quelle: Frams NASA-Video

.

Sept. 24, 2013:  Anticipation is building as Comet ISON approaches the sun for a close encounter on Thanksgiving Day (Nov. 28). No one knows if the blast of solar heating ISON receives will turn it into one of the finest comets in years--or destroy the icy visitor from the outer solar system.
Astronomer Carey Lisse, the head of NASA's Comet ISON Observing Campaign, hopes that "every telescope on Earth will be trained on the comet in October and November."  He may get his wish. As September comes to an end, amateur astronomers around the world are already monitoring the comet.
"Comet ISON is approaching Mars in the pre-dawn sky," explains Lisse. "It is invisible to the naked eye, but within reach of backyard telescopes."
"I photographed Comet ISON on Sept. 15th using my 4-inch refractor," reports astrophotographer Pete Lawrence of Selsey UK.  "The comet's tail is nicely on view even through this relatively small instrument." image
In Aquadilla, Puerto Rico, astronomer Efrain Morales Rivera saw the comet on Sept. 14th "rising above the canopy of the rain forest just minutes before sunrise. I used a 12-inch telescope," he says. image
In mid-September, the approaching comet was glowing like a star of 14th magnitude.  That's dimmer than some forecasters expected.
"Certainly we would love it to be a couple of magnitudes brighter right now," says researcher Karl Battams of the Naval Research Lab in Washington, D.C.,"but it's doing just fine. I'd say it's still on course to become a very eye-catching object."
Battams is especially optimistic about NASA's twin STEREO probes and the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.  Those three spacecraft are equipped with coronagraphs--devices which cover the blinding disk of the sun to produce an artificial eclipse.  The coronagraphs will be able to see ISON at its brightest when it is making its closest approach to the sun on Thanksgiving.
.
The light curve of Comet ISON. The solid line traces the predicted brightness of the comet; red dots are actual observations. These data were compiled by Matthew Knight of the Lowell Observatory on Sept. 20, 2013
.
If ISON survives its brush with solar fire, sky watchers on Earth might get an eye-full as well.
Based on the latest images, internationally known comet expert John Bortle says "ISON appears likely to survive the in-bound leg of its journey all the way to the Sun. It will probably brighten more slowly than all the early hype led the public to believe. Nevertheless, Comet ISON should very briefly become exceptionally bright, at least rivaling the planet Venus in the hours preceding its closest approach to the sun."
After Thanksgiving (Nov 28th), Comet ISON will emerge from the sun's glare well-positioned for observers in the northern hemisphere. The comet's tail will likely be visible to the naked-eye in both the morning and evening sky throughout December 2013.
A useful point of comparison is  Comet Lovejoy, which put on a grand show after it brushed the sun in 2011.  People in the southern hemisphere still remember the comet's tail stretching halfway across the night sky. Judging from the brightness of Comet ISON, Matthew Knight of the Lowell Observatory believes that “ISON is likely a few times bigger than Lovejoy was, so I am optimistic that Comet ISON will become an impressive sungrazer."
Because this is Comet ISON's first visit to the inner solar system, no one can say for sure what will happen. Comets are unpredictable, capable of fizzling at the last minute even after months of promising activity.
Battams, who has been "burned" before by sungrazing comets, cautions that "at no point in the next couple of months are we going to know if Comet ISON will survive or not until we actually observe it with our own eyes."
"Observations from amateur astronomers are really valuable pieces of the puzzle for us," adds Battams. "They help us to see how the comet is evolving."
The NASA Comet ISON Observing Campaign aims to get as many eyes on ISON as possible.  To learn how you can help, visit http://isoncampaign.org.
Quelle: NASA
.
.
Comet ISON to Fly By Mars
On October 1st, Comet ISON will pass closer to Mars than it ever will to Earth. The Red Planet’s rovers and orbiters are ready to send home postcards of the event.
.
In one week the (in)famous Comet ISON will make its closest approach to Mars, flying just 10.8 million km (6.7 million miles) from its surface on October 1st. All Martian eyes will be watching, including Curiosity’s, though a postcard-perfect picture is far from guaranteed. 
Curiosity and Opportunity will both be watching as ISON passes overhead, but the most likely detection will come from the HiRISE camera aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. That camera resolves 1-meter (3-foot) features on the Martian surface, but the unprecedented sharpness of its daylit landscapes doesn’t necessarily mean it will do well on a dim glow in darkest space several million km away. NASA already planned a test observation for August 20th, and unfortunately (but not unexpectedly), Comet ISON remained just below the detection threshold.
“For missions like MRO that are designed to look at a planet around which they are orbiting, turning their instruments in the opposite direction and trying to detect a fuzzy iceball is not something that’s done on a whim,” writes Karl Battams on the Comet ISON Observing Campaign blog. “It has to be meticulously planned, prepared for, and tested.”
MRO is also planning to look during another three observing windows: on September 29th, and October 1st and 2nd. Mars Express was scheduled to start looking yesterday (September 23rd), and the Swift spacecraft’s Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope will take observations on October 1st. For the full list of planned professional observations of Comet ISON, see CIOC’s Observation Calendar.
Regardless of how the observations of Comet ISON turn out next Monday, they promise to be good practice for Comet Siding Spring, which will come 216 times closer (within 110,000 km of the Red Planet) in October 2014.
By the Numbers
The Mars flyby is the first of several close encounters:
Oct. 1st: Comet ISON sails 10.8 million km from the Martian surface
Nov. 19th: ISON will pass closest to Mercury, with Messenger as its witness.
Nov. 28th: Comet ISON whips through the outer solar corona, passing within 1.2 million km of the Sun’s visible surface.
Dec. 26th: Assuming the comet survives its graze past the Sun, it’ll pass 64.2 million km from Earth (167 times farther than the Moon).
Quelle: Sky&Telescope
.
UK astronomer Damian Peach on Sept. 24th
.
Update: 27.09.2013
.

Giant NASA Balloon Ready to Hunt Potentially Dazzling Comet ISON

A colossal NASA balloon is poised to carry a free-hanging gondola sky-high on a mission to take a gander at celestial grandeur: Comet ISON.
Weather permitting, NASA's Balloon Rapid Response for Comet ISON (BRRISON) gondola and science instruments are to ascend from the space agency's Scientific Balloon Facility in Fort Sumner, N.M., possibly by Sunday (Sept. 29). The one-day balloon mission's target is Comet ISON, an incoming comet that some scientists have billed as a potential "comet of the century" because it could flare up to spectacular brilliance after a close flyby of the sun in late November.
Along with a 0.8-meter telescope, NASA's reusable BRRISON balloon gondola will carry infrared and near-ultraviolet/visible imaging gear, along with fine-steering mirror technology to obtain high pointing stability while observing Comet ISON.
.
This photo shows the Comet ISON-hunting BRRISON balloon gondola pointing out the door of the hangar for a night time pointing test, to acquire images of stars and planets with both instruments. The instrument will ride a giant NASA balloon to track Comet ISON, the potential "comet of the century."
Credit: NASA/JHUAPL
.
Clear viewing
Reports from Fort Sumner by the BRRISON team are upbeat. The team has had a series of successful pointing tests with the gondola hanging from a crane inside an opened door hangar and with project instruments acquiring test shots of star fields and planets, said Andrew Cheng, BRRISON principal investigator and chief scientist in the Space Department at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Md.
The team had hoped to launch BRRISON by this week, although weather issues at the New Mexico launch site could force a delay to the weekend.
"We did come here to the launch site a week late because of problems with the infrared camera, but they've been overcome," Cheng told SPACE.com. "I expect we’ll be flight-ready by Thursday this week and may fly Friday. I'm concerned about the weather … chances of being able to launch Friday or Saturday are poor, and Sunday may be a better bet," he said.
The BRRISON science balloon will fly on a zero-pressure balloon. It is the first NASA Planetary Science Division balloon mission to observe a comet.
The large helium-filled balloon will carry the instrument-carrying gondola to near space, soaring up to 120,000 feet (36,576 m) altitude. That’s almost 23 miles (37 kilometers) above the Earth. By sending the balloon to that height, the gondola instruments are flying above most of the atmosphere and they should be able to view Comet ISON more clearly.
Hang test for comet telescope
"One of the goals of the ultraviolet-visible bench is to demonstrate that we can stabilize a suspended telescope at the sub-arc second level in order to take advantage of the near-space seeing conditions at 120,000 feet," said BRRISON team member Eliot Young, a principal scientist at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo. [Comet ISON: Evolution of a Potentially Great Comet (A Timeline)]
Young told SPACE.com that the team has exercised the gondola’s coarse pointing system and a fine steering mirror during a "hang test" on Sept. 22.
It was a gusty night, Young said, and the line of sight was limited, but the gondola’s Altazimuth (ALT/AZ) mounts permitted precise motion of the telescope tube in vertical (altitude) and horizontal (azimuth) directions. ALT/AZ motors kept a test source well within the desired field of view.
.
NASA's giant BRRISON project balloon will be taller than the Washington Monument at sea level when it launches to hunt Comet ISON. Once it has reached its goal altitude — for this mission, around 120,000 feet — the balloon will expand to a size larger than a football field.
.
A guide camera was able to find and "centroid" — average position of an object — on a star at about 100 frames per second, and most of the motion of the buffeted telescope was corrected for, Young said.
"We hope that the conditions in the stratosphere will be less severe," Young said, enabling "better image quality to help us get more accurate centroids and milder wind buffeting to overcome," he told SPACE.com.
Tracking the sun-grazing comet
Comet ISON is an Oort cloud comet and scientists suspect the celestial wanderer is making its first — and potentially last — voyage into the inner solar system.
The comet was discovered in September 2012 and is a sun-grazer, meaning it will pass extremely close by the sun on Nov. 28. The sun's gravity may well tear Comet ISON apart by tidal forces. But BRRISON will observe Comet ISON before it plunges close to the sun, while it is still outside Earth's orbit distance.
During its observing trek, data gleaned by BRRISON will be recorded onboard and analyzed after landing.
In addition to observing Comet ISON, scientists plan to have BRRISON observe several other targets during its flight, including Comet Encke; moons of Jupiter; and the hydrated (water-bearing) asteroids 24 Themis and 130 Elektra.
Big comet questions
From high above Earth's atmosphere, the BRRISON initiative is to focus on several scientific questions, such as:
How does the composition of an Oort cloud comet compare with a Kuiper Belt comet?
What are the chemical processes that lead to complex organic molecules in regions of star and planet formation?
Were there systematic chemical or isotopic gradients in early solar nebula?
How did Earth get its water and other volatiles?
BRISSON was built and managed by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in collaboration with NASA’s Glenn Research Center, NASA's Balloon Program Office, the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility and the Southwest Research Institute. 
Quelle: Space
.
Update: 28.09.2013
.

Giant balloon to study Comet ISON


Exploring the heavens with spaceships and fancy orbiting telescopes like the Hubble is pretty routine stuff for NASA. But the space agency is going low-tech to get a good look at an eagerly anticipated comet.The space agency plans to launch a balloon -- yes, a balloon -- to study Comet ISON, the much-hyped comet that many hope will put on a big sky show in coming months.

Astronomers are scrambling to figure out ways to learn more about the comet, and that's where the balloon comes in. This isn't the kind of balloon you buy for kids at a party store, but they do have some things in common.

NASA says its scientific balloons are made of polyethylene film like the material in plastic bags, and it will be filled with helium, just like a party balloon. But the NASA balloons can carry a payload weighing 8,000 pounds (3,600 kilograms), or about the weight of three small cars. It has a gondola to carry the instruments. Some similar balloons can fly up to 26 miles high and stay for up to two weeks.

The 671-foot-tall balloon that will monitor ISON is called BRRISON, or Balloon Rapid Response for ISON. According to NASA, it will float about 120,000 feet above Earth to observe the comet -- and other science targets -- using a telescope and other instruments. It is expected to stay up from nine to 11 hours.

"By ascending above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere, BRRISON will be able to study the materials within the comet," Andy Cheng, principal investigator, said on BRISSON's website. "It's possible that water and organic chemicals on comets may have played an important role in the evolution of life on Earth."

The launch, from NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, is targeted for 8 p.m. ET on Saturday, weather permitting.

Comet ISON is nearing Mars on its way toward the sun and will fly about 730,000 miles above the sun's surface on November 8. If it survives, it could brighten and put on a big show as it passes Earth's orbit on its way back to the outer reaches of the solar system. Comet enthusiasts hope they will be able to see it without binoculars or telescopes.

Its closest approach to Earth would be December 26, and it could be visible from the Northern Hemisphere for weeks in early 2014.

The comet was discovered by Russian astronomers Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok in September 2012. It is named after their night-sky survey program, the International Scientific Optical Network, a group of observatories in 10 countries organized to track objects in space.

Amateur astronomers already are posting pictures and making calculations about the comet's future. For those who want to try to track Comet ISON themselves, NASA has some tips on its Comet ISON website.

.

Quelle: CNN

.

Update: 3.09.2013

.

Mars Orbiter Spies Lackluster Comet ISON

Scientists managing the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have released their first observations of the incoming Comet ISON. The MRO was commanded to turn away its perpetual Mars-ward gaze and point into deep space to capture its own snapshot of the famous comet. ISON is currently making its closest approach to the red planet, passing just 7 million miles from its surface.

The first raw images were snapped on Sept. 29 when the object was 8 million miles from the planet and more images (taken on Oct. 1 and Oct. 2) are currently being processed. The four initial observations reveal a fuzzy cometary object moving relative to background stars. Detail is lacking as the comet is still too distant, but these observations are useful to gauge how the brightness of the object compares to predicted values. So far, ISON is at the “low end” of predicted brightness values.

ANALYSIS: ISON is Comet of the Year, Not the Century

“Based on preliminary analysis of the data, the comet appears to be at the low end of the range of brightness predictions for the observation,” writes Alan Delamere and Alfred McEwen in a University of Arizona news release. “As a result, the image isn’t visually pleasing but low coma activity is best for constraining the size of the nucleus.”

The comet is currently 150 million miles from the sun, but as it falls deeper and deeper into the sun’s gravitational well, ISON will likely brighten as icy volatiles from the comet’s nucleus heat up and erupt into space. The addition of gas and dust should cause the comet’s coma to increase in size.

But will this be the comet of the century? Many astronomers are becoming increasingly skeptical of that fact.

ANALYSIS: Comet ISON Offers Doomsday Deja Vu

Comet ISON was discovered in Sept. 2012 and its orbit initially caused some excitement. The object appears to be a “virgin” comet from the hypothesized Oort Cloud that is thought to contain billions of icy objects that intermittently drop into the inner solar system as comets. The pristine nature of Comet ISON led many to believe that once heated by the sun’s heat, it could erupt, making this a historic event. Although notable, ISON appears to be holding its own and may not erupt into the “daytime” comet we were hoping for.

This “sungrazer” will come within 724,000 miles of the sun on Nov. 28, so it will be interesting to see whether the comet’s nucleus survives its fiery descent.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

.

Quelle: D-News

.

.

Update: 9.10.2013. 

Green light for ISON: Comet blazes in stunning shots
.
Astrophotographer Adam Block captured this view of Comet ISON on the morning of Oct. 8 with the 0.8-meter Schulman Telescope at the University of Arizona SkyCenter atop Mount Lemmon.
.
It's not at all clear whether Comet ISON will become "the comet of the century," as skywatchers hoped a year ago, but it's certainly become a beautiful sight for photographers with the right kind of telescope.
Adam Block captured a stunner on Tuesday morning, just before sunrise, using the 0.8-meter Schulman Telescope at the University of Arizona's SkyCenter atop Mount Lemmon. Block's picture reveals ISON's greenish coma, trailed by a long, straight tail. The comet is zooming within the orbit of Mars, heading toward a crucial rendezvous with the sun on Nov. 28.
"I am certain more images of this will be coming out shortly as it increases in brightness during its dive toward the sun," Block wrote in an email. "Here is hoping it survives that rendezvous and emerges as something spectacular on the other side! Although its future is questionable ... being prepared is always a sure thing to take advantage of quickly changing conditions."
Austrian astrophotographer Michael Jäger also captured a green-tinted glimpse of the comet.
"ISON's green color comes from the gases surrounding its icy nucleus," SpaceWeather.com's Tony Phillips wrote. "Jets spewing from the comet's core probably contain cyanogen (CN: a poisonous gas found in many comets) and diatomic carbon (C2). Both substances glow green when illuminated by sunlight in the near-vacuum of space."
The comet is still too dim to see with the naked eye, but if you have the right kind of telescope, Phillips says you can see it rising alongside Mars in the eastern sky, just before dawn. SpaceWeather.com provides the coordinates and additional viewing suggestions.
Some astronomers say there's a good chance that ISON will fizzle out. But if it doesn't break apart and survives its 724,000-mile (1.16 million-kilometer) solar encounter, it just might meet Block's expectations. Calling it the comet of the century is probably too presumptuous — but "comet of the year"? Maybe. Stay tuned.
.
Michael Jäger took this picture of Comet ISON on Oct. 5 from Weissenkirchen, Austria. For more about Jäger, check out CometPieces.at.
.
Quelle: NBC

.

Update: 10.10.2013 

.

Taken by John Chumack on October 9, 2013 @ Yellow Springs, Ohio USA

.

 

Taken by Efrain Morales Rivera on October 9, 2013 @ Aguadilla, Puerto Rico 

.

Blick auf Komet ISON, wenn keine Regenwolken die Sicht trüben:

 


-

Update: 12.10.2013

.

Überlebt Komet ISON (C/2012 S1) den Perihel ?

.

On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ~200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm–3 are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm–3, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

Quelle: The Astrophysical Journal Letters

.

Update: 13.10.2013

.

 

.

Update: 16.10.2013

.


HOW TO FIND COMET ISON: How do you find Comet ISON? Wake up before dawn, face east, and follow the "double star." Rising about three hours before the sun, red Mars and blue-white Regulus have converged to form a bright pair separated by only 1o. Martin Gembec photographed the duo from the Czech Republic before daybreak on Oct. 14th.
.
To find Comet ISON, take a look at the full-sized image. The comet is just above Mars.
On Nov. 28th, Comet ISON could become spectacularly bright when it flies through the atmosphere of the sun. At the moment, though, it is still far away (near Mars) and faint. Visibility requires a telescope. Amateur astronomers, if you have a GOTO telescope, enter these coordinates, or just find the "double star" and draw a line between Regulus and Mars. It leads to ISON.
Quelle: Spaceweather

.

Update: 18.10.2013

.

NASA's Hubble Sees Comet ISON Intact

.

A new image of the sunward-plunging comet ISON suggests that the comet is intact despite some predictions that the fragile icy nucleus might disintegrate as the sun warms it. The comet will pass closest to the sun on Nov. 28. In this image taken on Oct. 9, 2013, the comet's solid nucleus is unresolved because it is so small. If the nucleus broke apart then Hubble would have likely seen evidence for multiple fragments.

.

NASA's Hubble Sees Comet ISON Intact
A new image of the sunward plunging comet ISON suggests that the comet is intact despite some predictions that the fragile icy nucleus might disintegrate as the sun warms it. The comet will pass closest to the sun on Nov. 28.
In this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image taken on Oct. 9, the comet's solid nucleus is unresolved because it is so small. If the nucleus broke apart then Hubble would have likely seen evidence for multiple fragments.
Moreover, the coma or head surrounding the comet's nucleus is symmetric and smooth. This would probably not be the case if clusters of smaller fragments were flying along. What's more, a polar jet of dust first seen in Hubble images taken in April is no longer visible and may have turned off.
This color composite image was assembled using two filters. The comet's coma appears cyan, a greenish-blue color due to gas, while the tail is reddish due to dust streaming off the nucleus. The tail forms as dust particles are pushed away from the nucleus by the pressure of sunlight. The comet was inside Mars’ orbit and 177 million miles from Earth when photographed. Comet ISON is predicted to make its closest approach to Earth on Dec. 26, at a distance of 39.9 million miles.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

.

Update: 28.10.2013

 

Taken by Charlie Prince on October 27, 2013 @ Edwards, CA USA

 

.

Taken by Mike Broussard on October 26, 2013 @ Maurice, Louisiana, USA

.

Taken by Scott on October 27, 2013 @ Northwest Florida Observatory
.
Luminance data was captured using a 20 Meade RCX400 Max Mount and SBIG STL-1001e with 1 hour of 60 second exposures. The color data was simultaneously obtained using an SBIG ST-4000 XCM on a Televue Np-101is with 5 minute exposures. The images were stacked while aligning on the stars and then again while aligning on the comet. The final image was created by compositing the stacked images.

.

Update: 2.11.2013

.

ISON was faint but was obvious on 100 sec exposures. Brightest star on left is magnitude 4.1 Sigma Leonis. Stars were aligned but no comet in this stack of 24 images. This exaggerates the size of the comets coma.

Taken by Jan Curtison November 1, 2013 @ 10 miles south of Santa Fe, NM
.
Update: 6.11.2013
.
Taken by Jim Wakefield on November 1, 2013 @ Nov 1, 2013, 5:30am PST, LX200 10, guided w/80ED, single 6 minute exposure, post processed w/Star Tools.
.
Taken by Ernesto Guido, Nick Howes & Martino Nicolini on November 4, 2013 @ remotely with the 2-meter Liverpool Telescope
.        
 
Update: 7.11.2013
 
.
Update: 8.11.2013
.
Comet ISON Passes Through Virgo
Comet ISON shines in this five-minute exposure taken at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on Nov. 8 at 5:40 a.m. EST. The image has a field of view of roughly 1.5 degrees by 1 degree and was captured using a color CCD camera attached to a 14" telescope located at Marshall. At the time of this picture, Comet ISON was 97 million miles from Earth, heading toward a close encounter with the sun on Nov. 28. Located in the constellation of Virgo, it is now visible in a good pair of binoculars.
Image credit: NASA/MSFC/Aaron Kingery
.
Update: 12.11.2013
 .
.
Update: 13.11.2013
.
Komet ISON erreicht Helligkeit für ein Fernglas-Objekt
Comet 2012 S1 (ISON) appears to be finally getting its act together and looking like a comet should as it heads for a hot date with the Sun on 28 November. ISON is now shining at magnitude +8, making it visible as a soft glow in 10x50 binoculars. The comet's tail has lengthened to at least half a degree, the width of the full Moon and the coma is around five to seven arcminutes across. Astronomers report that the rate of ISON's gas production has increased rapidly over the last several days which, according to one scientist, could indicate melting of deeper layers of ice. ISON was reported to be intact still last month, so this enhanced activity does not appear to be the result of any disruption or breaking up of the comet, astronomers added.
ISON is a morning object right now in Virgo and this coming morning, 12th to 13th, it will be within four degree of Porrima (gamma Virginis, mag. +2.7). ISON rises around 3.30am GMT (London), almost four hours ahead of the Sun, and by the end of the astronomical night at 5.15am (Sun 18 degrees below the horizon) it has climbed 15 degrees clear of the east-north-east horizon. By the time the morning twilight curtails further observation around 6am, ISON is 20 degrees up. Let's hope for clear skies in the next week or so as soon after mid-month it becomes too low over the horizon to observe as it zooms east through Virgo, passing very close to Spica on the morning of 18 November. If ISON survives perihelion passage on 28 November it will reappear in early December into bright morning skies in Scorpius.
Quelle: Astronomy Now
.
 
 
.
Kometen-Vergleich-Aufnahme gegenüber Komet ISON von Komet Komet C/2013 R1 Lovejoy
.
Taken by rolando ligustri on November 12, 2013 @ from New Mexico, Itelescope.net
.
Update: 16.11.2013
.

Comet Ison viewing may be at its best

Comet may soon be lost in sun's glare and might not survive Nov. 28 solar encounter

.

A sudden brightening of the comet Ison this week means now might be your best chance to see the beautiful green "sungrazer," as NASA is warning the comet may not last.

"If you want to see Ison with your own eyes, do it now," said a blog post on the website of NASA's Comet Ison observing campaign Friday. "We can not and do not guarantee that it will survive the next few weeks and become naked-eye visible in our night skies."

This week, the comet suddenly had an "outburst" — an event where it jumped dramatically in brightness — so that it may now already be visible with the naked eye in some places.

"It's naked eye if you're deep, deep in the country, the sky is pristine and clear and your eyes are fantastically good," said Robyn Foret, chair of the education and public outreach committee for the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, in an interview from Calgary Friday.

"That said, with a good pair of binoculars on your deck, if you know where to look in the sky, you will see it."

Right now, astronomers recommend looking for the comet just above the star Spica in the constellation Virgo in the southeast sky, just before dawn.

Comets are often described as "cosmic snowballs," as they are made of frozen gas, rock and dust. When their orbits bring them close to a star such as the sun, they heat up, causing some of the gas and dust to spew from the surface, forming a "coma," or atmosphere, that makes them look like fuzzy balls in the sky.

As they get closer to a star and heat up even more, water ice and other heavier gases start to evaporate, making them look bigger and brighter. Sometimes, the coma may expand into a long, beautiful tail pointing away from the sun.

Not as bright as expected

Comet Ison is currently closer to the sun than the Earth is and is getting nearer the sun each day. The "sungrazer" — the name given to comets that pass very close to the sun, becoming very bright -— is expected to brush past our nearest star a distance of 1.6 million kilometres on Nov. 28. That distance is just a little bit bigger than the sun's own diameter.

When Ison was first detected near the orbit of Jupiter last year, astronomers predicted it might become one of the brightest comet ever seen. However, so far it has not brightened as much as expected over the course of its sunward journey.

As the comet approaches the sun, it is expected to keep brightening. But that doesn't mean it will be easier to see.

"Because it's moving closer to the sun, it moves closer and closer to where the sun is in the sky," Foret said.

While it is now visible a fair distance above the horizon before dawn, it will get lower and lower in the sky each day, until it is too close to the sun to view safely.

"If you accidentally look at the sun through a pair of binoculars, it can have lifelong negative effects on your vision," Foret warned.

'Handful more days'

NASA's Comet Ison Observing Campaign says you have "maybe a handful more days" to see the comet before it gets lost in the sun's glare.

If the comet survives its close encounter with the sun on Nov. 28, it will be at its brightest in the month of December, as it moves away from the sun and may be "spectacular" at that point, Foret predicts.

But comets sometimes break up into pieces as they get close to the sun, and Foret said it wouldn’t be surprising if Ison does just that.

In fact, NASA suggests it's possible that the comet's recent brightening may have been caused by the comet's solid core fragmenting.

"Given that ISON's nucleus is shrouded in such a tremendous volume of light-scattering dust and gas right now, it will be almost impossible to determine this for at least a few day," said the NASA blog post.

If the comet's core is already breaking up, it is unlikely that any piece will survive the comet's close approach to the sun, since a chunk would have to be at least 200 metres wide to survive, NASA says. It estimates that as of this week, the comet was estimated to be 500 metres to two kilometres in diameter.

That means those who want to see Comet Ison shouldn't wait.

Foret said comets are always worth looking for, even if you've seen a comet before, because they all look different, especially their tails.

"Sometimes, comets appear to have two tails; sometimes, they'll have what looks like a tail in front of comet."

He himself hasn't had a chance to see Ison yet.

"I'm in Calgary, it's that time of year," he said. "It's very nice and cloudy in the east the past few days. But we're hopeful we'll get a break."

Quelle: CBC-News

.
Update: 17.11.2013
.
COMET ISON UPDATE: Reports of naked-eye sightings of Comet ISON are coming in from around the world. Experienced observers put the comet's magntitude at +5.5 on Nov. 16th. This means it is now fully 10 times brighter than it was only three days ago before the outburst. To the naked eye, ISON appears as a faint smudge of pale green light low in the pre-dawn sky. The view through a telescope is more dramatic. The comet's tail has become a riotous crowd of gaseous streamers stretching more than 3.5 degrees across the sky. Amateur astronomer Waldemar Skorupa sends this picture from Kahler Asten, Germany:
.
 

 

The tail is so long, he couldn't fit the whole thing in the field of view. How long is it? Comet ISON's tail extends more than 8 million kilometers behind the comet's nucleus. For comparison, that's 21 times the distance between Earth and the Moon.

Because so much gas and dust is spewing from the comet's core, it is impossible to see clearly what caused Comet ISON's outburst on Nov. 13-14. One possibility is that fresh veins of ice are opening up in the comet's nucleus, vaporizing furiously as ISON approaches the sun. Another possibility is that the nucleus has completely fragmented.

"If so, it will still be several days before we know for sure," says Karl Battams, an astronomer with NASA's Comet ISON Observing Campaign. "When comet nuclei fall apart, it’s not like a shrapnel-laden explosion. Instead, the chunks slowly drift apart at slightly different speeds. Given that ISON’s nucleus is shrouded in such a tremendous volume of light-scattering dust and gas right now, it will be almost impossible to determine this for at least a few days and perhaps not until the comet reaches the field of view of NASA's STEREO HI-1A instrument on November 21, 2013. We will have to wait for the chunks to drift apart a sufficient distance, assuming they don't crumble first."

In short, no one knows for sure what is happening to Comet ISON. This could be the comet's death throes--or just the first of many brightening events the comet experiences as it plunges toward the sun for a close encounter on Thanksgiving Day (Nov. 28th).

.

Quelle: SpaceWeather

.

Update: 18.11.2013

.

COMET ISON'S SUPER TAIL: Comet's ISON's recent outburst of activity has done more than simply brighten the comet. Whatever exploded from the comet's core also created a spectacularly-long tail, more than 16 million kilometers from end to end. Scroll down to see the full extent of Comet ISON as photographed on Nov. 17th by Michael Jäger of Ebenwaldhöhe, Austria:

 

"The tail of the comet stretches more than 7o across the sky," says Jäger. It's almost as wide as the bowl of the Big Dipper.

 

Physically, ISON's tail is about 12 times wider than the sun. So, when the head of ISON plunges into the sun's atmosphere on Nov. 28th, more than 15 million kilometers of the comet's tail will still be jutting into space behind it.

 

Because so much gas and dust is spewing from the comet's core, it is impossible to see clearly what caused Comet ISON's outburst on Nov. 13-14. One possibility is that fresh veins of ice are opening up in the comet's nucleus, vaporizing furiously as ISON approaches the sun. Another possibility is that the nucleus has completely fragmented.

 

"If so, it will still be several days before we know for sure," says Karl Battams, an astronomer with NASA's Comet ISON Observing Campaign. "When comet nuclei fall apart, it’s not like a shrapnel-laden explosion. Instead, the chunks slowly drift apart at slightly different speeds. Given that ISON’s nucleus is shrouded in such a tremendous volume of light-scattering dust and gas right now, it will be almost impossible to determine this for at least a few days and perhaps not until the comet reaches the field of view of NASA's STEREO HI-1A instrument on November 21, 2013. We will have to wait for the chunks to drift apart a sufficient distance, assuming they don't crumble first."
Quelle: SpaceWeather

.

Update: 19.11.2013

 

 

 

A composite image from the European Southern Observatory's TRAPPIST telescope in Chile shows Comet ISON streaking toward the sun on Nov. 15. The image combines four different 30-second exposures of the moving comet in different wavelengths. That's why the background stars appear as multicolored, slightly misaligned dots.
Quelle: NBC

.

Update: 21.11.2013

.

Taken by Juan Carlos Casado on November 21, 2013 @ Teide Observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain) 

.

Update: 22.11.2013 

.

NASA Sees Comet ISON 9 Days Before Close Sun Encounter

Comet ISON shows off its tail in this three-minute exposure taken on Nov. 19, 2013 at 6:10 a.m. EST, using a 14-inch telescope located at the Marshall Space Flight Center.
Credit: NASA/MSFC/Aaron Kingery
.
NASA astronomers have captured an amazing new photo of the brightening Comet ISON, an image that reveals the comet's intricate tail as it heads for a rendezvous with the sun next week.
The new photo of Comet ISON was taken Tuesday (Nov. 19) by scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., nine days ahead of the comet's Thanksgiving Day close encounter with the sun on Nov. 28.
"Comet ISON shows off its tail …" NASA's image description begins. The comet photo was taken early Tuesday at 6:10 a.m. EST (1110 GMT) by Aaron Kingery at the Marshall center. He used a 14-inch telescope with a three-minute exposure time, according to the image description.
Quelle: NASA

.

Update: 16.30 MEZ 

SOLAR FLEET PICKS UP COMET ISON: Because NASA's twin STEREO probes are designed to observe the sun, they can see sundiving comets even when the glare becomes intense. Yesterday, Comet ISON joined Earth, Mercury, and Comet Encke in the field of view of STEREO-A's Heliospheric Imager.

 

.

"The dark 'clouds' of stuff you see coming from the right are density enhancements in the solar wind, and these are what are causing all the ripples you see in comet Encke's tail," explains Karl Battams of NASA's Comet ISON Observing Campaign. "I can pretty much promise you that we're going to see ISON's tail doing that in a couple of day's time, but on a much larger scale!"
Battams points out another exciting development: Comet Encke and Comet ISON are converging for a photogenic close encounter. "No they're not going to hit each other - in reality they are millions of miles apart - but as seen from the STEREO-A spacecraft, they are going to get very close!" he says. "We are probably a couple of days away from seeing two comets almost side-by-side in that camera, with long tails flowing behind them in the solar wind. To say that such an image will be unprecedented is rather an understatement." Stay tuned for that.
Quelle: Spaceweather

.

Update: 23.11.2013

.

Mt.Fuji And Comet ISON
Taken by KAGAYA on November 22, 2013 @ Yamanasi,Japan

.

Update: 26.11.2013

.

The latest movie from the STEREO-A spacecraft's Heliospheric Imager shows the comet over a five-day period from Nov. 20 to Nov. 25, 2013.
.
Quelle: NASA

.

Update: 27.11.2013

.

Comet ISON Could Be No More

Incoming comet ISON was obviously on a perilous path. The “dirty snowball” was on course to swing by the sun less than one solar diameter above the sun’s searing surface on 28 November, Thanksgiving Day in the United States. This view from the SOHO spacecraft dramatically illustrates ISON’s close passage through the sun’s streaming solar wind and around the sun (here inserted from another image to give a sense of scale). But astronomers are reporting ominous signs, such as a peak in overall brightness, suggesting that the shrouded ball of ice and dust at the center of the comet has broken up into nothing more than a cloud of dust. Direct confirmation of ISON’s disintegration must await spacecraft observations in the next few days.

.

Quelle: AAAS

.

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO):

.

NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft is also monitoring the comet. Click to view a high-resolution movie (32 MB), which compresses 96 hours into less than 1 minute:
.
Quelle: Spaceweather

.

.

Update: 28.11.2013

.

COMET ISON UPDATE: Comet ISON is brightening rapidly as it plunges into the sun's atmosphere. At closest approach around 1:45 p.m. EST on Nov. 28th (Thanksgiving Day in the USA), the comet will be little more than a million kilometers above the sun's fiery surface. Temperatures around ISON's icy nucleus could rise as high as 5000o F. No one knows if it can survive that kind of baking--but if it does, it could emerge as a splendid naked-eye comet in early December.
Right now, the best views of the comet are coming from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Click to view a 27-hour movie of ISON approaching the sun:
.
.
NASA-Animation:
.
Over the course of the animation, Comet ISON brightens by a factor of at least four, and possibly as much as a factor of 10. It easily outshines the 1st-magnitude red giant star Antares to the lower left of the sun.
Researchers have been wondering what might happen if a CME strikes Comet ISON. They might find out before the day is over. As the movie shows, CMEs are billowing away from the sun in all directions. Avoiding a collision will become increasingly difficult as the comet moves closer to active regions on the sun's surface.
During the hours around closest approach, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will take high-resolution pictures of the comet flying through the sun's atmosphere. This diagram illustrates the sequence of events:
.
Usually, SDO points straight at the sun. In this case, however, the observatory is being offset and moved three times to track the speeding comet. SDO images of sungrazing Comet Lovejoy in Dec. 2011 were dramatic. Comet ISON could be even better.
Quelle: Spaceweather

.

Update: 16.40 MEZ

.

.

Quelle: ESA

.

Update: 29.11.2013

.

The comet ISON and the Sun at 15:34 UTC today as seen by the SOHO spacecraft (the Sun image is from SDO, and added for scale).

.

 

A wider view of the Sun and comet form SOHO, taken around the same time as the image above. Note how long the tail is! The star to the lower left is Antares, in Scorpius.

 

 

Quelle: NASA

.

NASA scientists say it appears that Comet ISON has not survived its close pass around the sun.
UPDATE: It appears something survived; unclear yet how much.
Amateur astronomers were hoping the comet would survive and become a spectacular feature of the night sky; some thought it had the potential to emerge from its encounter with the sun so bright that it could be visible during daylight hours.
That apparently was not to be.
As the comet came within 684,000 miles of the sun this afternoon, it appears to have been ripped apart by the "insane" gravitational forces and vaporized by the heat, said Karl Battams, comet scientist for the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, and solar spacecraft lead for NASA's Comet ISON Observing Campaign.
NASA scientists were monitoring the comet during a live video this afternoon.
Comet ISON appeared to break up as it approached perhelion - its closest approach to the sun - and various telescopes and instruments were unable to detect anything emerging from the other side of the sun on the path the comet was expected to exit.
.
This image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory shows the sun, but no Comet ISON was seen. A white plus sign shows where the Comet should have appeared. It is likely that the comet did not survive the trip.
Image Credit: NASA/SDO
.
Comet ISON went around the sun on Nov. 28, 2013. Several solar observatories watched the comet throughout this closest approach to the sun, known as perihelion. While the fate of the comet is not yet established, it is likely that it did not survive the trip. The comet grew faint while.

Tags: ISON Comet ISON Update 

5710 Views

Freitag, 29. November 2013 - 13:40 Uhr

Astronomie - Thomas Grau der Meteoritenjäger

.

Thomas Grau ist einer der erfolgreichsten Meteoritenjäger Deutschlands. Seine Leidenschaft und einzigartige Methode hat ihn zu unzähligen Meteoritenfunden geführt und hilft damit der Wissenschaft das Universum zu ergründen und besser zu verstehen.
.
Frams von Video:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Quelle: YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7q2JCC_i1fY

Tags: Thomas Grau der Meteoritenjäger 

5955 Views

Freitag, 29. November 2013 - 09:34 Uhr

Astronomie - ESA´s Next-Generation- X -ray- Observatory

.

The hot and energetic Universe and the search for elusive gravitational waves will be the focus of ESA’s next two large science missions, it was announced today.
Both topics will bridge fundamental astrophysics and cosmology themes by studying in detail the processes that are crucial to the large-scale evolution of the Universe and its underlying physics.
The science theme “the hot and energetic Universe” was selected for L2 – the second Large-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision science programme – and is expected to be pursued with an advanced X-ray observatory.
This mission, with a launch date foreseen for 2028, will address two key questions. How and why does ordinary matter assemble into the galaxies and galactic clusters that we see today, and how do black holes grow and influence their surroundings?
Black holes, which lurk unseen at the centres of almost all galaxies, are regarded as one of the keys to understanding galaxy formation and evolution.
The L3 mission will study the gravitational Universe, searching for ripples in the very fabric of space–time created by celestial objects with very strong gravity, such as pairs of merging black holes.
Predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity but yet to be detected directly, gravitational waves promise to open a completely new window on the Universe.
Planned for launch in 2034, it will require the development of a spaceborne gravitational wave observatory, or extreme precision ‘gravitometer’, an ambitious enterprise that will push the boundaries of current technology.
“ESA has an outstanding record for developing state-of-the art space observatories that have revolutionised our knowledge of how stars and galaxies were born and evolved,” says Alvaro Gimenez, ESA’s Director of Science and Robotic Exploration.
“By pursuing these two new themes, we will continue to push back the scientific boundaries and unveil the mysteries of the invisible Universe.”
The selection process for L2 and L3 began in March 2013, when ESA issued a call to the European science community to suggest the next scientific themes that should be pursued by the Cosmic Vision programme’s Large missions.
Thirty-two proposals were received and assessed by a Senior Survey Committee, and following an extensive interaction with the scientific community two major themes were recommended to the Director of Science and Robotic Exploration.
“We had a difficult task in deciding which scientific themes to choose from all of the excellent candidates, but we believe that missions to study the hot, energetic Universe and gravitational waves will result in discoveries of the greatest importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and physics in general,” says Catherine Cesarsky, chair of the Senior Survey Committee.
Although the launch dates for the L2 and L3 missions are more than a decade away, activities to prepare the missions will start very soon. Early in 2014, a call for L2 mission concepts will be announced to solicit proposals for a next-generation X-ray observatory. A similar procedure will be followed at a later date for the L3 mission.
“We have opened up a new scientific roadmap for Europe today that will establish our leadership in this field for the next two decades while we develop and implement new technologies for these exciting missions,” adds Prof. Gimenez.
Quelle: ESA

2773 Views

Donnerstag, 28. November 2013 - 22:13 Uhr

Astronomie - Meteorit ins Ionische Meer gestürzt

.

In Griechenland wurde ein Meteorit gesichtet. Dieser ist in das Meer vor der Insel Kefalonia gestürzt. Augenzeugen aus dem ganzen Land haben das Phänomen beobachtet. Es gab keine Schäden. Die Wissenschafter geben Entwarnung.
elh. Athen Am Mittwochabend ist in der Region zwischen den Inseln Kefalonia und Zakynthos in Westgriechenland ein Meteorit ins Meer gestürzt. Kurz nach 21 Uhr 30 berichten Augenzeugen, dass ein grün-blaues Licht von Westen nach Osten den Himmel durchschnitten habe. Viele verglichen dieses Bild mit einem brennenden Flugzeug oder einem brennenden Ball. Andere berichten, dass dieses Objekt von einem merkwürdigen Geräusch begleitet war.
Wahrscheinlich zwei Kilo schwer
Der renommierte Astronom Dionysis Simopoulos von der Athener Sternwarte erklärte in der Presse, dass der Meteorit wahrscheinlich zwei Kilo schwer gewesen sein muss. Vermutlich hatte er die Grösse eines menschlichen Kopfes. Er könnte sich vom Meteostrom der Leoniden Richtung Erde abgezweigt haben. Das seltene Phänomen konnte auch in vielen anderen Teilen Griechenlands beobachtet werden. Selbst im Zentrum der Hauptstadt Athen wollen Personen den Meteoriten gesichtet haben. Die Wissenschafter haben unterdessen Entwarnung gegeben. Allerdings äusserten sie auch die Ansicht, dass es möglicherweise zu Schäden gekommen wäre, wenn das Flugobjekt nicht ins Meer sondern auf das Festland gestürzt wäre.
Quelle: Neue Zürcher Zeitung

2950 Views

Donnerstag, 28. November 2013 - 16:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Vor 30 Jahren Start von ESA Spacelab mit STS-9

.

Thirty years ago this week the first European-built Spacelab was launched on the Space Shuttle. ESA’s first astronaut, Ulf Merbold, flew on the mission, marking ESA’s entry into human spaceflight.

On 28 November 1983 at 11:00 local time, the ninth Space Shuttle mission was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.
The six astronauts on Spacelab-1 worked in two teams on 12-hour shifts, allowing for continuous operations. They performed over 70 experiments in solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, Earth observation, material science, technology and life sciences.
After circling Earth 166 times in just over 10 days, Space Shuttle Columbia landed back on Earth on 8 December.
.
The Spacelab-1/STS-9 crew walk out to the Crew Transporter Van on the way to the launch pad on 28 November 1983. From back left, Owen Garriott, Byron Lichtenberg, Bob Parker, ESA’s Ulf Merbold, Brewster Shaw and John Young.
.
Spacelab was a cooperation between ESA and NASA, with Europe responsible for funding, designing and building Spacelab and agreeing to deliver free of charge the engineering model, the first flight unit and ground equipment in return for a shared first mission.
In preparation for Spacelab, ESA Member States in 1978 put forward 53 astronaut candidates, and four were selected: Ulf Merbold of Germany, Wubbo Ockels of the Netherlands, Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Franco Malerba of Italy.
Ulf was selected for the first Spacelab mission, with Wubbo as backup. Wubbo flew on the Spacelab-D1 mission in 1985.
Between 1983 and 1998, Spacelab modules flew on the Space Shuttle 22 times and totalled 244 days in orbit. Experiments surveyed the possibilities of weightless research in many scientific areas that led to space-age metals used in mass-produced smartphones and revealed areas of space research that show promise in treating chronic muscle diseases.
Spacelab evolution
.
Preparing Spacelab-1 at the Kennedy Space Center for its flight on Space Shuttle Columbia (flight STS-9) in November–December 1983. ESA developed Spacelab as a manned scientific laboratory to fly on NASA’s Space Shuttle. Ulf Merbold, who was part of the Spacelab-1 crew, became the first ESA astronaut in space.
.
Many of Spacelab’s features live on in space hardware that is flying above us today. The pressure shell was reused for the Harmony and Tranquility modules on the International Space Station, and supply spacecraft, such as ESA’s Automated Transfer Vehicles and the commercial Cygnus, reuse Spacelab’s exterior structure.
Europe’s Columbus laboratory on the Station evolved from Spacelab. On the inside, Spacelab used standardised science racks that contributed to its success and were adopted for all of the Station’s laboratory modules.
In the same way that Spacelab was operated by international teams of astronauts, so are today’s European experiments and laboratories on the Station. They are kept running and performing science by the Station’s permanent crew – which now includes European astronauts.
Quelle: ESA
.
STS-61A was a scientific Spacelab mission funded and controlled by West Germany, hence the name D1 (for Deutschland 1), in October/November 1985. On board the Space Shuttle Challenger were Henry Hartsfield, Steven Nagel, Bonnie Dunbar, James Buchli, Guion Bluford, Ernst Messerschmid (DE), Reinhard Furrer (DE) and ESA astronaut Wubbo Ockels (NL). STS-61A holds the record for the largest crew, eight people, aboard any single spacecraft for the entire period from launch to landing. This was also the last successful flight of Challenger.
.
Space Shuttle Challenger flight STS-61A carried Wubbo Ockels, Ernst Messerschmid and Reinhard Furrer, and marked a number of firsts in European human spaceflight, including the first Dutch citizen in space.
Between 30 October and 6 November 1985, these three European astronauts served as payload specialists (science astronauts) on the first spaceflight with a crew of eight (STS-61A still holds the record for the largest crew aboard any single spacecraft for the entire period from launch to landing).
This was only the fourth flight of Spacelab, the ESA-designed laboratory module carried in the Shuttle’s payload bay, but this was the first time that an entire payload was controlled from outside NASA’s mission control centres.
Called the Spacelab D1 mission, it was the first to have German mission management and to be controlled from the German Space Operations Centre of the German Institute of Aviation and Spaceflight Research and Development (DFVLR, a precursor of present-day DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich.
Wubbo Ockels became the second ESA astronaut and the first Dutch citizen in space (not the first Dutch-born astronaut, he was preceded by naturalised American Lodewijk van den Berg, who flew into space five months earlier). Messerschmid and Furrer became the joint third German astronauts in space (after Sigmund Jaehn and Ulf Merbold).
The NASA crew members were Commander Hank Hartsfield and Pilot Steve Nagel, with Mission Specialists Bonnie Dunbar, Jim Buchli and Guy Bluford.
Quelle: ESA
-
Spacelab - History
.
Signature of the Spacelab Memorandum of Understanding between ESRO and NASA at the State Department, Washington DC, USA, on 24 September 1973. The Memorandum was signed by Alexander Hocker for ESRO and James Fletcher (NASA Administrator). Also present are Charles Hanin, chairman of ESC, Professor M. Levy, Chairman of ESRO Council and Roy Gibson.
.
Meeting of the Preliminary Design Review Board for Spacelab at ERNO, Bremen, 4 December 1976. Back to camera, Messrs Ziegenbein, Berge and Hoffmann (ERNO). Facing camera, Messrs Powell (NASA), Emiliani, Bossche, Stoewer, Bignier (ESA), Lindley (NASA) and Mory (ESA)
.
Interior view of the engineering model of ESA's Spacelab-1 during integration at ERNO in Bremen, 1979.
.
Vice President George Bush (centre) in front of the Spacelab Engineering Model with ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier (left), at Kennedy Space Center, February 1982. At right are Spacelab-1 back-up Payload Specialist Wubbo Ockels of the Netherlands, James McCulla, Public Services Branch, NASA Headquarters, and James C. Harrington, Director of the NASA Spacelab Program. Behind, NASA astronaut Owen Garriott stands in the Spacelab Module.
.
Payload Specialist Ernst Messerschmid, German science astronaut for the European Spacelab D1 mission, during a training session at ESTEC in June 1984.
.
On 30 October 1985, the international crew of the Spacelab D1 mission, led by NASA Commander Hank Hartsfield, leave the crew quarters at Kennedy Space Center to ride to the launch pad. After the Commander, Reinhard Furrer (DE), Wubbo Ockels (NL), Bonnie Dunbar, Guion Bluford, Steve Nagel and Ernst Messerschmid (DE).
.
Launch of Space Shuttle Challenger STS-61A on 30 October 1985, at 18:00 Central European Time, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, carrying eight international astronauts and the fourth Spacelab, the ESA-developed laboratory module, on the Spacelab D1 mission.
.
An inspiring view of the Spacelab D-1 module in the Shuttle Challenger's open payload bay, viewed through the flight-deck rear windows. The Shuttle manipulator arm is on the right, and the disc of Earth in the background. The Spacelab D1 mission flew in space between 30 October and 6 November 1985.
.
STS-61 Payload Specialist Ernst Messerschmid undergoes medical checks by NASA Mission Specialist Guy Bluford during the Spacelab D1 mission, 1985
.
ESA's Wubbo Ockels, Payload Specialist on STS-61A, and NASA Mission Specialist Guion Bluford (right) during the Spacelab D1 mission which was under operational management of the German space research institute, DFVLR. This was the fourth flight of the ESA-developed Spacelab on the Space shuttle.
.
ESA Payload Specialist Wubbo Ockels and his German colleague Reinhard Furrer (left) on the Shuttle Challenger during the German Spacelab D1 mission (30 October to 6 November 1985). Ockels presents the 'Egg of Columbus': the egg floats standing on its small side in 'zero gravity'. The fun-experiment implies a link to the future of manned spaceflight, with the Columbus laboratory being one of the major European contributions to the International Space Station then being designed.
.
The crew of the Spacelab D1 mission (30 October to 6 November 1985) pose on the mid-deck of the Shuttle Challenger. From left, top row, Hank Hartsfield, Bonnie Dunbar, Steve Nagel, Reinhard Furrer (DE), below, Ernst Messerschmid (DE), Wubbo Ockels (NL), Jim Buchli and Guy Bluford.
.
Spacelab D1 science astronauts during their post-flight tour at ESTEC, Noordwijk, on 25 November 1985. Left, Ernst Messerschmid (DE), Wubbo Ockels (NL) and Reinhard Furrer (DE), with ESTEC Director Prof. M. Trella (right).
.
During the post-flight tour of the European Spacelab D1 astronauts visit the Netherlands. Wubbo Ockels (ESA), Reinhard Furrer (DFVLR) and Ernst Messerschmid (DFVLR) received honourary award from the Dutch Academy of Science and medals of 'Officer van Oranje-Nassau', the latter being presented by the Dutch Minister of Education and Science, Dr W.J. Deetman in the name of HM Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, 25 November 1985.
.
STS-61A was a scientific Spacelab mission funded and controlled by West Germany, hence the name D1 (for Deutschland 1), in October/November 1985. This patch was worn by the European Payload Spacialists Ernst Messerschmid (DE), Reinhard Furrer (DE) and ESA astronaut Wubbo Ockels (NL).
.
A test subject sitting on Sled, an ESA experiment launched on Spacelab-1 on 28 November 1983. Sled investigated space sickness by monitoring eye movement as the seat moved horizontally and tilted while cold or hot air was blown into the astronaut’s ears.
The vestibular system in the inner ear helps to keep balance and navigate the space around us. In weightlessness an astronaut’s vestibular system works differently and the sense of equilibrium changes, causing space sickness. The Sled experiment allowed researchers to understand how the vestibular system adapts to living in space.
Spacelab was a European-built reusable space laboratory that flew on the Space Shuttle from 1983 to 1998. Elements of Spacelab design feature in later ESA space hardware such as the Columbus laboratory and the Automated Transfer Vehicles.
Spacelab surveyed the possibilities of weightless research in many scientific areas, paving the way for research on the International Space Station. Spacelab experiments led to space-age metals used in mass-produced smartphones and revealed areas of space research that show promise in treating chronic muscle diseases.
.
The Italian-built Fluid Physics Module that flew on the first mission of the European Spacelab in 1983, seen here at ESTEC in October 1981. The module allowed astronauts to observe and manipulate up to a litre of fluids in space.
Spacelab was a European-built reusable space laboratory that flew on the Space Shuttle from 1983 to 1998. Elements of Spacelab design feature in later ESA space hardware such as the Columbus laboratory and the Automated Transfer Vehicles.
Spacelab surveyed the possibilities of weightless research in many scientific areas, paving the way for research on the International Space Station. Spacelab experiments led to space-age metals used in mass-produced smartphones and revealed areas of space research that show promise in treating chronic muscle diseases.
.
ESA's Instrument Pointing System (IPS) provided high-precision pointing for astronomical telescopes on Spacelab missions. It has flown three times: Spacelab-2/STS-51F in July-August 1985; Astro-1/STS-35 in December 1990; Astro-2/STS-67 in March 1995. Shown is Spacelab-2, when the drum-like IPS carried a package of four solar telescopes.
.
ESA's Instrument Pointing System (IPS) provides high-precision pointing for astronomical telescopes on Spacelab missions. It has flown three times [Image Date: 01-07-85] [85.09.001-009]
TAGS 
.
ESA's Instrument Pointing System (IPS) provides high-precision pointing for astronomical telescopes on Spacelab missions. It has flown three times [Image Date: 01-01-85] [85.04.010-001]
.
ESA's Instrument Pointing System (IPS) provides high-precision pointing for astronomical telescopes on Spacelab missions. It has flown three times [Image Date: 01-01-85] [85.04.010-004]
.
Spacelab-1 mission and payload specialists, with backups: Robert Parker, Dr. Owen Garriott, Germany’s Ulf Merbold, Michael Lampton, The Netherlands’ Wubbo Ockels, and Byron Lichtenberg pose with a Spacelab model berthed in a shuttle. This week marks 30 years since the first Spacelab mission. 
Quelle: ESA



Tags: STS-61 Spacelab D-1 ESA Spacelab mit STS-9 

3188 Views

Donnerstag, 28. November 2013 - 14:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Roskosmos will fünf Raumschiffe im Dezember starten

.

Two satellites will be launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome; two more from Plesetsk cosmodrome and one from Kourou Space Center

.

Russian federal space agency Roscosmos plans to launch five spaceships in December, the agency said in a statement placed on its website on Thursday.
“Under the this year’s launch schedule in December there will be five launches of carrier rockets with satellites aboard within the framework of Russia’s federal space program, international cooperation programs, commercial projects and projects in the interest of the Defence Ministry,” the agency said.
Two satellites - Inmarsat-5F1 and Express-AM5 - will be launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan’s steppe. The satellites will be taken into space by a Proton-M carrier-rocket with a Briz-M upper stage.
Two spaceships will be launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in northern Russia and the Gaia satellite of the European Space Agency will be placed into orbit by a Soyuz-ST-B carrier rocket with a Fregat-MT upper stage from the Kourou Space Center in French Guiana.
Quelle: ITARTASS


 

 


2850 Views


Weitere 8 Nachrichten nachladen...