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Freitag, 26. Juli 2013 - 09:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Für zukünftige Weltraumtouristen: Ein leichter, bequemer Raumanzug - Privates Raumfahrtunternehmen Final Frontier zeigt Weg der neuesten Orbital-Fashion.

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The 3G Space Suit NASA Administrator Charles Bolden checks out the suit on Capitol Hill

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Final Frontier Design, a Brooklyn, NY-based space company, unveiled their new "3G" space suit yesterday on Capitol Hill. The company's previous suit won a 2013 Popular Science invention award, and this third-generation suit builds on four years of research and development.
The space suit is safe for both suborbital and orbital commercial space travel. But Final Frontier's intentions reach beyond mere safety: the suit is also "comfortable, lightweight, and inexpensive" compared with other spacesuits, according to a press release.
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The 3G Space Suit In Full:
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Here are the cool features: A single-layer pressure garment system (two fused pieces of durable, airtight urethane-coated nylon) makes the suit comfortable and flexible, once inflated. It also has 13 adjustment points for sizing and a carbon-fiber waist ring to make it lighter. Finally, it has cooling loops for your head, chest, hands, and feet (so you don't overheat in there).
The company premiered the suit as part of NASA's "Tech Day on the Hill." Along with over 500 staff and guests, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (pictured above) and 16 members of Congress were in attendance.
Space suits have sure come a long way over the years...
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Quelle: Final Frontier Designs
 

Tags: The 3G Space Suit 

3040 Views

Donnerstag, 25. Juli 2013 - 13:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Titan 93 Flyby - Mysterium der fehlenden Wellen auf Saturn-Mond Titan

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Vast Ligeia Mare in False Color 
Ligeia Mare, shown here in an artistically enhanced image from NASA's Cassini mission, is the second largest known body of liquid on Saturn's moon Titan. It is filled with liquid hydrocarbons, such as ethane and methane, and is one of the many seas and lakes that bejewel Titan's north polar region. Cassini has yet to observe waves on Ligeia Mare and will look again during its next encounter on May 23, 2013.
The image is a false-color mosaic of synthetic aperture radar images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft between February 2006 and April 2007. Features thought to be liquid are shown in blue and black and areas likely to be solid surface are tinted brown. Some areas with noisy data have been artistically enhanced.
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One of the most shocking discoveries of the past 10 years is how much the landscape of Saturn's moon Titan resembles Earth. Like our own blue planet, the surface of Titan is dotted with lakes and seas; it has river channels, islands, mud, rain clouds and maybe even rainbows. The giant moon is undeniably wet.
The "water" on Titan is not, however, H2O. With a surface temperature dipping 290 degrees F below zero, Titan is far too cold for liquid water. Instead, researchers believe the fluid that sculpts Titan is an unknown mixture of methane, ethane, and other hard-to-freeze hydrocarbons.
The idea that Titan is a wet world with its own alien waters is widely accepted by planetary scientists. Nothing else can account for the observations: NASA's Cassini spacecraft has flown by Titan more than 90 times since 2004, pinging the Moon with radar and mapping its lakes and seas. ESA's Huygens probe parachuted to the surface of Titan in 2005, descending through humid clouds and actually landing in moist soil.
Yet something has been bothering Alex Hayes, a planetary scientist on the Cassini radar team at Cornell University.
If Titan is really so wet, he wonders, "Where are all the waves?"
Here on Earth, bodies of water are rarely still. Breezes blowing across the surface cause waves to ripple and break; raindrops striking sea surfaces also provide some roughness. Yet on Titan, the lakes are eerily smooth, with no discernable wave action down to the millimeter scale, according to radar data from Cassini.
"We know there is wind on Titan," says Hayes. "The moon's magnificent sand dunes [prove] it."
Add to that the low gravity of Titan-only 1/7th that of Earth-which offers so little resistance to wave motion, and you have a real puzzle.
Researchers have toyed with several explanations. Perhaps the lakes are frozen. Hayes thinks that is unlikely, however, "because we see evidence of rainfall and surface temperatures well above the melting point of methane." Or maybe the lakes are covered with a tar-like substance that damps wave motion. "We can't yet rule that out," he adds.
The answer might be found in the results of a study Hayes and colleagues published in the July 2013 online edition of the journal Icarus. Taking into account the gravity of Titan, the low viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons, the density of Titan's atmosphere, and other factors, they calculated how fast wind on Titan would have to blow to stir up waves: A walking-pace breeze of only 1 to 2 mph should do the trick.
This suggests a third possibility: the winds just haven't been blowing hard enough. Since Cassini reached Saturn in 2004, Titan's northern hemisphere (where most of the lakes are located) has been locked in the grip of winter. Cold heavy air barely stirs, and seldom reaches the threshold for wave-making.
But now the seasons are changing. In August 2009 the sun crossed Titan's equator heading north. Summer is coming, bringing light, heat and wind to Titan's lake country.
"According to [climate models], winds will pick up as we approach the solstice in 2017 and should be strong enough for waves," he says.
If waves appear, Cassini should be able to detect them. Radar reflections from wavy lake surfaces can tell researchers a great deal. Wave dimensions, for instance, may reveal the viscosity of the underlying fluid and, thus, its chemical composition. Also, wave speeds would track the speed of the overlying winds, providing an independent check of Titan climate models.
Hayes is excited about "bringing oceanography to another world. All we need now," he says, "are some rough seas."
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T-93: Monitoring the Lakes
At just before the closest point during this flyby, the visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument will acquire images of Ligeia Mare and Punga Mare, the second and third largest known bodies of liquid on Titan respectively. Monitoring the Titan lakes is important for looking at how they evolve over time and seasons. Are they evaporating and getting smaller, or staying the same, or getting larger?
Earlier in this flyby, observations of specular reflection will be possible if liquid bodies are present in the area near Ara Fluctus (57.3 N, 131.2 W) and (58.4 N, 151.7 W). After closest approach, ISS will acquire high-resolution images of Ontario Lacus on the terminator as the Sun sets for southern winter.
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Quelle: NASA

2867 Views

Donnerstag, 25. Juli 2013 - 11:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Von explosiver Sternentstehung zu ihrem Versiegen - ALMA wirft ein neues Licht auf das Rätsel der fehlenden massereichen Galaxien

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Neue Beobachtungen mit dem ALMA-Observatorium in Chile haben Astronomen haben erstmals enthüllt, wie starke Sternentstehung Gas aus einer Galaxie heraustreiben kann und so zukünftige Sterngenerationen aus Mangel an Material für Entstehung und Wachstum sprichwörtlich verhungern lässt. Die dramatischen Aufnahmen zeigen gewaltige Ausströmungen molekularen Gases, die von Sternentstehungsregionen un der nahegelegenen Sculptor-Galaxie ausgestoßen werden. Diese neuen Ergebnisse liefern ein wichtiges Puzzlestück zur Klärung des seltsamen Phänomens, dass besonders massereiche Galaxien im Universum eher selten sind. Die dazugehörige Studie erscheint am 25. Juli 2013 in der Fachzeitschrift Nature.
Galaxien – Systeme aus bis zu Hunderten Milliarden von Sternen wie unsere Heimatgalaxie, die Milchstraße – sind die Grundbausteine des Kosmos auf großen Skalen. Ein wichtiges Ziel der Astronomie ist es, zu verstehen, wie sich Galaxien ausgehend von den ersten Protogalaxien kurz nach dem Urknall bis heute entwickelt haben. Eine entscheidende Frage dabei: Was bestimmt, wie viele Sterne in einer Galaxie entstehen?
NGC 253, auch bekannt als Sculptor-Galaxie, ist eine Spiralgalaxie im Sternbild Sculptor (der Bildhauer) am Südsternhimmel. Mit einer Entfernung von 11,5 Millionen Lichtjahren ist sie einer unserer näheren galaktischen Nachbarn und die uns nächste von der Südhalbkugel aus sichtbare Starburst-Galaxie [1]. Mit dem Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) haben Astronomen die Zentralregion von NGC 253 anvisiert – und fanden in der Tat molekulares Gas, das senkrecht zur galaktischen Scheibe ausströmt!
„Mit ALMAs Empfindlichkeit und seinem hervorragenden Auflösungsvermögen konnten wir zum ersten Mal starke Konzentrationen kalten Gases ausmachen, das durch die starken Druckwellen weggeblasen wird, die sich in Form von sich ausdehnenden Hüllen um die jungen Sterne ausbilden”, erklärt Alberto Bolatto von der University of Maryland in den USA und zur Zeit auf einem Forschungssemester am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie in Heidelberg, der Erstautor der Studie. „Die Gasmenge, die wir messen, zeigt deutlich, dass einige sternbildende Galaxien mehr Gas ausspucken als sie aufnehmen. Wir könnten also heute Zeuge eines Phänomens sein, das im frühen Universum häufig vorgekommen ist.”
Diese Ergebnisse könnten mit dazu beitragen zu erklären, warum Astronomen bislang erstaunlich wenige Galaxien mit hoher Masse im Universum gefunden haben. Computermodelle zeigen, dass ältere, rötliche Galaxien deutlich mehr Masse haben und aus viel mehr Sternen bestehen sollten als man es beobachtet. Es scheint als wären die galaktischen Winde oder Gasausströmungen so stark, dass sie der Galaxie den Nachschub an Materie für die nächste Generation von Sternen entziehen würden [2].
„Diese Strukturen liegen auf einem Bogen, der nahezu perfekt mit den Rändern der zuvor beobachteten Ausströmungen aus heißem ionisiertem Gas übereinstimmt”, merkt Fabian Walter an, einer der Koautoren des Fachartikels und führender Wissenschaftler am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie in Heidelberg. „Wir können jetzt Schritt für Schritt verfolgen, wie sich aus starker Sternentstehung solche Ausströmungen entwickeln.”
Die Wissenschaftler haben ermittelt, dass gewaltige Mengen molekularen Gases – etwa das Zehnfache der Masse unserer Sonne pro Jahr, vermutlich sogar mehr – mit Geschwindigkeiten zwischen 150.000 und 1.000.000 Kilometern pro Stunde aus der Galaxie ausgestoßen werden [3]. Die Gesamtmenge des herausgeblasenen Gases wäre demnach mehr als das, was im selben Zeitraum in die Entstehung von Sternen innerhalb der Galaxie umgesetzt werden würde. Bei dieser Rate würde der Galaxie bereits in 60 Millionen Jahren das Gas ausgehen.
„Für mich ist das ein Paradebeispiel dafür, wie neue Instrumente die Zukunft der Astronomie bestimmen. Wir haben die Starburst-Region in NGC 253 und andere nahegelegene Starburst-Galaxien fast zehn Jahre lang untersucht. Aber bevor es ALMA gab, hatten wir keine Chance, derart feine Details zu sehen“ erklärt Walter. Für die Studie wurde eine frühe Konfiguration von ALMA mit nur 16 Antennen verwendet. „Es ist aufregend, sich auszumalen, was uns die komplette ALMA mit ihren 66 Antennen über diese Art von Materieströmen zeigen wird“, schließt Walter.
Weitere Studien mit der gesamten ALMA-Anlage werden dazu beitragen, das endgültige Schicksal des Gases zu bestimmen, das vom Sternwind weggetragen wird. Dabei wird sich zeigen, ob die von der Sternentstehung getriebenen Winde das sternbildende Material recyclen oder tatsächlich aus der Galaxie entfernen.
Endnoten
[1] Starburst-Galaxien erzeugen mit einer außergewöhnlich hohen Rate neue Sterne. NGC 253 ist eine der nächstgelegenen Galaxien dieses Typs und damit ein ideales Beobachtungsziel für die Untersuchung der Auswirkungen dieses enormen Sternwachstums auf die Galaxie selber.
[2] Vorangegangene Beobachtungen hatten bereits gezeigt, dass heißeres, aber wesentlich dünneres Material von den Sternentstehungregionen in NGC 253 wegströmt. Das alleine hätte allerdings nur geringe Auswirkungen auf das Schicksal der Galaxie und ihre Fähigkeit weitere Sterngenerationen zu erzeugen, wenn überhaupt. Die neuen ALMA-Daten zeigen viel dichteres molekulares Gas dabei, wie es duch die Entstehung neuer Sterne seinen ersten Schub bekommt und dann zusammen mit dem dünnen, heißen Gas in den galaktischen Halo hinausgespült wird.
[3] Obwohl die Geschwindigkeiten sehr hoch sind, könnten sie dennoch nicht ausreichen, um das Gas aus der Galaxie herauszutreiben. Es wäre dann für Millionen Jahre im galaktischen Halo gefangen und könnte schließlich wieder zurück auf die galaktische Scheibe regnen und dort neue Phasen der Sternentstehung auslösen.
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Dieses Bild zeigt eine dreidimensionale Visualisierung von ALMA-Beobachtungen kühlen Kohlenstoffmonoxidgases in der nahegelegenen Starburst-Galaxie NGC 253, auch bekannt unter dem Namen Sculptor-Galaxie. Dabei steht die vertikale Achse für die Geschwindigkeit des Gases, während die horizontale Achse verschiedene Winkel entlang der Zentralbereiche der Galaxie mit drehendem Blickwinkel zeigt. Die Farben kodieren die Intensität der Strahlung, so wie sie mit ALMA beobachtet wurde. Pink ist am stärksten, rot am schwächsten.
Anhand dieser Daten konnte man zeigen, dass große Mengen kühlen Gases aus den zentralen Bereichen dieser Galaxie ausgestoßen werden. Die nächste Generation von Sternen wird sich daher nur noch unter großen Schwierigkeiten bilden können.
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Dieses Vergleichsbild der nahegelegenen hellen Spiralgalaxie NGC 253, auch bekannt unter dem Namen Sculptor-Galaxie, zeigt eine Infrarotansicht (links) vom VISTA-Durchmusterungsteleskop der ESO und eine Detailaufnahme kühler Gas-Ausströmungen mit ALMA (rechts).
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Diese Aufsuchkarte zeigt die Position der nahegelegenen Spiralgalaxie NGC 253 im Sternbild Sculptor (der Bildhauer). Die Karte zeigt die meisten mit bloßem Auge unter guten Bedingungen sichtbaren Sterne. Die Lage der Galaxie ist mit einem roten Kreis markiert. NGC 253 ist hell genug um von einem dunklen Standort aus schon mit einem Fernglas leicht als langgestrecktes Nebelfleckchen gesehen werden zu können.
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Das VLT Survey Telescope (VST) hat die nahegelegene Spiralgalaxie NGC 253 in ihrer ganzen Schönheit und bis ins letzte Detail portraitiert. Dieses Bild ist vermutlich die beste Weitfeldaufnahme dieses Objekts und seiner Umgebung überhaupt und demonstriert eindrücklich die Schärfe der großflächigen Himmelsaufnahmen, die das VST als neuestes Teleskop am Paranal-Observatorium der ESO liefert. NGC 253 ist übersät mit hell leuchtenden Sternentstehungsgebieten, die mit enormen Raten neue Sterne produzieren. Die Daten, auf denen dieses Bild basiert, wurden mit dem VST-Tube-System verarbeitet, das von A. Grado Und Mitarbeitern am INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte entwickelt worden ist.
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Quelle: ESO
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Update: Von NRAO gibt es hierzu eine sehr schöne Animation: https://people.ok.ubc.ca/erosolo/post/ngc253_co.mp4

Tags: Starburst to Star Bust 

3015 Views

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013 - 21:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA testet ORION-Fallschirm im Livestream

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NASA's next manned spaceship, the Orion capsule, will be dropped over Arizona Wednesday (July 24) for a parachute test that will be broadcast live...

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Frams: NASA-TV


3169 Views

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013 - 19:43 Uhr

Mars-Chroniken - HIRISE sieht den Weg von Mars-Rover Curiosity

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View From Mars Orbiter Showing Curiosity Rover at 'Shaler'
NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity appears as a bluish dot near the lower right corner of this enhanced-color view from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.  The rover's tracks are visible extending from the landing site, "Bradbury Landing," in the left half of the scene. Two bright, relatively blue spots surrounded by darker patches are where the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft's landing jets cleared away reddish surface dust at the landing site. North is toward the top.  For scale, the two parallel lines of the wheel tracks are about 10 feet (3 meters) apart.
HiRISE shot this image on June 27, 2013, when Curiosity was at an outcrop called "Shaler" in the "Glenelg" area of Gale Crater.  Subsequently the rover drove away from Glenelg toward the southwest.
When HiRISE captured this view, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was rolled for an eastward-looking angle rather than straight downward. The afternoon sun illuminated the scene from the western sky, so the lighting was nearly behind the camera. Specifically, the angle from sun to orbiter to rover was just 5.47 degrees. This geometry hides shadows and reveals subtle color variations.
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Quelle: NASA

Tags: HIRISE 

3010 Views

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013 - 18:00 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 330-342

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Curiosity Makes Its Longest One-Day Drive on Mars

View From Curiosity's Arm-Mounted Camera After a Long Drive
The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on NASA's Curiosity rover is carried at an angle when the rover's arm is stowed for driving.  Still, the camera is able to record views of the terrain Curiosity is crossing in Gale Crater, and rotating the image 150 degrees provides this right-side-up scene.  The scene is toward the south, including a portion of Mount Sharp and a band of dark dunes in front of the mountain.  It was taken on the 140th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars, shortly after Curiosity finished a 329.1-foot (100.3-meter) drive on that sol. The drive was twice as long as any previous sol's drive by Curiosity.
When the robotic arm, turret, and MAHLI are stowed, the MAHLI is looking out from the front left side of the rover. This is much like the view from the driver's side of cars sold in the USA.
The main purpose of Curiosity's MAHLI camera is to acquire close-up, high-resolution views of rocks and soil at the rover's Gale Crater field site. The camera is capable of focusing on any target at distances of about 0.8 inch (2.1 centimeters) to infinity. This means it can, as shown here, also obtain pictures of the Martian landscape.
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PASADENA, Calif. – NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drove twice as far on July 21 as on any other day of the mission so far: 109.7 yards (100.3 meters).
The length of the drive took advantage of starting the 340th Martian day, or sol, of the mission from a location with an unusually good view for rover engineers to plan a safe path. In weeks to come, the rover team plans to begin using "autonav" capability for the rover to autonomously navigate a path for itself, which could make such long drives more frequent.
Curiosity is about three weeks into a multi-month trek, from the "Glenelg" area where it worked for the first half of 2013, to an entry point for the mission's major destination: the lower layers of Mount Sharp. The mission's longest one-day drive prior to July 21 was about 54 yards (49 meters), on Sol 50 (Sept. 26, 2012). After completing the longer drive, Curiosity drove 68.2 yards (62.4 meters) on July 23 (Sol 342), bringing the mission's total driving distance so far to 0.81 mile (1.23 kilometers).
The Sol 340 drive included three segments, with turns at the end of the first and second segments. Rover planners used information from stereo imaging by the Navigation Camera (Navcam) on Curiosity's mast, plus images from the telephoto-lens Mast Camera (Mastcam).  The drive also used the rover's capability to use imagery taken during the drive to calculate the driving distance, a way to verify that wheels have not been slipping too much while turning.
"What enabled us to drive so far on Sol 340 was starting at a high point and also having Mastcam images giving us the size of rocks so we could be sure they were not hazards," said rover planner Paolo Bellutta of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “We could see for quite a distance, but there was an area straight ahead that was not clearly visible, so we had to find a path around that area."
The rover was facing southwest when the sol began. It turned slightly more to the west before driving and used visual odometry to be sure it drove the intended distance (about 55 yards or 50 meters) before turning back farther southward. The second leg, next turn, and third leg completed the drive without visual odometry, though the rover was using another new capability: to turn on visual odometry autonomously if tilt or other factors exceed predetermined limits.
New software on Curiosity gives it the capability to use visual odometry through a range of temperatures. This was needed because testing this spring indicated the Navcam pair linked to the rover's B-side computer is more sensitive to temperature than anticipated. Without the compensating software, the onboard analysis of stereo images could indicate different distances to the same point, depending on the temperature at which the images are taken. The rover was switched from its A-side computer to the redundant B-side computer on Feb. 28 due to a flash-memory problem -- subsequently resolved -- on the A-side. The Navcam pair linked to the A-side computer shows less variability with temperature than the pair now in use.
"For now, we're using visual odometry mostly for slip-checking," said JPL's Jennifer Trosper, deputy project manager for Curiosity. "We are validating the capability to begin using autonav at different temperatures."
The autonomous navigation capability will enable rover planners to command drives that go beyond the route that they can confirm as safe from previous-sol images. They can tell the rover to use the autonomous capability to choose a safe path for itself beyond that distance.
Curiosity landed at the "Bradbury Landing" location within Gale Crater on Aug. 6, 2012, EDT and Universal Time (Aug. 5, PDT). From there, the rover drove eastward to the Glenelg area, where it accomplished the mission's major science objective of finding evidence for an ancient wet environment that had conditions favorable for microbial life. The rover's route is now southwestward. At Mount Sharp, in the middle of Gale Crater, scientists anticipate finding evidence about how the ancient Martian environment changed and evolved.
JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover.
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 330 (2013-07-11 02:46:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 330 (2013-07-11 02:49:59 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 330 (2013-07-11 02:53:58 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 330 (2013-07-11 03:13:32 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Left B (RHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 330 (2013-07-11 02:33:19 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 12, 2013, Sol 331 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 06:34:23 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 331 (2013-07-12 11:59:05 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 331 (2013-07-12 06:38:32 UTC).
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 331 (2013-07-12 06:39:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 333 (2013-07-14 10:26:04 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 333 (2013-07-14 10:36:57 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 14, 2013, Sol 333 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 07:27:26 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 333 (2013-07-14 10:16:07 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 333 (2013-07-14 10:21:34 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 16, 2013, Sol 335 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 08:39:57 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 335 (2013-07-16 08:43:50 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 335 (2013-07-16 08:45:41 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Right B (RHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 335 (2013-07-16 07:52:01 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 335 (2013-07-16 08:42:21 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 336 (2013-07-17 09:08:15 UTC).
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Left B (RHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 336 (2013-07-17 08:18:18 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 337 (2013-07-18 11:38:03 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 18, 2013, Sol 337 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 10:59:27 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 337 (2013-07-18 11:35:31 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Right B (RHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 337 (2013-07-18 10:29:52 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 338 (2013-07-19 10:43:26 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 19, 2013, Sol 338 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 10:36:13 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 338 (2013-07-19 10:40:26 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 339 (2013-07-20 08:28:08 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 340 (2013-07-21 13:43:56 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 21, 2013, Sol 340 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 11:54:31 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 340 (2013-07-21 17:57:02 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 340 (2013-07-21 13:51:18 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Left B (RHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 341 (2013-07-22 09:47:43 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 342 (2013-07-23 15:11:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 342 (2013-07-23 15:01:11 UTC).
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Left B (RHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 342 (2013-07-23 14:59:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 342 (2013-07-23 13:41:07 UTC). 
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Fotos: NASA

Tags: Mars Mars-Rover Curiosity 

2945 Views

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013 - 13:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - So könnte einmal eine 5 Milliarden Dollar Raum-Yacht aussehen...

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Here's What Your $5 Billion Space Yacht Could Look Like
John Spencer, president of the Space Tourism Society, has been working since the 1990s on Destiny, his vision for living the high life very high above the surface of the Earth.
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Last month PayPal told the world about PayPal Galactic, a proposal to create a payment system for space purchases. Along with the announcement came a series of fantastic retro-futuristic illustrations of an extraterrestrial life of leisure, perhaps depicting some of the good life upon which you'd be spending your space bucks. John Spencer, the president of the Los Angeles–based Space Tourism Society, made those illustrations. And Spencer is doing more than drawing pictures that look like Norman Rockwell meets the Jetsons. He's also designing a space yacht for those among the one percent who want to be early adopters of the luxury orbital getaway. 
Spencer's proposed space super yacht Destiny is designed to cruise in Earth's orbit, offering a striking view of our planet. In illustrations, the 300-foot-long ship cuts a remarkable profile—its bulbous body seems almost butterfly-like, with its four sails outstretched like wings in midflight. Like PayPal Galactic, Destiny is an idea for a market that doesn't exist yet. Still, this image of Destiny offers a glimpse into John Spencer's vision of spacefaring luxury, one he's been working toward for decades. 
"We're getting into things that have probably never ever been thought of before from a real world perspective," he says. "All the things we take for granted we have to redesign." 
For Destiny, this includes how the beds will be designed to prevent passengers from drifting away in their sleep, and how dining rooms will be laid out so food won't float away. Even the material Destiny will be made of has yet to be invented. While many of his designs seem to be far-fetched today, Spencer is hopeful that the space yacht will be real and in orbit within 15 years. 
Body
The ship's hull will be made of a dozen spheroid inflatable sections, which will be expanded and fused together in orbit. Destiny is meant to stay in space after being built and never reenter Earth's atmosphere, so the body sections must maintain their shape and integrity in the vacuum environment of space over the course of the yacht's life. 
Spencer, a space architect and designer by trade, wrote in his book Space Tourism: Do You Want to Go? that spherical structures are ideal for space because their symmetry makes them stable and strong. Each section will have an interior webbed support that will limit how far it can expand. 
"The sections of the yacht, some of them are just large volumes, some of them have multiple rooms, it depends on where you are," Spencer said. "Aft is for crew quarters and storage, front is for entertainment." 
Power and Propulsion
Because Destiny will be an orbital yacht, it will not need the massive engines and large fuel reserves required to escape Earth's atmosphere. In fact, it won't have an engine at all. The ship will be outfitted with maneuvering modules with thrusters. The modules, which will be 2-feet deep, 2-feet wide, and 4-feet long, will be positioned strategically along the hull. Should the ship need to maneuver to avoid space debris or another ship, the modules can be operated wirelessly from the bridge. Spencer says that he is exploring the use of flywheels to power the thrusters. 
In fact, Spencer envisions his space yacht as totally wireless. There will be no single power distribution system—long-life batteries will power all of the ship's 300 to 400 electrical devices. Each water and waste-management unit is self-contained with its own recycling, purification system, and reserve water supply. "[It] frees the designers to get pretty outrageous in terms of design because you're not dealing with strict plumbing and electrical," Spencer says. 
As the batteries run out of juice, they will be brought to a charging station by a small army of service robots. The bots will also monitor the water and waste-management systems. 
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Sails
Destiny's four distinctive sails are more than ornamentation. They'll double as solar panels, absorbing the light and heat from the sun and using some of the power generated to charge the batteries onboard, while dissipating the excess. Spencer doesn't know what the material he'll need for Destiny's sails or hull will actually look like. Undeterred, he has dubbed the yet-to-be-discovered material Futuretanium. No word yet whether it will be an alloy of unobtanium. 
Float Sphere
Passengers will be able to enjoy the benefits of zero gravity in the orb situated in the middle of Destiny's hull. The 60-foot-wide float sphere will offer 120-degree views outward and toward Earth. Spencer describes it as a "big friggin' open space where you can really experience zero gravity" and float around. "Living in zero gravity is the most unique experience you can have going to space," he says. "That's why the float sphere is such a prominent aspect of Destiny's design." 
Creature Comforts
Destiny wouldn't deserve the classification of super space yacht if it didn't come with a few space-age amenities. Airflow will be monitored by mobile airflow compensators, or "bugs," that will silently follow passengers around to keep the air comfortable, dispensing hot or cold air as needed and responding to voice commands. 
In Spencer's vision for the ship, Destiny's hospitality staff will offer massages, chefs will be brought on board to provide meals, and astronomy experts will explain to passengers what they are seeing as the gaze out the viewports. 
There will even be a floating hot tub in the float sphere, though an orbital spa won't look quite like its earthbound counterparts. Spencer's plan for the "Hot Sphere" involves a layer of water surrounding a mechanical sphere, which heats the water and sprays bubbles. No solid outer layer is needed since water naturally forms a sphere in zero gravity. Gyroscopes will keep the mobile Jacuzzi in place. 
And Finally, Price
All this innovation will be expensive. Anyone looking to buy a Destiny-class space yacht will have to cough up a cool $5 billion to $6 billion. It's enough to make the six-figure price tag people are paying to book a seat on the first suborbital tourism flights look like a bargain. 
Why the name "Destiny," anyway? Spencer had two reasons: "It was literally my destiny to work on these things. Plus anyone who is going to spend five or six billion bucks on one of these things is going to have a bit of an ego and will want a cool name." 
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Quelle: PopularMechanics.

2755 Views

Mittwoch, 24. Juli 2013 - 09:26 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA Team gebildet, um EVA-23 Vorfall zu untersuchen

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Chris Cassidy works outside the International Space Station on 16 July. His 6.5-hour EVA with Luca Parmitano was cut short after just 92 minutes by the potentially serious water leakage incident. Photo Credit: NASA

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A five-member investigation board – including veteran astronaut Mike Foreman – has been convened by NASA and will begin work on 2 August to identify the cause of a perplexing problem which caused Luca Parmitano’s helmet to fill with water during EVA-23. The spacewalk, which took place on Tuesday 16 July, was supposed to last 6.5 hours, but was terminated by Flight Director David Korth after just 92 minutes when Parmitano reported that water was entering his helmet. At its worst, the incident left 1-1.5 liters of water inside the helmet and rendered Italy’s first spacewalker temporarily unable to hear and speak as liquid entered his eyes, nose, ears and mouth.
The investigation board is chaired by Chris Hansen, the International Space Station (ISS) chief engineer at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. He will be joined by Mike Foreman – who performed a cumulative total of six EVAs during two Space Shuttle missions in March 2008 and November 2009 – as well as ISS safety and mission assurance lead Richard Fullerton, human factors specialist Sudhakar Rajula and NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) chief engineer Joe Pellicciotti. According to NASA, the team will investigate the 16 July incident and are tasked to “develop a set of lessons learned” and “suggest ways to prevent a similar problem in the future”.
NASA engineering teams are already hard at work exploring the space suit hardware, with recent attention having centered on the sublimator, gas trap, I-134 filter, check valve and water separator, all located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) backpack. Although spare parts are available aboard the ISS, the Associated Press has recently reported that NASA is scrambling to put a specialized toolkit aboard the Progress M-20M cargo craft, due to launch toward the space station on Saturday 27 July. At the present time, all NASA space suits – properly known as “Extravehicular Mobility Units” (EMUs) – are classed as “offline” and will only be used in an emergency situation. None of the tasks scheduled for the remainder of Parmitano’s EVA with Chris Cassidy is considered to be urgent and will be delayed until the suit is repaired or the problem isolated.
EVA-23 – the 23rd station-based spacewalk by astronauts clad in U.S. suits from the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) – began 13 minutes ahead of schedule at 7:57 a.m. EDT on Tuesday 16 July. The two men swiftly parted company, with Cassidy heading to the box-like Z-1 truss to complete the reconfiguration of Y-Bypass jumper cables and Parmitano making his way to the Unity node to begin routing 1553 data cables and an Ethernet cable to support Russia’s forthcoming Nauka Multi-Purpose Laboratory Module (MLM), due to launch later this year or early in 2014.
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Luca Parmitano works on the routing of data and Ethernet cables during EVA-23. Photo Credit: NASA
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About 45 minutes into the EVA, Parmitano made his first reference to the presence of water on the back of his head, soaking into his “Snoopy” communications skullcap. Within ten minutes, he was joined by Cassidy, who verified that up to 800 milliliters of water was visible inside the helmet. According to Cassidy, the water soaked Parmitano’s Snoopy cap and covered his eyes and ears. In conjunction with Mission Control, the astronauts debated possible causes and solutions. Suspecting a coolant leak, Parmitano reduced the flow rate, and admitted that a drinking water leak was unlikely as his Disposable In-Suit Drink Bag (DIDB) was already dry. By 9:06 a.m., less than 20 minutes after the first report of trouble, Flight Director Korth terminated the EVA and ordered both spacewalkers to make their way back to the Quest airlock.
In order to rid his helmet of the water, Parmitano resolved to drink some of it and noted an unusual taste, which would seem to be consistent with it coming into contact with the anti-fog compounds on the inside of his visor. Under the deft control of Cassidy, the hatch was closed and sealed at 9:26 a.m., the airlock was quickly repressurized and Parmitano’s helmet was off by 9:38. EVA-23 marked the second-shortest spacewalk in ISS history, eclipsed only by a 14-minute excursion in June 2004, which was aborted shortly after it started when the primary oxygen bottle in astronaut Mike Fincke’s suit began to rapidly lose pressure.
Ahead of today’s announcement by NASA of the five-member investigative board, an Anomaly Resolution Team is also at work to identify the cause and make recommendations. Preliminary reports indicate that water pooled primarily inside the helmet and near to the liquid transport lines in the upper segment of the suit’s hard upper torso. The remainder of the suit, from the chest downwards, appeared to be dry. According to a report by NASASpaceflight.com, overall EMU pressures remained nominal throughout EVA-23 and there were no indications that the suit was running out of primary water. No leaks were reported from the DIDB, from Parmitano’s Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment or from the liquid-transport lines of the hard upper torso. This has served to eliminate a number of key suspects, leaving a possible cause somewhere in T2 port, or aft helmet vent.
The five-member investigative team will begin its work on 2 August and has access to experts and support personnel, enabling it to gather pertinent data, analyze facts, conduct necessary tests, identify the underlying cause of the EVA-23 incident and make recommendations to NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden in order to prevent such situations occurring during future spacewalks.
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Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin photographs Parmitano and Cassidy from within the Quest airlock’s inner segment as EVA-23 draws to a close. Yurchikhin and NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg served as “intravehicular” crew members during the EVA, helping the spacewalkers with the suits and running the checklists. Photo Credit: NASA
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Quelle: NASA

Tags: EVA-23 Investigate EVA-23 Incident 

2980 Views

Dienstag, 23. Juli 2013 - 23:14 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Mega-UFO neben Airliner oder...

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...nur ein Juni-Käfer, welche gegen 21 Uhr "um die Bäume brummen" und zuweilen wie auf dieser Aufnahme vom Sonntag 21.07.2013 ihre Spur hinterlassen.

Aufnahme: hjkc


3110 Views

Dienstag, 23. Juli 2013 - 21:21 Uhr

Raumfahrt - BEZOS Expedition zur Bergung von F-1-Antriebsmotor von Apollo-11-Saturn-V

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SERIAL NUMBER 2044
When we stepped off the Seabed Worker four months ago in Port Canaveral, we had enough major components to fashion displays of two flown F-1 engines. We brought back thrust chambers, gas generators, injectors, heat exchangers, turbines, fuel manifolds and dozens of other artifacts – all simply gorgeous and a striking testament to the Apollo program. There was one secret that the ocean didn’t give up easily: mission identification. The components’ fiery end and heavy corrosion from 43 years underwater removed or covered up most of the original serial numbers. We left Florida knowing the conservation team had their work cut out for them, and we’ve kept our fingers crossed ever since.
Today, I’m thrilled to share some exciting news. One of the conservators who was scanning the objects with a black light and a special lens filter has made a breakthrough discovery – “2044” – stenciled in black paint on the side of one of the massive thrust chambers. 2044 is the Rocketdyne serial number that correlates to NASA number 6044, which is the serial number for F-1 Engine #5 from Apollo 11. The intrepid conservator kept digging for more evidence, and after removing more corrosion at the base of the same thrust chamber, he found it – "Unit No 2044" – stamped into the metal surface.
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44 years ago tomorrow Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon, and now we have recovered a critical technological marvel that made it all possible. Huge kudos to the conservation team at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas. Conservation is painstaking work that requires remarkable levels of patience and attention to detail, and these guys have both.
This is a big milestone for the project and the whole team couldn’t be more excited to share it with you all.
Sincerely,
Jeff
March 20, 2013
What an incredible adventure. We are right now onboard the Seabed Worker headed back to Cape Canaveral after finishing three weeks at sea, working almost 3 miles below the surface. We found so much. We’ve seen an underwater wonderland – an incredible sculpture garden of twisted F-1 engines that tells the story of a fiery and violent end, one that serves testament to the Apollo program. We photographed many beautiful objects in situ and have now recovered many prime pieces. Each piece we bring on deck conjures for me the thousands of engineers who worked together back then to do what for all time had been thought surely impossible.
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Die F-1-Bergung aus den Tiefen des Atlantik
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Many of the original serial numbers are missing or partially missing, which is going to make mission identification difficult. We might see more during restoration. The objects themselves are gorgeous.
The technology used for the recovery is in its own way as otherworldly as the Apollo technology itself. The Remotely Operated Vehicles worked at a depth of more than 14,000 feet, tethered to our ship with fiber optics for data and electric cables transmitting power at more than 4,000 volts. We on the team were often struck by poetic echoes of the lunar missions. The buoyancy of the ROVs looks every bit like microgravity. The blackness of the horizon. The gray and colorless ocean floor. Only the occasional deep sea fish broke the illusion.
We’re bringing home enough major components to fashion displays of two flown F-1 engines. The upcoming restoration will stabilize the hardware and prevent further corrosion. We want the hardware to tell its true story, including its 5,000 mile per hour re-entry and subsequent impact with the ocean surface. We’re excited to get this hardware on display where just maybe it will inspire something amazing.
While I spent a reasonable chunk of time in my cabin emailing and working, it didn't keep me from getting to know the team. I'd like to call out a bunch of thank you’s. First of all to David Concannon who pulled together this team. The whole thing would simply have been impossible without the A-team, and I'm not sure anyone other than Dave could have brought them together.
To Rory Golden for his incredible Irish wisdom which put us on the right track multiple times. Rory also wins the best eye award - nobody could spot faint markings and mentally map twisted, corroded, 90% concealed parts like Rory. Incidentally, he's the same guy who found the main ship's wheel of Titanic, which many before had tried and failed.
To Vince Capone, who kept us organized and on track. His deep domain knowledge of recovery and his methodical, controlled approach made this mission work.
To Dr. John Broadwater for his passionate and conscientious care for the archeological mapping and conservation of our raised artifacts. He claims to have found time to sleep, but I didn't see it. He also gave us an incredible presentation of his work on raising the U.S.S. Monitor.
To Mike Kelly whose sonar interpretation made finding these needles in a haystack possible. Time after time, he took us directly to the next target.
To the ROV pilots, Hans Brygfjeld, Jarle Eide, Kai Loven, Michael McLeod, Ole Iden, Ronnie Haugland, Sean Gleason, Stewart Cruickshanks, Thoralf Moen and Troy Launay. Though underwater, operating the ROVs is called flying, and it's easy to see why. Strong currents, obscuring silt, tethers to manage and keep untangled – these guys make it look easy but it isn't. Particularly impressive was watching them rig slings to these awkward objects with the manipulator arms, three miles down. Also, role models for a can-do attitude.
To Josh Bernstein and Evan Kovacs who captured all of the amazing photographs and underwater high definition footage. Both turn out to be renaissance men explorers who were ready to help at every turn.
To Dr. Ken Kamler our team physician – we’re happy we didn’t need you, but we always knew we would be in good hands if we needed it. And thank you for the riveting lecture on your experiences on Mt. Everest.
To Arild Olsen and Oddvar Takseth, our incredibly-talented crane operators who brought the artifacts on board with the precision of surgeons. Operating any crane is difficult and requires care, but doing so on a ship at sea where the load is picking up energy with every roll and pitch, requires special art.
To Augusto Paras and his team for keeping us well fed and deliciously fed. It's sailing lore that a happy crew starts and ends with the quality of the mess. We're going to have to lose a few pounds now - and nobody's complaining.
To Captain Alf Tore Kristoffersen, Operations Manager Doug Scott and the entire crew of the Seabed Worker. This truly is a first class ship in every way, and we appreciate everything you did to make this mission successful.
To my family members, Mark Bezos, Steve Poore, Mike Bezos, and Jackie Bezos. Thanks for sharing this underwater adventure with me. We have surely traveled in a land of marvels. Mark helped make key decisions with great judgment, kept us organized, and kept us laughing, hard. Steve maintained a sense of proportion and focused us on big things at the right times. Mike and Jackie both quickly became Dr. Broadwater’s archeological assistants, and worked at all times of night and day.
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Finally, I want to thank NASA. They extended every courtesy and every helping hand – all of NASA’s interactions were characterized by plain old common sense, something which we all know is impressive and uncommon. We're excited to be bringing a couple of your F-1s home.
Sincerely,
Jeff Bezos
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Quelle: BEZOS

Tags: F-1s home F-1 engines SERIAL NUMBER 2044 

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