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Sonntag, 10. Februar 2013 - 22:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Fünf Jahre Forschungslabor Columbus in der Schwerelosigkeit

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Von außen sieht es aus wie eine glänzend polierte Tonne, im Inneren enthält es hingegen jede Menge Möglichkeiten für wissenschaftliches Arbeiten in der Schwerelosigkeit - das europäische Forschungsmodul Columbus fliegt seit fünf Jahren an der Internationalen Raumstation ISS durch das Weltall. Betrieben und überwacht wird es aus dem Columbus-Kontrollzentrum im Deutschen Raumfahrt-Kontrollzentrum des Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Am 7. Februar 2008 saßen die Flugdirektoren dort besonders gespannt an ihren Konsolen: Um 20.45 Uhr mitteleuropäischer Zeit startete das Space Shuttle Atlantis vom amerikanischen Kennedy Space Center mit dem Forschungsmodul an Bord zur Raumstation. "Der Erwartungsdruck war enorm hoch", erinnert sich Gerd Söllner, leitender Flugdirektor der Columbus-Mission 1E.

Doch zunächst wurde die Geduld aller Beteiligten auf eine Probe gestellt: Der geplante Start am 6. Dezember 2007 wurde abgebrochen, weil nicht alle Treibstoffsensoren des Shuttles funktionierten. Die Astronauten reisten wieder ab und kehrten zu Training und Familien zurück. Am 7. Februar 2008 waren dann alle technischen Probleme behoben, und das Forschungsmodul startete zu seinem Bestimmungsort etwa 400 Kilometer über der Erde. "Wir saßen natürlich alle schon während des Starts an unseren Konsolen", sagt Flight Director Gerd Söllner. "Knapp zwei Stunden nach dem Start erhielten wir dann schon die ersten Telemetriedaten der Experimente, die an der Außenseite des Forschungsmoduls installiert werden sollten." Diese mussten auch schon während des Flugs zur Raumstation minimal beheizt werden, damit die empfindlichen Instrumente den Transport überstanden. Columbus schlummerte da noch unbeteiligt in der Ladebucht des Shuttles.

Verschollene Kommandos aus dem Kontrollraum

Zwei Tage später - am 9. Februar - wurde Columbus mit einem Roboterarm aus dem Shuttle gehoben und an der Raumstation angekoppelt. Das europäische Forschungsmodul war bereit für die Inbetriebnahme. Wie beim Einzug in ein neues Haus schalteten die Ingenieure des DLR nach und nach die wichtigsten Funktionen ein: Strom und Heizung funktionierten. "Alles, was für die Minimalversorgung wichtig war, war da - aber alle weiteren Kommandos kamen nicht am Forschungsmodul an." Im Columbus-Kontrollzentrum und in Houston startete die fieberhafte Suche nach dem Fehler. Bereits seit 2001 hatten die Ingenieure am Ablauf der Mission gefeilt, minutiöse Pläne aufgestellt und für mögliche Fehler konkrete Abläufe vorgesehen. Schließlich war die Ursache gefunden: Ein Hauptcomputer der NASA auf der ISS leitete die Kommandos aus Oberpfaffenhofen nicht an Columbus weiter. "Dieser Fehler war einfach nicht vorhersehbar", sagt Gerd Söllner. "Damit war unser lange vorher festgelegter Ablaufplan erst einmal zerschossen."

Anderthalb Tage brachte das die sorgfältig erstellte Timeline in Rückstand. Während eine Mannschaft im Kontrollraum an der Konsole die aktuellen Arbeiten durchführte, grübelte einen Raum weiter das "Anomaly Resolution Team" über der optimalen Umplanung. "Dafür ist ein Kontrollzentrum nun mal da." Die Crew im Weltraum mit dem deutschen Astronauten Hans Schlegel wurde erst einmal mit dem Einbau der Hardware beschäftigt, installierte die Experimentierracks, löste Sicherheitsschrauben. Insgesamt 13 Tage arbeitete das Columbus-Team im Kontrollraum rund um die Uhr in Vollbesetzung, um das Forschungsmodul und seine Experimentanlagen in Betrieb zu nehmen.

Von der Strahlenbiologie bis zur Materialphysik

Seit fünf Jahren laufen mittlerweile Experimente aus den verschiedensten Bereichen in der glänzend polierten "Tonne" mit dem technischen Innenleben. Gravitationsbiologie, Strahlen- und Astrobiologie, Humanphysiologie oder auch Materialphysik gehören zu den Forschungsgebieten: Wie funktioniert der Knochen- und Muskelabbau des Menschen? Wie verhalten sich Pflanzen in der Schwerelosigkeit? Welche Eigenschaften haben Kristalle? Wie verhält sich die Strömung im Erdinneren? Gesteuert werden die Experimente aus verschiedenen Kontrollzentren in Europa - wie zum Beispiel dem MUSC, dem Nutzerzentrum für Weltraumexperimente am DLR Köln. Von dort aus führen die Wissenschaftler ihre Experimente im Biolab an Bord des Forschungsmoduls Columbus durch. Das Kontrollzentrum in Oberpfaffenhofen wartet das Modul und ermöglicht den Experimentbetrieb. "Wir haben unseren Kontrollraum auch heute noch rund um die Uhr besetzt", erläutert Gerd Söllner. "Zwar mit kleinerer Mannschaft, aber dennoch 24 Stunden und sieben Tage in der Woche."

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Quelle: DLR

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STS122-S-058 (7 Feb. 2008) --- The Space Shuttle Atlantis and its seven-member STS-122 crew head toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A occurred at 2:45 p.m. (EST). The launch is the third attempt for Atlantis since December 2007 to carry the European Space Agency's (ESA) Columbus laboratory to the station. During the mission, the crew's prime objective is to attach the laboratory to the Harmony module, adding to the station's size and capabilities. Onboard are astronauts Steve Frick, commander; Alan Poindexter, pilot; Leland Melvin, Rex Walheim, ESA's Hans Schlegel, Stanley Love and ESA's Leopold Eyharts, all mission specialists. Eyharts will join Expedition 16 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the ISS.

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S122-E-005032 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped against the blackness of space, the STS-122 external fuel tank (ET) begins its relative separation from the Space Shuttle Atlantis. An STS-122 crewmember recorded the scene with a digital still camera. The fan-shaped bright area is the result of ET venting after orbiter separation. What happens in this nominal occurence is that the residual cryogenics in the tank heat up to some extent and the pressure increases, popping the relief valve. The residual LOX and LH2 spray out of the tank and are quite noticeable with the light reflection.

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STS122-S-007 (7 Feb. 2008) --- After suiting up, the STS-122 crewmembers pause alongside the Astrovan to wave farewell to onlookers before heading for launch pad 39A for the launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-122 mission. From the right are astronauts Steve Frick, commander; Alan Poindexter, pilot; Leland Melvin, Rex Walheim, European Space Agency's (ESA) Hans Schlegel, Stanley Love and ESA's Leopold Eyharts, all mission specialists. The launch will be the third attempt for Atlantis since December 2007 to carry the ESA Columbus laboratory to the International Space Station (ISS). During the 11-day mission, the crew's prime objective is to attach the laboratory to the Harmony module, adding to the station's size and capabilities. Eyharts will join Expedition 16 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the ISS.

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Hans Schlegel bei Columbus-EVA

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S122-E-009914 (18 Feb. 2008) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Hans Schlegel, STS-122 mission specialist, poses for a photo near a window on the aft flight deck of Space Shuttle Atlantis shortly after undocking from the International Space Station, which is visible through the window.

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STS122-S-074 (20 Feb. 2008) --- Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down on runway 15 of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, concluding the 13-day STS-122 mission. Onboard are NASA astronauts Steve Frick, commander; Alan Poindexter, pilot; Leland Melvin, Rex Walheim, Stanley Love, Daniel Tani, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Hans Schlegel, all mission specialists. Main gear touchdown was 9:07:10 a.m. (EST). Nose gear touchdown was 9:07:20 a.m. Wheel stop was at 9:08:08 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 12 days, 18 hours, 21 minutes and 44 seconds. During the mission, Atlantis' crew installed the new Columbus laboratory, leaving a larger space station and one with increased science capabilities. The Columbus Research Module adds nearly 1,000 cubic feet of habitable volume and affords room for 10 experiment racks, each an independent science lab.

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Quelle: NASA


3113 Views

Sonntag, 10. Februar 2013 - 17:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Hubble nimmt Seitenansicht von Spiral-Galaxy auf

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This thin, glittering streak of stars is the spiral galaxy ESO 121-6, which lies in the southern constellation of Pictor (The Painter's Easel). Viewed almost exactly side-on, the intricate structure of the swirling arms is hidden, but the full length of the galaxy can be seen — including the intense glow from the central bulge, a dense region of tightly packed young stars sitting at the center of the spiral arms.

Tendrils of dark dust can be seen across the frame, partially obscuring the bright center of the galaxy and continuing out towards the smattering of stars at its edges, where the dust lanes and shapes melt into the inky background. Numerous nearby stars and galaxies are visible as small smudges in the surrounding sky, and the brightest stars are dazzlingly prominent towards the bottom left of the image.

ESO 121-6 is a galaxy with patchy, loosely-wound arms and a relatively faint central bulge. It actually belongs to a group of galaxies, a clump of no more than 50 similar structures all loosely bound to one another by gravity. The Milky Way is also a member of a galactic group, known as the Local Group.

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Quelle: NASA

 
 

3147 Views

Sonntag, 10. Februar 2013 - 16:45 Uhr

Astronomie - SOHO-Aufnahmen zeigen zur Erde gerichtete CME

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Three views over time of the coronal mass ejection (CME) released by the sun on Feb. 9, 2013 as seen by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Credit: ESA&NASA/SOHO

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On Feb. 9, 2013 at 2:30 a.m. EST, the sun erupted with an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection or CME, associated with a long duration C2.4-class flare. Experimental NASA research models, based on observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and ESA/NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, show that the CME left the sun at speeds of around 500 miles per second, which is a fairly typical speed for CMEs. Historically, CMEs at this speed are usually benign.

Not to be confused with a solar flare, a CME is a solar phenomenon that can send solar particles into space and reach Earth one to three days later.

Earth-directed CMEs can cause a space weather phenomenon called a geomagnetic storm, which occurs when they connect with the outside of the Earth's magnetic envelope, the magnetosphere, for an extended period of time. In the past, CMEs at this strength have had little effect. They may cause auroras near the poles but are unlikely to disrupt electrical systems on Earth or interfere with GPS or satellite-based communications systems.

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Quelle: NASA


3258 Views

Samstag, 9. Februar 2013 - 23:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Progress-M-16M von ISS abgedockt

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An unpiloted Russian Progress resupply ship departed Saturday from the International Space Station in preparation for the arrival of the next Progress craft Monday.

With the opening of the hooks and latches that held the ISS Progress 48 cargo craft to the station’s Pirs docking compartment for more than six months, the space freighter undocked from the complex at 8:15 a.m. EST. Three minutes later Progress 48 conducted its first separation burn to move itself a safe distance away from the station. A final deorbit burn about three hours later sent the trash-filled craft to its fiery demise as it re-entered the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean around noon.

Progress 48 delivered nearly three tons of supplies for the station crew when it arrived at the station on Aug. 1. Progress resupply ships are not designed to be recovered, so after the cargo is unloaded the crew refills them with trash and station discards for disposal. The cargo module can hold more than 3,700 pounds of trash.

Meanwhile at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the new ISS Progress 50 resupply vehicle rolled out Saturday from the integration facility to its launch pad at the Site 1 complex in the central Asian desert. Launch of the new Russian resupply ship is scheduled for 9:41 a.m. (8:41 p.m. Kazakhstan time) Monday. Progress 50 will deliver 764 pounds of propellant, 110 pounds of oxygen and air, 926 pounds of water and 3,000 pounds of spare parts, experiment hardware and logistics equipment --- 2.9 tons of supplies in all.

Like its two predecessors, Progress 50 is scheduled to launch into an accelerated, four-orbit rendezvous with the station, docking to the recently vacated Pirs only six hours after launch. If any technical issues arise, the Russian flight control team can default to a standard two-day rendezvous plan for the Progress that would result in docking on Wednesday.

NASA TV coverage of Monday’s launch begins at 9:30 a.m., and returns at 3 p.m. for the rendezvous and docking activities, with docking scheduled for 3:40 p.m.

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Fragments of Russia's Progress M-16M cargo spacecraft that did not burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere splashed down in a non-navigational area of the Pacific on Saturday, Mission Control said.

The Progress M-16M undocked from the International Space Station (ISS) at 5:12 p.m. Moscow Time (13:12 GMT) on Saturday.

Russia's Progress M-18M unmanned cargo spacecraft will be docked to the International Space Station (ISS) on Monday night.

With a record of more than 130 launches since 1972, Progress-family freighters remain the backbone of the Russian space cargo fleet. In addition to their main mission as cargo spacecraft, they are used to adjust the space station’s orbit and conduct scientific experiments.

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Frams von ISS-Abdock-Manöver:

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Quelle: NASA, Roscosmos


3084 Views

Samstag, 9. Februar 2013 - 22:55 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity bohrt Mars an Sol 182

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At the center of this image from NASA's Curiosity rover is the hole in a rock called "John Klein" where the rover conducted its first sample drilling on Mars. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Curiosity rover has, for the first time, used a drill carried at the end of its robotic arm to bore into a flat, veiny rock on Mars and collect a sample from its interior. This is the first time any robot has drilled into a rock to collect a sample on Mars.

The fresh hole, about 0.63 inch (1.6 centimeters) wide and 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters) deep in a patch of fine-grained sedimentary bedrock, can be seen in images and other data Curiosity beamed to Earth Saturday. The rock is believed to hold evidence about long-gone wet environments. In pursuit of that evidence, the rover will use its laboratory instruments to analyze rock powder collected by the drill.

"The most advanced planetary robot ever designed is now a fully operating analytical laboratory on Mars," said John Grunsfeld, NASA associate administrator for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. "This is the biggest milestone accomplishment for the Curiosity team since the sky-crane landing last August, another proud day for America."

For the next several days, ground controllers will command the rover's arm to carry out a series of steps to process the sample, ultimately delivering portions to the instruments inside.

"We commanded the first full-depth drilling, and we believe we have collected sufficient material from the rock to meet our objectives of hardware cleaning and sample drop-off," said Avi Okon, drill cognizant engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Rock powder generated during drilling travels up flutes on the bit. The bit assembly has chambers to hold the powder until it can be transferred to the sample-handling mechanisms of the rover's Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA) device.

Before the rock powder is analyzed, some will be used to scour traces of material that may have been deposited onto the hardware while the rover was still on Earth, despite thorough cleaning before launch.

"We'll take the powder we acquired and swish it around to scrub the internal surfaces of the drill bit assembly," said JPL's Scott McCloskey, drill systems engineer. "Then we'll use the arm to transfer the powder out of the drill into the scoop, which will be our first chance to see the acquired sample."

"Building a tool to interact forcefully with unpredictable rocks on Mars required an ambitious development and testing program," said JPL's Louise Jandura, chief engineer for Curiosity's sample system. "To get to the point of making this hole in a rock on Mars, we made eight drills and bored more than 1,200 holes in 20 types of rock on Earth."

Inside the sample-handling device, the powder will be vibrated once or twice over a sieve that screens out any particles larger than six-thousandths of an inch (150 microns) across. Small portions of the sieved sample will fall through ports on the rover deck into the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. These instruments then will begin the much-anticipated detailed analysis.

The rock Curiosity drilled is called "John Klein" in memory of a Mars Science Laboratory deputy project manager who died in 2011. Drilling for a sample is the last new activity for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Project, which is using the car-size Curiosity rover to investigate whether an area within Mars' Gale Crater has ever offered an environment favorable for life.

JPL manages the project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

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Investigating Curiosity's Drill Area

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity used its Mast Camera (Mastcam) to take the images combined into this mosaic of the drill area, called "John Klein." The label "Drill" indicates where the rover ultimately performed its first sample drilling.

Shown on this mosaic are the four targets that were considered for drilling, all of which were analyzed by Curiosity's instrument suite. At "Brock Inlier," data from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and images from the Mars Hand Lens imager (MAHLI) were collected. The target "Wernecke" was brushed by the Dust Removal Tool (DRT) with complementary APXS, MAHLI, and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) analyses. Target "Thundercloud" was the subject of the drill checkout test known as "percuss on rock." The target Drill was interrogated by APXS, MAHLI and ChemCam.

The scene was imaged on Sol 166, the 166th Martian day of Curiosity's work on Mars (January 23, 2013). The color has been white-balanced to show what the rocks would like if they were on Earth.

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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 03:21:45 UTC) .

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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 03:24:21 UTC) .

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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 03:59:21 UTC) .

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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 04:03:01 UTC) .

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This image was taken by Navcam: Right A (NAV_RIGHT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 02:58:17 UTC) .

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This image was taken by Navcam: Left A (NAV_LEFT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 02:07:34 UTC)

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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left A (FHAZ_LEFT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 182 (2013-02-09 02:57:09 UTC) .

Quelle: NASA

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Update 22.55 MEZ

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NASA Curiosity Rover Collects First Martian Bedrock Sample

 
 

PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Curiosity rover has, for the first time, used a drill carried at the end of its robotic arm to bore into a flat, veiny rock on Mars and collect a sample from its interior. This is the first time any robot has drilled into a rock to collect a sample on Mars.

The fresh hole, about 0.63 inch (1.6 centimeters) wide and 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters) deep in a patch of fine-grained sedimentary bedrock, can be seen in images and other data Curiosity beamed to Earth Saturday. The rock is believed to hold evidence about long-gone wet environments. In pursuit of that evidence, the rover will use its laboratory instruments to analyze rock powder collected by the drill.

"The most advanced planetary robot ever designed now is a fully operating analytical laboratory on Mars," said John Grunsfeld, NASA associate administrator for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. "This is the biggest milestone accomplishment for the Curiosity team since the sky-crane landing last August, another proud day for America."

For the next several days, ground controllers will command the rover's arm to carry out a series of steps to process the sample, ultimately delivering portions to the instruments inside.

"We commanded the first full-depth drilling, and we believe we have collected sufficient material from the rock to meet our objectives of hardware cleaning and sample drop-off," said Avi Okon, drill cognizant engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena.

Rock powder generated during drilling travels up flutes on the bit. The bit assembly has chambers to hold the powder until it can be transferred to the sample-handling mechanisms of the rover's Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA) device.

Before the rock powder is analyzed, some will be used to scour traces of material that may have been deposited onto the hardware while the rover still was on Earth, despite thorough cleaning before launch.

"We'll take the powder we acquired and swish it around to scrub the internal surfaces of the drill bit assembly," said JPL's Scott McCloskey, drill systems engineer. "Then we'll use the arm to transfer the powder out of the drill into the scoop, which will be our first chance to see the acquired sample."

"Building a tool to interact forcefully with unpredictable rocks on Mars required an ambitious development and testing program," said JPL's Louise Jandura, chief engineer for Curiosity's sample system."To get to the point of making this hole in a rock on Mars, we made eight drills and bored more than 1,200 holes in 20 types of rock on Earth."

Inside the sample-handling device, the powder will be vibrated once or twice over a sieve that screens out any particles larger than six-thousandths of an inch (150 microns) across. Small portions of the sieved sample will fall through ports on the rover deck into the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. These instruments then will begin the much-anticipated detailed analysis.

The rock Curiosity drilled is called "John Klein" in memory of a Mars Science Laboratory deputy project manager who died in 2011. Drilling for a sample is the last new activity for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Project, which is using the car-size Curiosity rover to investigate whether an area within Mars' Gale Crater has ever offered an environment favorable for life.

Quelle: NASA


2966 Views

Samstag, 9. Februar 2013 - 10:45 Uhr

Astronomie - Are You There, E.T.? SETI findet keine Alien Signale von Exoplaneten

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Are You There, E.T.? SETI Finds No Alien Signals from Exoplanets

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A scan of a color copy of the original computer printout bearing the Wow! signal, taken several years after the signal's 1977 arrival.
CREDIT: The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO)

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Just in case any aliens out there in the universe are listening, more than 10,000 Twitter messages, plus videos from celebrities such as comedian Stephen Colbert, have been beamed into space as a big "Hello!" from Earth.

The messages are intended as a response to what's called the Wow! signal, an intriguing radio signal detected on Aug. 15, 1977 that some thought was a call from extraterrestrials. The 72-second transmission was picked up by the Big Ear radio observatory at Ohio State University, coming from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius.

Because the radio signal was 30 times more powerful than the average radiation from deep space, a volunteer astronomer named Jerry Ehman who was watching the telescope data scrawled "Wow!" on a computer printout, leading to the signal's moniker. No evidence ever arrived actually linking the transmission to an alien civilization, and no repeat message from the same direction has ever been detected, and the Wow! Signal remains a mystery.

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Intelligent alien life is likely relatively rare throughout our Milky Way galaxy, with fewer than one in a million solar systems harboring civilizations advanced enough to send out radio signals, a new study reports.

A research team that includes famed alien hunter Jill Tarter — the model for astronomer Ellie Arroway in Carl Sagan's famous book "Contact" — surveyed dozens of planet-hosting stars for radio signals from alien civilizations. They turned up nothing.

"No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found," the researchers conclude in the study, which has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

Quelle: SPACE.COM


3684 Views

Freitag, 8. Februar 2013 - 15:30 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 177-181

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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 179 (2013-02-06 01:31:24 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 179 (2013-02-06 03:15:23 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right A (NAV_RIGHT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 179 (2013-02-06 00:46:17 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 01:38:24 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 01:43:31 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 01:46:35 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 02:11:02 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right A (NAV_RIGHT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 01:34:51 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left A (FHAZ_LEFT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 180 (2013-02-07 01:52:25 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 181 (2013-02-08 03:00:15 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right A (NAV_RIGHT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 181 (2013-02-08 03:26:41 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left A (NAV_LEFT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 181 (2013-02-08 03:03:39 UTC) . 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right A (FHAZ_RIGHT_A) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 181 (2013-02-08 03:26:16 UTC) . 
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Curiosity Rover's Self Portrait at 'John Klein' Drilling Site, Cropped
This rectangular version of a self-portrait of NASA's Mars rover Curiosity combines dozens of exposures taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) during the 177th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars (Feb. 3, 2013). 
The rover is positioned at a patch of flat outcrop called "John Klein," which was selected as the site for the first rock-drilling activities by Curiosity. The self-portrait was acquired to document the drilling site.
The rover's robotic arm is not visible in the mosaic. MAHLI, which took the component images for this mosaic, is mounted on a turret at the end of the arm. Wrist motions and turret rotations on the arm allowed MAHLI to acquire the mosaic's component images. The arm was positioned out of the shot in the images or portions of images used in the mosaic.
Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, developed, built and operates MAHLI. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project and the mission's Curiosity rover for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The rover was designed and assembled at JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. 
Fotos: NASA

3015 Views

Freitag, 8. Februar 2013 - 12:21 Uhr

Mars-Chroniken - Vorbereitungsphase für Curiosity´s Bohrer-Test auf dem Mars

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Preparatory Drill Test Performed on Mars

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In an activity called the "mini drill test," NASA's Mars rover Curiosity used its drill to generate this ring of powdered rock for inspection in advance of the rover's first full drilling. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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PASADENA, Calif. - The drill on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity used both percussion and rotation to bore about 0.8 inch (2 centimeters) into a rock on Mars and generate cuttings for evaluation in advance of the rover's first sample-collection drilling.
Completion of this "mini drill" test in preparation for full drilling was confirmed in data from Mars received late Wednesday at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. If the drill cuttings on the ground around the fresh hole pass visual evaluation as suitable for processing by the rover's sample handling mechanisms, the rover team plans to proceed with commanding the first full drilling in coming days.
The test was performed on a patch of flat, vein-bearing rock called "John Klein." The locations of earlier percussion-only testing and planned sample-collection drilling are also on John Klein. Pre-drilling observations of this rock yielded indications of one or more episodes of wet environmental conditions. The team plans to use Curiosity's laboratory instruments to analyze sample powder from inside the rock to learn more about the site's environmental history.
The planned full drilling will be the first rock drilling on Mars to collect a sample of material for analysis.
During a two-year prime mission, researchers are using Curiosity's 10 science instruments to assess whether the study area in Gale Crater on Mars ever has offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life.
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Before-and-After Blink of Curiosity 'Mini Drill' into Mars Rock
A blink pair of images taken before and after Curiosity performed a "mini drill" test on a Martian rock shows changes resulting from that activity. The resulting hole and surrounding pile of drill cuttings are not the only changes. 
The images were taken by the telephoto camera of the Mast Camera instrument on Curiosity. The diameter of the hole created by the drill is 0.63 inch (1.6 centimeters). The before image was taken on the 178th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's mission on Mars (Feb. 4, 2013). The drill test was performed on Sol 180 (Feb. 6, 2013) and the afterwards image was taken the same sol. 
The test drilling was a preparation for the mission's first full rock drilling. The location is on a patch of flat rock called "John Klein." If the cuttings are judged to be suitable for processing by the rover's sample handling mechanisms, the mission's first full drilling is planned for a nearby spot on John Klein. The full drilling will be the first rock drilling on Mars to collect a sample of material for analysis. 
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Close-Up After Preparatory Test of Drilling on Mars
After an activity called the "mini drill test" by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera recorded this close-up view of the results during the 180th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars (Feb. 6, 2013). 
The test generated a ring of powdered rock for inspection in advance of the rover's first full drilling. The hole is 0.63 inch (1.6 centimeters) in diameter and about 0.8 (2 centimeters) deep. MAHLI took this image from a position 2 inches (5 centimeters) away. 
The location is on a patch of flat rock called "John Klein." If the cuttings are judged to be suitable for processing by the rover's sample handling mechanisms, the mission's first full drilling is planned for a nearby spot on John Klein. The full drilling will be the first rock drilling on Mars to collect a sample of material for analysis. 
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Quelle: NASA

3219 Views

Freitag, 8. Februar 2013 - 10:40 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - OPEL lockt Alien´s in der Erd-Stratosphäre

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Werbe-Video: 

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvsVDA3tMSc

 

 

 

Quelle: Mit freundlicher Genehmigung von OPEL


3523 Views

Freitag, 8. Februar 2013 - 10:25 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Europa´s ISS-Transporter ATV

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Quelle: ASTRIUM


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