Blogarchiv

Sonntag, 4. Januar 2015 - 22:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Wie wird Solar Wind verursacht?

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A schematic diagram shows the research result summary. We found that the solar wind drastically accelerated around a location that is five times the radius away from the Sun. We also clarified that this acceleration was caused by heat created when sound waves that are generated within the solar wind are destroyed. The blue curvy lines indicate the lines of magnetic force, blue arrows are solar wind speed, and red marks are images of sound waves.

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How is Solar Wind Caused?
Venus Climate Orbiter "AKATSUKI" Elucidated Solar Wind Acceleration
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
The University of Tokyo
Researchers at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the University of Tokyo studied solar wind flowing a long distance from the Sun's vicinity, whose distance is about 20 times the radius of the Sun, and found that the wind drastically accelerated at around a location that is five times the radius away from the Sun. They also clarified that the acceleration of solar wind in such a faraway place was related to heating cause by an energy source of waves transmitting through solar wind. 
This research result was attained thanks to an onboard instrument of the AKATSUKI, which observes Venus as it travels toward it. The achievement will provide us with a clue to solve the "corona heating issue," which has long been veiled in mystery.
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Venus Climate Orbiter "AKATSUKI" (PLANET-C)

AKASTUKI will elucidate the mysteries of Venus, Earth’s twin sister.
Japan will initiate the beginning of a new era of Venusian exploration.
AKATSUKI (PLANET-C) is the next planetary exploration project for the Martian orbiter NOZOMI. Venus has long been referred to as Earth’s sister planet not only because its size and distance from the sun are similar to those of the Earth, but also because its birth formation is considered to be similar to that of the Earth at the genesis period of the solar system. However, Venus is actually very different from the Earth as it is veiled in high-temperature carbon dioxide and thick sulfuric-acid clouds. Also, above the surface of Venus, violent winds which reach some 400 kilometers per hour blow over. Clarification of the causes for such an environment will provide us with clues to understand why the Earth has become a peaceful and lively planet unlike Venus as well as to help understand climate change on Earth. Therefore, Venus is a very important subject for exploration to learn about the Earth’s environment.
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Re-entry plan to Venus orbit

The AKATSUKI is expected to usher in a new era of Venusian exploration. It was launched aboard an H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 17 in May 2010 (JST.) It smoothly flew and spurted out jets from its orbit control engine on Dec. 7, 2010. Unfortunately, the AKATSUKI failed to inject itself into the orbit of Venus. JAXA set up an investigation team not only to examine and study the causes of the failure and countermeasures, but also to see if it is possible to insert the AKATSUKI again into the orbit when it comes closer to Venus in about six years.
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Characteristics of Venus Climate Orbiter "AKATSUK" (PLANET-C)

Infrared light enables more detailed investigation of Venus.
The probe vehicle of AKATSUKI will enter an elliptical orbit, 300 to 80,000 km away from Venus’s surface. This wide variation in distance will enable comprehensive observations of the planet’s meteorological phenomena and of its surface, as well as observations of the atmospheric particles escaping from Venus into space. It will also be possible to take close-up photos of Venus, and to observe the storm winds that blow on the Venusian surface, at speeds that reach 100 m a second - 60 times the speed at which Venus rotates. This phenomenon remains the biggest mystery of Venus, as it cannot be explained meteorologically. AKATSUKI will employ infrared light to observe and elucidate the mysteries surrounding the atmosphere under the clouds and the conditions on the planet’s surface. In addition, it will confirm the presence of active volcanoes and thunder.
Quelle: JAXA

Tags: Astronomie 

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Sonntag, 4. Januar 2015 - 16:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISRO´s Mangalyaan im Mars-Orbit Teil-3

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25.09.2014

First pictures from Red Planet arrive, Mangalyaan 'doing well'

They are here! Mangalyaan's first offering to India is out in the open. 
Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) released on Thursday the first image of Mars clicked by the indigenous Mangalyaan, which took India to soaring heights a day ago by slipping into the Red Planet's orbit on the country's maiden attempt.
Isro said the photograph — named 'First Light' — it posted on its Facebook page and Twitter account was taken from "a height of 7300 km; with 376 m spatial resolution".
The image showed an orange surface with dark cavities. “The view is nice up here,” Isro said on Twitter.
"The Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard started working soon after the orbiter stabilised in the elliptical orbit of Mars and has taken a dozen quality pictures of its surface and its surroundings," Isro's scientific secretary V Koteshwara Rao said.
An Isro team led by agency chief K Radhakrishnan met Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Delhi on Thursday with hard copies of all the pictures taken by the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) probe.
Speculation is rife that Isro might release them later in the day.
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The photographs bear a testimony to the fact that MOM, which helped India join an elite club of successful Mars explorers, is in 'good health' and performing its duties well.
The spacecraft, according to Isro scientists, started sending its first high-quality images of the Red Planet late on Wednesday.
"Images are clicked. Data is downloaded. Process is going on," a top Isro official had told HT, confirming all is well.
The snaps were expected to arrive in the afternoon on the momentous day, but there was no news about them till evening, causing some concerns.
India had joined on Wednesday an exclusive global club of deep space explorers when Mangalyaan successfully entered the orbit around Mars after a 10-month journey on a relatively shoe-string budget.
 
The probe costs just Rs. 450 core and is about a tenth of the amount US space agency Nasa spent on sending the Maven spacecraft to Mars and about three-quarters the amount to make the Oscar-winning movie Gravity about astronauts stranded in space.
India's probe has been placed in an elliptical orbit around Mars and it will be closest to the planet at 377 km and farthest at 80,000 km.
The 1,350-kilogram orbiter will now circle the planet for at least six months, with solar-powered instruments gathering scientific data that may shed light on Martian weather systems as well as what happened to the water that is believed to have existed once on Mars.
 
It will also search Mars for methane, a key chemical in life processes on earth that could come from geological processes. None of the instruments will send back enough information to answer these questions definitively, but experts say the data will help them better understand how planets form and what conditions might make life possible.
Quelle: Hindustan Times
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Indian mission on Mars beams back first photos

India's Mars Orbiter Mission has beamed back its first pictures from space. The blurred images show the pock-marked surface of the red planet.

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) uploaded one of the pictures on its Facebook and Twitter accounts. India's Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as the Mangalyaan, took the pictures from a height of 7,300 kilometers (4,536 miles).
The Indian space agency captioned the picture with the words "First Light." It also posted images of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi formally releasing the pictures together with space agency scientists.
ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission, which seeks to find evidence of life on Mars, cost the Indian government $ 74 million compared to NASA's $ 671 million MAVEN spacecraft, which began orbiting Mars on Sunday.
India's mission on Mars has been a source of pride for the country, which is the first in Asia to launch a space mission. India beat China despite Beijing's billion-dollar attempt to launch a mission to the red planet in 2011.
New Delhi joins an elite club of the United States, Europe and Russia, which have successfully launched space campaigns to earth's neighbor.
Quelle:DW
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Update: 26.09.2014
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Meanwhile, the Mars Orbiter Mission — also known as MOM or Mangalyaan (Hindi for "Mars-Craft") — got right to work after Tuesday night's orbital insertion. One color picture shows Mars and a thin layer of its dust-laden atmosphere, as seen from an altitude of 5,250 miles (8,449 kilometers). Another photo captures a view of Mars' cratered surface from a height of 4,500 miles (7,300 kilometers).
ISRO
The color camera aboard India's Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft shows the thin layer of Mars' dust-laden atmosphere on the edge of the planet's disk, as seen from an altitude of 8,449 kilometers.
MOM's months-long study of Martian atmosphere, weather and mineralogy will complement Maven's observations. MOM's instruments are better-suited for detecting whiffs of methane, which have sparked a big question for astrobiologists: Is that methane strictly geological in origin, or could it hint at biological activity?
The findings from MOM and Maven will help flesh out our understanding of the Red Planet, adding to the scientific riches already being provided by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter and NASA's Curiosity and Opportunity rovers, as well as Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey.
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Quelle: NBC
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Update: 19.09.2014
 

Mangalyaan begins its science mission

Three days after flashing five images of the Martian atmosphere, India's maiden spacecraft to Mars jump-started  its main science mission-- with two of its payloads becoming operational  on Sunday morning.
India  had entered an elite  space club when its spacecraft entered the Red Planet on September 24.
According to sources in the Indian Space Research Organisation(Isro) both the Methane Sensor for Mars(MSM)  and the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer(TIS)  were switched on and  the calibration was verified.
The operation was verified for nearly 30 minutes, sources said adding: "The data recovery will begin in the coming days. The other three payloads will also start operating in due course."
The 1,350 kilogram orbiter  spacecraft carries five payloads  for  gathering scientific data that may shed light on Martian weather systems as well as what happened to the water that is believed to have existed once on Mars.
The MSM  is designed to measure methane in the Martian atmosphere and map its sources. Data is acquired only over illuminated scene as the sensor measures reflected solar radiations. Methane concentration in the Martian atmosphere undergoes spatial and temporal variations.
The TIS  measure the thermal emission and can be operated during both day and night. TIS can map surface composition and mineralogy of Mars.
None of the instruments will send back enough information to answer these questions definitively, but experts say the data will help them better understand how planets form and what conditions might make life possible.
While the scientific instruments will work for 6 months, there is a possibility of its life span exceeding beyond that.
Quelle: hindustantimes
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Update: 30.09.2014
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Dusty Days: India Mission Photographs Stormy Mars Globe

A global photograph of Mars by India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM). Click for full resolution version.  ISRO/MOM
As soon as India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) entered orbit around the Red Planet last week, it started snapping the Martian surface and atmosphere, showing the world that we have yet another ace robotic photographer orbiting the planet. Today, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has released the mission’s first global view of Mars — and in doing so, MOM has done a little Mars weather forecasting: there’s a dust storm brewing.
Imaged at a distance of 74,500 kilometers (46,300 miles) on Sunday (Sept. 28), many of Mars’ familiar features are easy to see. Interestingly, the plain, Meridiani Planum, is dead-center of the shot — the location where Mars rover Opportunity landed in 2004 and continues to explore to this day.
Also, near the top of the image, the greyish clouds are a sign of a dust storm brewing in the northern hemisphere. “Something’s brewing here!” the @MarsOrbiter official Twitter account tweeted on Monday.
As MOM’s orbit is highly elliptical, reaching from 262 miles (periareon — closest approach) to 47,841 miles (apoareon — farthest extent), we can expect a lot more global views from Mars’ newest satellite, providing us with a beautiful global perspective of a planet that currently has seven robotic missions (from three different space agencies) exploring it.
Quelle: D-News
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Update: 1.10.2014
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Mangalyaan sends 3D image of Mars

The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) on Tuesday uploaded a 3D image of Mars - generated using multiple pictures acquired by Mars Color Camera in the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM).
3D image of Mars taken by the Mars Orbiter Mission. (Courtesy: Isro)
India's maiden spacecraft to Mars - MOM had reached the Red Planet on September 24.
"An anaglyph 3D image of Mars - generated using multiple pictures acquired by Mars Color Camera," says the Facebook page of Isro.
But before that Isro also loaded for public an easy way on how to make your own 3D glasses.
On Monday, Isro had uploaded the regional dust storm activities over northern hemisphere of Mars - captured by Mars Color Camera. The image was taken from an altitude of 74,500 km from the surface of Mars.
Quelle: hindustantimes
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Update: 8.10.2014
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ISRO's Mars Orbiter - Mangalyaan sends second full-disc colour image of Mars


A full-disc Photo of Mars released by ISRO's Mangalyaan spacecraft (Photo Credit: ISRO)
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Mumbai: ISRO's Mars Obiter Mission (MOM) - Mangalyaan has sent the second full - disc image of Mars. The colour image was clicked by the Mars Colour Camera (MCC) mounted on to the spacecraft.
The photograph was taken from an altitude of 66,543 km, as posted by ISRO's official facebook post. The picture shows the cloud formation on the red planet caused by wind storms. The dark regions to the south of the cloud formation is Elysium - which is the second largest volcanic province on Mars.
Launched of the 5th of November 2013 form India's only space launch facility in Sriharikota; Mangakyaan entered Mars orbit on September 24, 2014. The insertion was conducted by the Spacecraft Control Centre by ISRO’s Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), Bengaluru with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu.
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Full disc image from @MarsOrbiter. South of the cloud formation is Elysium- the 2nd largest volcanic province on Mars 
Quelle: DECCAN-Chronicle
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New global Mars image from Mars Orbiter Mission features Gale crater
Posted By Emily Lakdawalla
ISRO has released a second global image of Mars from the Mars Colour Camera on Mars Orbiter Mission, and just below the center of it is Gale crater, home to Curiosity. Gale is easy to spot from its very dark floor forming two horns that cradle Gale's central mountain, and the dark streak that runs out of the crater toward Terra Cimmeria to the south. Gusev crater, and the silent Spirit rover, are also in the photo -- look at the context map below to help you pick it out.
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Mars from Mars Orbiter Mission, with Elysium and Gale
Mars Orbiter Mission captured this view of Mars from a distance of 66,543 kilometers. The view includes the large Elysium volcanic region on Mars, and the dark swath of Terra Cimmeria across the disk to the south. Near the center of the disk is a small crater that has a large dark streak running down from it: that is Gale, home to Curiosity.
Here's a screen cap from the Mars Globe app to help you find your way around the image. The global view doesn't look quite the same because Mars Globe is simulating the view from significantly closer -- about 7000 kilometers away -- so there are features that disappear around the edges of the disk on the Mars Globe simulation that are visible on the disk in the much more distant Mars Orbiter Mission photo. (In particular, in the photo above you can see the great shield of Olympus Mons right at the edge of the disk at upper right, but it's not visible in the map below because the viewpoint is too close.)
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Mars Globe / Michael Howard
Mars from Mars Orbiter Mission, with Elysium and Gale (context map)
Screen capture from the Mars Globe App.
This newly released global view of Mars is distinctly less red than the first one that came out of the mission a week ago. When a spacecraft first turns on its instruments, it may take a while to get the calibration right. It's been interesting to watch space enthusiasts on the Internet fiddle with the color in the first image in order to produce something that looks more pleasing to them. Most people agree that the original was too red (or, more precisely, that the blue channel was far too dark), but different people have produced different results based upon their judgment of what Mars should look like. Here are eight slightly different views of that one image of Mars:
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Eight takes on a global view of Mars
The first global image of Mars released by the Mars Orbiter Mission is at lower right. Most space fans thought it looked too red, and processed it to produce a more pleasing-looking Mars. The seven views shown here were processed by (top row, left to right): Björn Jónsson, Don Davis, Elisabetta Bonora and Marco Faccin, and Fred Calef; (bottom row, left to right): Judy Schmidt, Olivier de Goursac, and Ted Stryk.
I assume we'll be seeing some nicely processed versions of the new photo from the amateur community -- I'll post one here when I see one I like!
Quelle: planetarySociety
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Update: 14.10.2014
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Mangalyaan to witness comet fly-by

India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft 'Mangalyaan', that has recently started orbiting the Red Planet, is getting ready to witness a unique cosmic event. On 20th October, Mangalyaan, which is millions of kilometers away from earth, will be privy to an astronomically significant fly-past of Comet Siding Spring.
MOM will duck for cover behind Mars, like the NASA missions there, and might capture and send photos of those moments back to earth. 
Siding Spring is passing through the solar system for the very first time and that it will approach Mars at a tenth of the distance any comet has visited Earth, stargazers said. 
According to ISRO, the comet's fly-by is both a hazard and a spectacle. As it departs, the comet's huge dust trail can potentially wreak havoc on the sensitive electronic devices of earthly spacecraft and disable them.
As per MOM Mission director V. Kesava Raju, ISRO engineers from the command centre at Bangalore are trying to balance MOM's safety with the visual treat the fly-by promises.
He further added that the team of engineers associated with the 5 MOM instruments was working out the best position for the instruments for the October 20 event. 
Possibilities to take photos of Siding Spring and its tail during October 19 ? 21 are also under discussion. However, the main concern would be to protect the spacecraft's body from exposure to the massive cloud of dust.
Quelle: DDN
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Update: 15.10.2014
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Isro’s Orbiter spots mars moon Phobos
Almost 20 days after it successfully entered the orbit of the red planet, Isro’s Mars Orbiter on Tuesday sent pictures of Phobos — the largest of the two natural satellites that orbit around Mars.
The Isro, the national space agency, has shared a tiny footage on its social networking site with a caption, “The larger of the two Martian moons, Phobos, is seen travelling west to east over Mars in its typical orbit.”
The images were taken from an altitude of 66,275 km above the surface of the red planet, it said. Phobos, along with the Mars’ another natural satellite Deimos, was discovered by mankind in 1877. According to the Nasa, Phobos, which is 27 by 22 by 18 km in diametre orbits the red planet three times a day. Phobos was nearing Mars at a rate of 1.8 m every hundred years and at that rate, it would either crash into the red planet in 50 million years or break up into a ring, according to the US national space agency.
Quelle:TAA
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Quelle: ISRO
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Update: 6.11.2014
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MUMBAI: The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) has kicked off its science phase and its five payloads are gathering data in full swing, said director of Isro's Space Application Centre, Kiran Kumar. 
The MOM entered the Martian orbit on September 24 and made history by achieving success on its maiden flight. Google celebrated the first month the orbiter's entry to Mars with a doodle on October 24. 
Speaking to TOI on Wednesday, which marked the first anniversary of the MOM launch on November 5, 2013, Kumar said the data downloaded from the spacecraft at the Indian Deep Space Network in Byalalu, off the BangaloreMysore highway, is being transmitted to the principal investigators for analysis. 
Kurian Mathew, principal investigator of the Methane Sensor For Mars, said: "We are analyzing data from both from Mars and comet Siding Spring. We will highlight them at an appropriate moment." 
The Methane Sensor For Mars has been described as the "bridegroom" of all the payloads as its findings are expected to have huge ramifications. Indian Space Science Data Centre's general manager J D Rao could not hide his excitement. "We are anxiously waiting for the results," he told TOI on Wednesday. 
The quality of the pictures taken by the Mars Colour Camera in the last one-and-half month has attracted considerable praise from across the world. However, for some unexplained reason the first anniversary of MOM's launch on Wednesday remained a quite affair with no mention of it in Isro's Facebook and Twitter accounts.
Quelle: The Times of India
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Update: 17.12.2014
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Komet Siding-Spring C2013-A1
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Quelle: ISRO
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Siehe zu Komet Siding-Spring auch:
/_blog/2014/11/03/astronomie---mars-besuch-von-komet-siding-spring-c2013-a1-im-oktober-verspricht-gute-beobachtungsmoeglichkeiten/
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Update: 25.12.2014
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Mangalyaan completes three months in Mars orbit

India's maiden mission to Mars, Mangalyaan, completes three months in Mars orbit on Wednesday and will continue in orbit beyond the six months that was initially planned.
On September 24, India created history by becoming the first country to succeed on its first Mars mission when Isro's Mangalyaan slipped into Martian orbit.
The country joined the United States, European Space Agency and the former Soviet Union in the elite club of Martian explorers with the Mars Orbiter Mission, affectionately called MOM.
In the last three months, Mangalyaan has captured nearly 300 pictures. On an average the spacecraft takes four pictures in three days. Besides capturing the images of dust storm activities, it has also taken images of comet Siding Spring.
The images are being analysed by Isro scientists.
"All systems of the spacecraft are functioning well. Since fuel is not a constraint, the spacecraft is expected to stay in the Martian orbit for more than six months," Dr Kiran Kumar, director, Space Application Centre told HT.
"The process of analysing the data is going on. We need one complete cycle to arrive at some conclusion."
The next challenge for the spacecraft will be in June next year when all three - Mars, Earth and Sun - will be in one line. "There will be no communication with the spacecraft for 14 days."
The distance between Earth and Mars is gradually increasing. At the time of Mars insertion, the spacecraft was 250 million km from the Earth. This will gradually increase to 390 million km when Mars is at its maximum distance from Earth.
Quelle: hindustantimes
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Update: 4.01.2014
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For 15 days in June, sun to block all communication with Mangalyaan
MUMBAI: There will be a nail-biting fortnight in June for the Isro team because there will be absolutely no communication with the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) during that period.
"It [communication break] will be for the first time for such a long period since its launch on November 5, 2013," former Isro chairman K Radhakrishnan said at the Indian Science Congress on Friday.
In a question-and-answer session with former Isro scientist Pramod Kale at the first plenary meeting of the 102nd edition of the congress, Radhakrishnan said that the blackout will be the result of an eclipse.
MOM project director Subbiah Arunan, who is scheduled to address the congress on Monday, said the blackout will be from June 8 to 22 because the Sun will come between Earth and Mars, blocking the view of the Red Planet.
Arunan said that during the blackout data cannot be transmitted to the spacecraft or downlinked. "MOM will be fully in autonomous mode," he said.
Arunan said the scenario had been tested in the mission simulation tests.
"There have been many manoeuvres when there has been a communication blackout, but this is the first time it is happening for as long as 14 day," Arunan said. "We are confident that there will be no problems."
Arunan said in May 2016 there will be what is known as a "whiteout" period when Earth will come between the Sun and Mars, blocking communication with the spacecraft for about a fortnight again.
Radhakrishnan, who retired on Wednesday, told the large gathering of students and scientists that the quality of data downloaded from the five payloads on board MOM was excellent. "After a series of reviews, they will get published," he said.
Moving to other matters, he said the cryogenic stage for the new LVM 3 rocket would be ready in two years and will be three times more powerful than the existing ones.
He said that 300 industrial firms were participating in the space programme and that in the next few years "we want a launcher like the PSLV coming out of an industry".
About the participation of students in the space programme, Radhakrishnan said they were looking for centres of excellence in space technology in the academic world. To a question about the human space flight programme, he said some more developments had to take place before the country could declare itself ready for such a mission.
Quelle: The Times of India


Tags: Raumfahrt 

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Sonntag, 4. Januar 2015 - 16:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NASA`s Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE-3) Update

 

24.07.2012 

They were part of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE-3) team that is working to develop an inflatable heat shield. The technology could be used to protect spacecraft when entering a planet's atmosphere or returning here to Earth.They were part of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE-3) team that is working to develop an inflatable heat shield. The technology could be used to protect spacecraft when entering a planet's atmosphere or returning here to Earth.

 

Frams+Fotos: NASA

 

 

A 64-foot, 22-inch (19.5 meters, 56 centimeters) diameter Black Brant XI sounding rocket launched the IRVE-3, encased in a nose cone, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Virginia's Eastern Shore. The rocket with the inflatable on board shot 288 miles (463.5 kilometers) up and IRVE-3 and its payload were ejected into the atmosphere. The technology demonstrator inflated and fell back to Earth -- cameras and temperature and pressure sensors monitoring its performance all the way down. After a total of 20 minutes -- from launch to splash down -- it landed in the Atlantic about 100 miles (161 kilometers) East of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
"Everything went well... like clockwork. The IRVE-3 performed just as it was supposed to," said Neil Cheatwood, IRVE-3 principal investigator at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. "It entered Earth's atmosphere at Mach 10, ten times the speed of sound, and successfully survived the heat and forces of the journey. Temperatures recorded were as much as 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit (538 degrees Celsius) and the IRVE-3 experienced forces up 20 G's."
What makes that particularly remarkable according to engineers is that the IRVE-3 wasn't made of metal or composite materials like most spacecraft heat shields or aeroshells -- it was made of high tech fabric and inflated to create its shape and structure. The IRVE-3 looked like a 10-foot (3 meter) diameter mushroom composed of a seven giant braided Kevlar rings stacked and lashed together -- then covered by a thermal blanket made up of layers of heat resistant materials.
The trip through the atmosphere provided researchers lots of data that will help them design better heat shields in the future. But they will also have the chance to study the IRVE-3 first hand. A high-speed Stiletto boat provided by the U.S. Navy was on stand by to retrieve it. Stiletto is a maritime demonstration craft operated by Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock, Combatant Craft Division, and is based out of Joint Expeditionary Base (JEB) Little Creek-Ft Story, Va.
IRVE-3 is part of the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Project within the Game Changing Development Program, part of NASA's Space Technology Program. NASA Langley led the project and built two of the four segments of the IRVE-3 payload. Wallops provided its rocket expertise and built the other two payload segments. Airborne Systems in Santa Ana, Calif. provided the inflatable structure and thermal blanket.
"Today's test is the first example of what we are going to be doing in the Space Technology Program during the coming months and years," said James Reuther, Space Technology Program deputy director. "We are building, testing and flying the technologies required for NASA's missions of tomorrow."
Quelle:NASA
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Update: 24.07.2012 / 20.30 MESZ
Erfolgreiches Hitzeschild-Experiment, nachfolgende Frams: NASA-Video
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Update: 4.01.2015
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Nasa to test inflatable heat shield based on a child's toy that could help put people on Mars (let's hope they don't get too deflated if it doesn't work)

Nasa plan to test inflatable technology in their quest to put people on Mars
Scientists believe a blow-up heat shield could be used on future spacecraft
Shield resembles stacking ring of doughnuts that young children play with
New technology needed as parachutes and rockets cannot be used to slow down large spacecraft when entering the Martian atmosphere 
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When some of the world's first aviation pioneers tried to reach the skies centuries ago, they inflated hot air balloons.
And now Nasa are looking into inflatable technology once more, this time as a way of reaching the next frontier in human space travel - Mars.
Scientists are considering using a blow-up heat shield, which resembles stacking ring of doughnuts that young children play with, for future missions to the red planet.
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Scientists are considering using an inflatable heat shield, which resembles stacking ring of doughnuts that young children play with, for future missions to Mars
An inflatable heat shield, such as the one pictured, could help a future spacecraft slow down enough to enter Mars' atmosphere
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Nasa engineers believe a lightweight, inflatable heat shield could be deployed to slow the craft to enter a Martian atmosphere, which is much thinner than Earth's.
Such an inflatable heat shield could help a spacecraft reach the high-altitude southern plains of Mars and other areas that would otherwise be inaccessible under existing technology. 
The experts say rockets alone can't be used to land a large craft on Mars, as can be done on the Moon. Parachutes also will not work for a large spacecraft needed to send humans to Mars, they add.
The rings would be filled with nitrogen and covered with a thermal blanket. Once deployed for landing, the rings would sit on top of the spacecraft, resembling a giant mushroom.
Neil Cheatwood, Nasa's senior engineer for advanced entry, descent and landing systems at their base in Langley, Virginia, said: 'We try to not use propulsion if we don't have to. We make use of that atmosphere as much as we can, because it means we don't have to carry all that fuel with us.'
The scientists now aim to test how inflatable spacecraft technology performs upon re-entry into Earth's atmosphere.
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Once deployed for landing, the rings would sit on top of the spacecraft, resembling a giant mushroom
The scientists now aim to test how inflatable spacecraft technology performs upon re-entry into Earth's atmosphere
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The test, scheduled for 2016, is important because NASA officials believe the shield could help them land astronauts on Mars and return larger loads of supplies from the International Space Station.
New technology is needed because the type of spacecraft that would land humans on the red planet would be much larger than anything that has landed on the planet previously and current heat shield technology is too heavy.
Nasa engineers have been working on the inflatable technology for about a decade, and believe it is close to being ready for operational use.
'If I had the budget and we had the funding to do it, I think we could get as large a scale as needed for humans in five to ten years,' Mr Cheatwood said.
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New technology is needed because the type of spacecraft that would land humans on the red planet would be much larger than anything that has landed on the planet previously
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He said the same inflatable technology could also be used for spacecraft to explore other planets or objects with atmospheres, such as Venus, Titan and Jupiter. 
Because the inflatables are made of lightweight material and filled with nitrogen, more room is left aboard a spacecraft for science experiments and other things astronauts will need. The inflatable is covered by a thermal blanket of layers of heat-resistant materials.
Anthony Calomino, principal investigator for materials and structures for hypersonic re-entry at Langley, said: 'The idea is that you would have something that could be packed up, put in a very small volume and then deployed into a very large size.'
He said in a statement in April: 'Think airbag, something we could pack into compressed volume that will fit the size limits of a launch shroud, but allow for a much larger aeroshell.' 
Quelle: Daily Mail


 

Tags: Raumfahrt 

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Raumfahrt - Falcon 9 v1.1 Start mit CRS-5/SpX-5 Dragon-Mission am 6.Januar 2015

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20.11.2014

NASA has confirmed a December 16 placeholder for the Falcon 9 v1.1 launch of the CRS-5/SpX-5 Dragon mission to the International Space Station (ISS). This latest mission will also include another advancement of SpaceX’s re-usability aspirations, with the Falcon 9 first stage set to attempt a propulsive landing on to an ocean platform.
CRS-5:
The latest Dragon mission to the orbital outpost follows hot on the heels of the previous Dragon (CRS-4/SpX-4) which successfully returned to Earth last month.
That mission was another success for the spacecraft that holds ambitions of carrying crew – under the modified Dragon V2 (Dragon 2) configuration – with the non-destructive return to Earth a key capability when compared to all other current cargo resupply vehicles.
Her parachute-assisted splashdown in the Pacific ocean – and subsequent recovery – allowed for vital “downmass” to be egressed from within her belly, including vital science experiments that are now in the hands of technicians and investigators.
“There were no reports of water intrusion, and all return cargo appears to be in good shape,” flashed a NASA memo note on L2’s CRS-4 coverage, ultimately confirming the return leg of the mission fulfilled its obligations.
The follow on mission for Dragon was always set to occur before the end of the year.
The processing flow, involving the Falcon 9 v1.1. hardware being born at SpaceX’s rocket nursery Hawthorne, followed by a truck journey for her engine firing graduation at the McGregor test site in Texas all went to plan.
However, the launch date target of December 9 was impacted by a failure of another rocket that was attempting to launch out of Virginia.
Orbital’s CRS-3 Antares rocket failed seconds after launch, when one of the vehicle’s AJ-26 engines suffered a major turbopump issue, resulting in the loss of the vehicle.
Her payload, the Cygnus spacecraft destined for the ISS, was also lost in the resulting fireball at the Wallops launch site.
Cygnus is Dragon’s partner under the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract that provides US upmass to the Station. NASA cargo requirements are split between the two vehicles, meaning the loss of Cygnus has resulted in NASA teams re-evaluating the priority items that may need to be re-manifested on this next Dragon mission.
ISS Program manager Mike Suffredini intimated at such a process almost immediately after the failure of Antares, while adding there was no immediate supply issue for the Station, based on inbuilt and pre-arranged contingencies that ensures the Station has several months of flexibility for its demands.
Due to the manifest changes to Dragon’s payload, December 9 was always seen as a date in flux. However, this week has seen internal NASA manifests – specifically the FPIP master schedule – move the CRS-5 mission to a placeholder of December 16, with back up opportunities on December 19 and 20.
Dragon would berth with the ISS on December 18, based on the first listed opportunity – that would launch in an instantaneous T-0 of  2:31pm Eastern.
Understandably, SpaceX did not wish to  comment on a specific date when asked. The company traditionally waits until closer to the launch date.
Click here for more Dragon Articles: http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/tag/dragon/
“We haven’t yet released additional schedule information for this period, but will let you know when we have an update,” noted SpaceX spokesman John Taylor, speaking to NASASpaceFlight.com.
However, NASA has since confirmed the December 16 target.
L2 schedules show the Static Fire of the Falcon 9 v1.1 at SLC-40 on the schedule for December 2, although this too is subject to change.
Per the manifest negotiations, SpaceX’s Dragon is a very capable little spacecraft, with an ability to loft up to 3,310 kilograms (7,300 lb) of pressurised and unpressurised cargo into orbit, before returning up to 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) of pressurised cargo to Earth at the end of her mission.
While the full cargo manifest hasn’t been released – no doubt because that manifest is still being evaluated – it is at least known that this latest Dragon will be lofting the Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to the Station.
This hardware is a light detection and ranging remote sensing instrument designed to measure the location, composition and distribution of pollution, dust, smoke, aerosols and other particulates in the atmosphere.
Once CATS arrives at the Station with Dragon, it will be installed on the Kibo external facility.
Meanwhile, Cygnus is expected to return in 2015, albeit initially on another launch vehicle while Orbital “upgrade” the Antares with a new propulsion system.
Industry sources claim SpaceX’s Falcon 9 v1.1 is the favorite to win the right to launch one or two Cygnus missions during this interim period. Orbital earlier noted it was talking to three potential providers.
Rocket Come Home:
While the primary mission of CRS-5 is to delivery its array of supplies to the ISS, SpaceX doesn’t do things by halves.
This mission will once again see another leap forward with its plans to return a first stage back to Earth, along the path of eventually returning cores to land for reuse on later missions.
Sporting landing legs, grid fins and the experience gained from previous attempts to ease down on the ocean surface, CRS-5’s Falcon 9 v1.1 will make an ambitious attempt to touch down on a platform that is to be located off the Eastern seaboard.
“For the upcoming launch, I think we’ve got a chance of landing on a floating landing platform,” Elon Musk said at a recent MIT event (video – transcript). “We actually have a huge platform that’s being constructed at a shipyard in Louisiana right now. Which is – well, it’s huge, huge-ish, it’s about 300 feet long by 170 feet wide.
“That looks very tiny from space, and the leg span of the rocket is 60 feet, and this is going to be positioning itself out in the ocean with engines that will try to keep it in a particular position – but it’s tricky, you’ve got to deal with these big rollers and GPS errors.”
Mr. Musk classes the odds of successfully landing on the platform at 50 percent or less for the first attempt.
However, once that milestone is achieved, the next goals will involve turning a booster around for re-flight and then returning boosters to landing sites on land – not necessarily in that order.
It is understood the two primary sites for returning boosters on land are currently being evaluated.
L2 information notes SpaceX is evaluating first stage landing sites at both its East and West coast launch locations, with SLC-13 at Cape Canaveral and SLC-4W at Vandenberg understood to be the favored options at this point in time.
The information also provides intriguing, albeit unconfirmed, notes that SpaceX may be looking at an island downrange of the West Coast launch site for returning Falcon Heavy cores, in the event a high payload penalty negates a return to SLC-4W.
It is likely the first attempt to return a Falcon 9 v1.1 booster to land will be conducted in 2015, according to Mr. Musk.
“There’s at least a dozen launches that will occur over the next 12 months and I think it’s quite likely, probably 80 percent to 90 percent likely, that one of those flights will be able to land and refly.
“So, I think we’re quite close.”
Quelle: NS
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Update: 8.12.2014
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NASA Coverage Set for Fifth SpaceX Resupply Mission to Space Station
The fifth SpaceX cargo mission to the International Space Station (ISS) under NASA's Commercial Resupply Services contract is scheduled to launch Tuesday, Dec. 16, from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NASA Television coverage of the launch begins at 1:15 p.m. EST.
The company's Falcon 9 rocket will lift off at 2:31 p.m., carrying its Dragon cargo spacecraft. It is loaded with more than 3,700 pounds of scientific experiments, technology demonstrations and supplies, including critical materials to support 256 science and research investigations that will take place on the space station during ISS Expeditions 42 and 43.
In addition to launch coverage, NASA also will host a series of prelaunch news conferences Monday, Dec. 15 at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. All briefings, which are subject to a change in time, will air live on NASA TV and the agency's website.
The mission, designated SpaceX CRS-5, is the fifth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the sixth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory.
The science research aboard the Dragon includes the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), which will characterize and measure the worldwide distribution of clouds and aerosols -- the tiny particles that make up haze, dust, air pollutants and smoke; model organism research using fruit flies to study the biological effects of spaceflight; and, a new study using flatworms to better understand wound healing in space.
During panel discussions Monday at 10 a.m. and 12:30 p.m., scientists and researchers will discuss the onboard science and research studies, including CATS and supplies for research on the risks of in-flight infections in astronauts, as well as research on degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's.
The series of briefings Monday will conclude with a prelaunch news conference at 2 p.m. A post-launch briefing will be held approximately 90 minutes after liftoff Tuesday.
NASA TV also will provide live coverage of the arrival of the Dragon cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station Thursday, Dec. 18. Grapple and berthing coverage will begin at about 4:30 a.m. with grapple at approximately 6 a.m. Berthing coverage begins at 7:30 a.m.
The Dragon spacecraft will remain attached to the space station's Harmony module for more than four weeks and then splash down in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Baja California, bringing with it almost two tons of experiment samples and equipment from the station.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 12.12.2014
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NASA, SpaceX Update Launch of Resupply Mission to the Space Station

The fifth SpaceX cargo mission to the International Space Station (ISS) under NASA's Commercial Resupply Services contract now is scheduled to launch no earlier than 1:20 p.m. EST Friday, Dec. 19, from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NASA Television coverage of the launch begins at 12:15 p.m.
The change of launch date allows SpaceX to take extra time to ensure they do everything possible on the ground to prepare for a successful launch. Both the Falcon 9 rocket and its Dragon spacecraft are in good health.
The prelaunch news conferences also have moved to Thursday, Dec. 18 at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. All briefings, which are subject to a change in time, will air live on NASA TV and the agency's website.
The first briefing of the day will air at noon and will provide up-to-date information about the launch. Participants for the prelaunch briefing will be:
Mike Suffredini, NASA’s ISS Program manager
Hans Koenigsmann, vice president for Mission Assurance at SpaceX
Kathy Winters with the U.S. Air Force’s 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral  Air Force Station in Florida
The second briefing, now at 1:30 p.m., will cover some of the numerous science investigations headed to the space station. Participants for the science briefing will be:
Julie Robinson, NASA’s ISS Program chief scientist
Michael Roberts, senior research pathway manager at the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, headquartered in Melbourne, Florida
Cheryl Nickerson, Micro-5 principal investigator at Arizona State University
Samuel Durrance, NR-SABOL principal investigator at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne
The final briefing, now at 3 p.m., will cover the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Earth science instrument headed to the space station. Participants for this briefing will be:
Julie Robinson, ISS Program chief scientist at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston
Colleen Hartman, deputy director for science at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland
Robert J. Swap, program scientist with the Earth Science Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington
Matthew McGill, CATS principal investigator at Goddard
An on-time launch on Dec. 19 will result in the Dragon spacecraft arriving at the space station on Sunday, Dec. 21. Expedition 42 Commander Barry "Butch" Wilmore of NASA will use the station's 57.7-foot robotic arm to reach out and capture it at approximately 6 a.m. Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency will support Wilmore as they operate from the station's cupola. NASA TV coverage of grapple will begin at 4:30 a.m. Coverage of Dragon's installation to the Earth-facing port of the Harmony module will begin 9 a.m.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 17.12.2014
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SpaceX launch forecast looks good for Friday



There's an 80 percent chance of acceptable conditions during the instantaneous launch window at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
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The forecast looks promising for SpaceX's planned 1:22 p.m. Friday launch of a Dragon capsule packed with cargo for the International Space Station.
There's an 80 percent chance of acceptable conditions during the instantaneous launch window at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, with thick clouds a potential concern, according to the Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron.
SpaceX today raised a Falcon 9 rocket booster vertical at Launch Complex 40 in preparation for a brief test-firing of nine Merlin engines, the last big technical milestone before the launch countdown.
The mission is SpaceX's fifth of 12 planned for NASA under a $1.6 billion Commercial Resupply Services contract.
If the launch slips to Saturday, the weather odds drop to 70 percent "go" during the instantaneous window at 12:59 p.m., with thick clouds again a possibility.
NASA last week announced that the launch, once scheduled for today, had been pushed back to no earlier than Friday to allow SpaceX to do "everything possible on the ground to prepare for a successful launch."
The Dec. 11 statement said SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon capsule were healthy, and the launch appears to be on track for Friday.
Kennedy Space Center will host a series of prelaunch briefings Thursday, starting at noon.
Quelle: Florida Today
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Update: 13.00 MEZ
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SpaceX readies rocket for station launch, barge landing
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A 300-foot-long barge will be used as an off-shore landing platform during launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket Friday. The primary goal of the flight is to deliver critical supplies and equipment to the space station, but SpaceX hopes to land the rocket's first stage on the barge for possible refurbishment and reuse -- a key milestone in the company's push to reduce launch costs. 
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SpaceX engineers are gearing up to launch a Dragon cargo ship atop a Falcon 9 rocket Friday for the company's fifth operational space station resupply mission. And if all goes well, the Falcon 9's first stage will attempt to land on a barge stationed off the coast of Jacksonville, Fla., a key milestone in SpaceX founder Elon Musk's drive to lower costs by reusing boosters that otherwise would be discarded in the sea.
The Marmac 300, a platform barge listed on McDonough Marine Service's website and modified for use by SpaceX, features a spacious deck measuring 300 feet long and 170 feet wide. The barge, which SpaceX calls an autonomous spaceport drone ship, was seen by reporters over the weekend docked adjacent to the Jacksonville cruise ship terminal.
"Reusability is the critical breakthrough needed in rocketry to take things to the next level," Musk said during the MIT AeroAstro Centennial Symposium in October. "We've been able to soft land the rocket booster in the ocean twice so far. Unfortunately, it sort of sat there for several seconds then tipped over and exploded (laughter). It's quite difficult to reuse. It's as tall as a 14-story building. When a 14-story building falls over, it's quite a belly flop!
"So what we need to do is be able to either land on a floating platform or ideally boost back to the launch site and land back at the launch site. But before we boost back to the launch site and try to land there, we need to show that we can land with precision over and over again, otherwise something bad could happen."
The SpaceX barge would appear to be an ideal offshore landing platform. The deck's dimensions are listed as 300 feet by 100 feet on McDonough Marine's website, but the barge was widened by two wing-like additions seen extending from its sides. Company officials did not return a phone call seeking additional information, but the barge is believed to be equipped with powerful thrusters capable of maintaining its position to within a few tens of feet and internal water tanks to help damp out wave action.
An industry source said the platform will be operated remotely or autonomously on launch day with a crew stationed on another ship a safe distance away.
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The width of the Marmac 300 barge was extended to provide additional landing space for the Falcon 9 first stage, which has a leg span of some 70 feet. The dimensions of the landing platform are 300 feet by about 170 feet.
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"For the upcoming launch, I think we've got a chance of landing on a floating landing platform," Musk said at MIT. "We actually have a huge platform that's being constructed at a shipyard in Louisiana right now, which is, well, it's huge, or huge-ish, I mean it's about 300 feet long by 170 feet wide. That looks very tiny from space. The leg-span of the rocket is (70) feet. And this is going to be positioning itself out in the ocean with engines that'll try to keep it in a particular position."
The barge will not be anchored and Musk said the sea state and navigation satellite errors will make landing a "tricky" operation. Even so, "we're going to try to land on that on the next flight."
"And if we land on that, I think we'll be able to refly that booster," he said. "But it's probably, maybe not more than a 50 percent chance, or less, of landing it on the platform for the first time. But there are ... at least a dozen launches that will occur over the next year, and I think it's quite likely, probably 80-to-90 percent likely, that one of those flights will be able to land and refly. So I think we're quite close."
Recovering rocket hardware for refurbishment and reuse is central to Musk's goal of "rapid reusability," a breakthrough he says will dramatically lower launch costs.
"In order for humanity to be a space-faring civilization and ultimately be a multi-planet species, it is critically important that we achieve a full and rapid reusability," Musk told "60 Minutes" during a 2012 interview. "If you have rapid and complete reusability for a rocket, then you're really just dealing with the cost of the the fuel and oxygen and that kind of thing.
"Look at something like Falcon 9, which cost about $60 million," he said. "The cost of the fuel and oxygen and so forth is only about $200,000. So that's a massive difference. If we could have full and rapid reusability, you could have that rocket flight that cost $60 million maybe cost only half a million, or even less."
Joan Johnson-Freese, a noted author and professor of national security affairs at the U.S. Naval War College, said "being able to do a soft landing recovery of rocket boosters saves launch companies time -- and time is money."
"A soft landing recovery in theory means you could reuse it quickly," she said by email Tuesday. "If commercial spaceflight is ever going to be anything like a 'normal' industry, fast turnaround and (relatively) low costs are imperative. Airplanes land ready to use again -- not requiring months of hanger time between flights. The analogy with recoverable rocket boosters isn't perfect, but it's close."
If all goes well, SpaceX will launch the latest Falcon 9 and Dragon cargo ship from pad 40 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 1:22:12 p.m. EST (GMT-5) Friday, roughly the moment Earth's rotation carries the launch site into the plane of the station's orbit. Forecasters are predicting an 80 percent chance of good weather, decreasing to 70 percent "go" on Saturday if the flight is delayed for some reason.
It will be the first launch of a U.S. space station resupply mission since an Orbital Sciences Antares rocket exploded seconds after liftoff Oct. 28, destroying a station-bound Cygnus cargo craft.
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The SpaceX logo serves as a landing target painted on the deck of a barge known as the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship. If all goes well, the first stage of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket will attempt to land on the barge after launch Friday on a space station resupply mission. SPACEX
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As usual with station launches from the East Coast, the Falcon 9 will take off along a northeasterly trajectory with the first stage's nine SpaceX Merlin 1D engines firing for about two minutes and 40 seconds to boost the Dragon capsule and Falcon 9 second stage out of the dense lower atmosphere.
After engine shutdown, the first stage will fall away and the second stage will continue the push toward orbit, releasing the Dragon to fly on its own about 10 minutes after launch. The first stage, meanwhile, will attempt a powered descent to the barge some 200 miles east of Jacksonville, extending four landing legs a few moments before touchdown.
"Returning anything from space is a challenge, but returning a Falcon 9 first stage for a precision landing presents a number of additional hurdles," SpaceX said in a blog post Tuesday evening. "At 14 stories tall and traveling upwards of 1300 m/s (meters per second, or 2,900 mph), stabilizing the Falcon 9 first stage for re-entry is like trying to balance a rubber broomstick on your hand in the middle of a wind storm.
"To help stabilize the stage and to reduce its speed, SpaceX relights the engines for a series of three burns. The first burn -- the boostback burn -- adjusts the impact point of the vehicle and is followed by the supersonic retro propulsion burn that, along with the drag of the atmosphere, slows the vehicle's speed from 1300 m/s to about 250 m/s (560 mph). The final burn is the landing burn, during which the legs deploy and the vehicle's speed is further reduced to around 2 m/s (4.5 mph)."
A key upgrade to the Falcon 9 first stage was the addition of four deployable fins mounted in an "X-wing configuration" around the upper part of the booster. The fins can be repositioned independently in flight to help control the rocket's lift and orientation. The use of the fins, in combination with steering by the first stage engines, "will allow for precision landing -- first on the autonomous spaceport drone ship, and eventually on land," the company said.
Assuming a successful touchdown, SpaceX engineers standing by on a nearby support ship will move in to secure the rocket's landing legs, locking the booster in place for the slow haul back to port. An industry source said residual liquid oxygen propellant likely will be allowed to boil off and vent overboard while left-over RP-1 kerosene fuel presumably will remain on board. SpaceX has not provided any details about recovery and "safing" operations.
While a successful landing would mark a major milestone for Musk and SpaceX, the first priority is putting the Dragon cargo ship on course for a rendezvous with the International Space Station early Sunday. This will be SpaceX's fifth operational resupply mission under a $1.6 billion contract with NASA that calls for 12 flights and delivery of some 40,000 pounds of hardware and supplies.
Assuming a launch Friday, the Dragon cargo ship will fly a complex rendezvous to catch up with the station Sunday around 6 a.m., pulling up to within about 30 feet and then standing by while Expedition 42 commander Barry "Butch" Wilmore, operating the lab's robot arm, locks onto a grapple fixture.
Ground controllers then will take over, remotely operating the arm to move the Dragon capsule into position for berthing at the Earth-facing port of the forward Harmony module. Wilmore, assisted by European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, will operate the common berthing mechanism, driving home motorized bolts to lock the spacecraft in place.
The Dragon is loaded with more than 3,700 pounds of cargo in the ship's pressurized hold, along with a 1,000-pound atmospheric research instrument mounted in an unpressurized trunk section accessible by the robot arm. The Cloud Aerosol Transport System, or CATS, instrument will be extracted later and mounted on a platform attached to the Japanese Kibo lab module.
Pressurized cargo includes food, clothing and personal items for the station's six-member crew, research equipment and spare parts along with high-priority items intended to replace cargo lost in the Antares launch failure in October.
Quelle: CBSNEWS
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Update: 18.12.2014
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SpaceX Does a Reality Check on Its Falcon 9 Rocket Landing Plan

The SpaceX launch company is scaling back expectations for an unprecedented rocket landing on a floating ocean platform, comparing the feat to "trying to balance a rubber broomstick on your hand in the middle of a windstorm."
The experiment is scheduled to take place on Friday, when SpaceX sends a two-stage Falcon 9 rocket and its uncrewed Dragon cargo capsule toward the International Space Station on a resupply run. After stage separation at an altitude of roughly 60 miles (100 kilometers), the Falcon's first stage is slated to relight its rocket engines and go through a complex series of maneuvers to put itself down on a 300-foot-long (90-meter-long) "autonomous spaceport drone ship" in the Atlantic Ocean.
"The odds of success are not great — perhaps 50 percent at best," SpaceX said in a statement explaining the effort. "However, this test represents the first in a series of similar tests that will ultimately deliver a fully reusable Falcon 9 first stage."
For decades, launch vehicles have traditionally dropped away their rocket stages, leaving them behind to burn up while the rest of the vehicle ascended to orbit. That's the way it worked for the Saturn 5 back in the days of Apollo, and the way it works for virtually all modern-day rockets. Even the space shuttle jettisoned its external fuel tank for destruction, although its solid rocket boosters fell into the sea and were recovered for refurbishment.
Although suborbital rocket ships have been known to blast off and land again in recent years, no rocket stage has ever flown itself back to a controlled landing after sending a payload to orbit. SpaceX plans to do it using a series of three rocket engine burns, helped along by the use of hypersonic control fins.
The retro rocket firings are meant to slow the 14-story-tall rocket stage's descent from a supersonic speed of 2,900 mph (1,300 meters per second) to less than 5 mph (2 meters per second). Just before landing, four landing legs would spring open — and the rocket would settle onto the thruster-stabilized drone ship for eventual return to shore.
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An infographic by Jon Ross shows the key phases in the launch-and-landing plan for SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket during Friday's space station resupply mission.
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For a larger version of the graphic and a full explanation of the launch profile and its significance, check out 'The Future of Space Launch Is Near' by John Gardi and Jon Ross.
SpaceX has previously tested some of the technologies for a "soft splashdown" of the Falcon first stage, but the company has not yet been able to recover the stage intact — and Friday's launch attempt marks the first time that the landing ship will come into play.
"During previous attempts, we could only expect a landing accuracy of within 10 kilometers," or 6 miles, SpaceX said. "For this attempt, we're targeting a landing accuracy of within 10 meters [33 feet]."
A different kind of land-based rocket experiment ended in a spectacular failure in August, when an uncrewed SpaceX F9R test rocket went awry and had to be blown up during a flight test of the self-landing system. SpaceX said the failure was traced to a problem with a sensor that would not have arisen on an operational Falcon 9 rocket.
Why do it?
The point of this week's exercise is to bring the cost of spaceflight down dramatically. Today, the commonly quoted figure for the cost of sending payloads to low Earth orbit is $10,000 a pound ($22,000 a kilogram). SpaceX's billionaire founder, Elon Musk, says making rockets fully recoverable and reusable could reduce that cost by 99 percent.
That cost reduction is a key part of Musk's long-range strategy to send colonists to Mars and turn humanity into a multiplanet species — as an "insurance policy" in case a killer asteroid, climate catastrophe or global pandemic threatens civilization on our home planet.
Although rockets that land themselves are a big part of Musk's vision for the future, mission success will not depend on whether or not the Falcon 9 first stage sets down safely on the drone ship. The key task is to deliver more than 3,700 pounds (1,680 kilograms) of scientific experiments, hardware and supplies to the space station. This is the fifth of 12 scheduled cargo runs covered by SpaceX's $1.6 billion resupply contract with NASA.
The Falcon 9 launch is currently scheduled for 1:20 p.m. ET Friday from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, although technical issues or unfavorable weather could force a delay. Liftoff will be webcast via SpaceX and NASA. A series of NASA briefings about the mission is scheduled to be webcast on Thursday, starting at noon ET.
Quelle: NBC-NEWS
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SpaceX likely to slip Dragon’s CRS-5 mission to January
 
The next Falcon 9 v1.1 set to launch out of Florida’s Cape Canaveral scrubbed a Static Fire attempt on Tuesday. The Static Fire is required ahead of the upcoming mission to loft the CRS-5/SpX-5 Dragon to the International Space Station (ISS). Unspecified issues with the rocket is likely to slip the launch – as late as early January, although SpaceX isn’t commenting at this stage.
Static Fire:
The CRS-5 mission was to conclude SpaceX’s launch operations for 2014, yet another breakout year for Elon Musk’s forward thinking company.
This latest mission – a key Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) flight for NASA – had entered the business end of the launch flow, with the Static Fire test an important requirement to allow SpaceX management to approve the launch.
Numerous requirements have to be successfully proven via such a test, such as the engine ignition and shut down commands, which have to operate as designed, and that the Merlin 1D engines perform properly during start-up.
The Static Fire also provides a dress rehearsal for the actual launch, with controllers first conducting a poll to allow for the loading of Falcon 9’s RP-1 propellant with liquid oxygen oxidizer two hours and thirty five minutes before T-0. From that point, the test is near-identical to a real launch day countdown.
Ensuring Falcon 9’s SLC-40 pad systems are in good shape during a Static Fire – also known as a hot fire – flow mitigates the potential for issues during the countdown on launch day.
Only a short burst of the Merlin 1D engines on the core stage of the F9 is required to allow for the validation data to be gained on the health of the vehicle and pad systems.
Attempts during the four hour test window on Tuesday did not result in a successfully conducted Static Fire. Several requests for further information, sent to SpaceX during and after the test window, resulted in the company saying they had no information to provide. SpaceX normally provides confirmation after a successful conclusion to the test.
Source information noted at least one full countdown towards the firing was attempted, which was classed as aborted at the very end of the count. At least one NASA-based outlet claimed the Static Fire had taken place, potentially pointing to ignition of the Merlin 1D engines, before an abort – due to an issue – was likely called.
No confirmed information on the issue has been forthcoming from SpaceX. However, the company has promised to provide more information to this site when “they have something to share.”
It was, however, understood that the next Static Fire attempt is likely to take place no sooner than Thursday. That too appears to have been cancelled following review.
The launch date target was to be Friday – had the Static Fire gone as planned – with an instantaneous launch time, as per usual for Dragon launches to the ISS – of 13:20 Eastern. An alternate date of December 20 is available, with the T-0 moving up to 12:58 Eastern.
Both of those dates are now understood to be out of the question, with source information citing a NET (No Earlier Than) launch target of January 6, 2015.
That date will need to be approved by NASA, per their ISS constraints, such as Visiting Vehicle (VV) traffic and ISS status.
The CRS-5/SpX-5 Dragon will be lofting her usual compliment of cargo and supplies to the ISS, along with a number of specific payloads.
The specific payloads include CATS (Cloud-Aerosol Transport System), Microbial Observatory-1, the Flatworm Regeneration payload, the “Wearable Monitoring” ASI payload, the Free-Space PADLES (Passive Dosimeter for Life-Science Experiment in Space) payload for JAXA and the Fruit Fly Lab-01.
As had been predicted, some of the Dragon’s payload manifest has been refined to reflect the near term needs of the ISS, based on what was lost during the recent failure of the Antares rocket during the launch of the CRS-3/OrB-3 Cygnus.
This, along with a few internal Falcon 9 issues, was the reason the launch slipped slightly from its previous target date.
Click here for more Dragon Articles: http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/tag/dragon/
It is also understood that two Planet Labs cubesats are also onboard this latest Dragon, equipped with replacements for the experimental hardware that was lost on the Cygnus.
While the primary focus will be to safely send the CRS-5 Dragon on her way to the orbital outpost, there will be great interest in the return of the core stage.
SpaceX has been testing its propulsive return capabilities for the first stage of the Falcon 9 during previous missions – with a large amount of success.  Up until now, the upgraded first stages have returned for a landing on the ocean surface.
However, for CRS-5, an attempt will be made to return the stage on to a specialised platform located in the downrange area of the Atlantic Ocean.
Known as the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship (ASDS), “X” literally marks the spot as the target for the Falcon 9 core – as much as SpaceX has been downplaying the chances of hitting the target first time around.
Per L2 CRS-5 flow information, SpaceX engineers have been busily working through the software requirements and challenges – right up to the last minute – in order to give the stage the best chance of making what would be another historic milestone in the company’s attempts to create a fully reusable launch system.
The ASDS is much more than just a floating platform.
It has been outfitted with thrusters, repurposed from deep sea oil rigs, allowing for the platform to hold position to within three meters, even in a storm.
It is also understood that the ASDS will have the ability to refuel returned stages, allowing them to make the hop back to land for future reuse.
This system will also play a major role with SpaceX’s new rocket – the Falcon Heavy and her three cores – when she comes online in the middle of 2015.
Quelle: NS
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Update: 22.30 MEZ
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SpaceX Exercises Caution and Keeps CRS-5 Rocket Grounded Until At Least Jan. 6, 2015
SpaceX is NO GO to launch a Falcon-9 booster with their unmanned Dragon cargo ship on the company’s fifth commercial resupply mission to the International Space Station (ISS) for NASA this Friday, Dec. 19, and will not do so until at least after the new year. The company’s second CRS-5 launch delay, according to SpaceX, is being blamed on an abundance of caution, this time after a recent customary static test fire / wet dress rehearsal (also known as a practice countdown) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex-40 ended prematurely. Although the exact details of the concern have not been made available, both NASA and SpaceX have decided to push the launch back to give engineers time to review data from the test fire before proceeding with a second test fire and committing to a launch attempt.
Continue reading SpaceX Exercises Caution and Keeps CRS-5 Rocket Grounded Until At Least Jan. 6, 2015
Quelle: AS
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Update: 29.12.2014
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Quelle: SpaceX
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Update: 2.01.2015 
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Quelle: NASA
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Update: 3.12.2014
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60 percent chance of favorable weather for SpaceX rocket launch Tuesday

CAPE CANAVERAL -- 
The U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron is forecasting a 60 percent chance of favorable weather for Tuesday's SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launch.
The rocket with a Dragon cargo spacecraft loaded with more than 3,700 pounds of scientific experiments, technology demonstrations and supplies is scheduled to blast off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 6:20 a.m. on a resupply mission to the International Space Station.
This is the sixth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the ISS.
As part of the launch, SpaceX also plans to land the first stage of the Falcon 9 rocket on a barge, part of future plans to try and save rocket parts and save money.
NASA says the Dragon spacecraft will remain attached to the space station's Harmony module for more than four weeks and then splash down in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Baja California, bringing with it almost two tons of experiment samples and equipment from the station.
Quelle: NEWS13
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Update: 4.01.2014
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Rain and clouds in the forecast for Tuesday’s SpaceX launch


Meteorologists predict mostly cloudy conditions with a chance of light rain for Tuesday morning’s scheduled takeoff of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket with a space station-bound supply ship, with a 40 percent chance weather could prevent liftoff during the instantaneous predawn launch opportunity.
The 20-story rocket is set for liftoff at 6:20 a.m. EST (1120 GMT) Tuesday from Cape Canaveral’s Complex 40 launch pad. It will send a cargo load of more than 3,700 pounds of provisions and experiments to the six-person crew living on the International Space Station.
SpaceX will have one second to send the Falcon 9 booster and Dragon cargo craft skyward. The launch window is timed for approximately the moment the International Space Station’s orbital path passes above Cape Canaveral. If weather or a technical issue prevents launch Tuesday, the next chance for liftoff will be Friday morning.
Technicians will load time-sensitive experiment specimens and fresh food into the Dragon capsule Monday.
The official weather outlook released Saturday by the U.S. Air Force’s 45th Weather Squadron calls for a 60 percent chance of favorable conditions for Tuesday’s launch.
A front will likely be draped over Central Florida early Tuesday, and forecasters predict a chance of very light rain and scattered clouds at 2,000 feet and 12,000 feet — plus a broken cloud deck at 24,000 feet — for the instantaneous launch window.
“The next frontal boundary will move into the area by Monday, bringing another bout of upper level clouds and increased rain chances,” the Air Force weather team wrote in a forecast summary. “Like the last boundary, this front will likely not make it south of Central Florida before stalling and lingering over the area for a day or two. With the boundary overhead, the primary weather concern will be thick clouds.”
Winds will be from the north-northeast at 8 to 12 mph and the temperature will be around 66 degrees Fahrenheit at launch time Tuesday.
Officials expect good visibility and low solar activity.
If the launch is delayed to Friday, there is a 30 percent that weather will prohibit launch, mainly due to a concern about flight through precipitation.
The unmanned Dragon supply ship is due to rendezvous with the space station Thursday if the mission takes off on schedule Tuesday.
Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1967 Views

Sonntag, 4. Januar 2015 - 12:15 Uhr

Luftfahrt - Entwürfe für schnelle und wendige UAV´s für Stadt Missionen

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DARPA's Fast Lightweight Autonomy program aims to develop and demonstrate autonomous UAVs small enough to fit through an open window and able to fly at speeds up to 20 meters per second (45 miles per hour) through complex indoor spaces, independent of communication with outside operators or sensors and without reliance on GPS waypoints. If successful, the algorithms developed in the program could enhance unmanned system capabilities by reducing the amount of processing power, communications, and human intervention needed for low-level tasks, such as navigation around obstacles in a cluttered environment.

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Military teams patrolling dangerous urban environments overseas and rescue teams responding to disasters such as earthquakes or floods currently rely on remotely piloted unmanned aerial vehicles to provide a bird's-eye view of the situation and spot threats that can't be seen from the ground. But to know what's going on inside an unstable building or a threatening indoor space often requires physical entry, which can put troops or civilian response teams in danger.
To address these challenges, DARPA issued a Broad Agency Announcement solicitation for the Fast Lightweight Autonomy (FLA) program. FLA focuses on creating a new class of algorithms to enable small, unmanned aerial vehicles to quickly navigate a labyrinth of rooms, stairways and corridors or other obstacle-filled environments without a remote pilot.
The program aims to develop and demonstrate autonomous UAVs small enough to fit through an open window and able to fly at speeds up to 20 meters per second (45 miles per hour)-while navigating within complex indoor spaces independent of communication with outside operators or sensors and without reliance on GPS waypoints.
"Birds of prey and flying insects exhibit the kinds of capabilities we want for small UAVs," said Mark Micire, DARPA program manager. "Goshawks, for example, can fly very fast through a dense forest without smacking into a tree. Many insects, too, can dart and hover with incredible speed and precision.
The goal of the FLA program is to explore non-traditional perception and autonomy methods that would give small UAVs the capacity to perform in a similar way, including an ability to easily navigate tight spaces at high speed and quickly recognize if it had already been in a room before."
If successful, the algorithms developed in the program could enhance unmanned system capabilities by reducing the amount of processing power, communications, and human intervention needed for low-level tasks, such as navigation around obstacles in a cluttered environment. The initial focus is on UAVs, but advances made through the FLA program could potentially be applied to ground, marine and underwater systems, which could be especially useful in GPS-degraded or denied environments.
"Urban and disaster relief operations would be obvious key beneficiaries, but applications for this technology could extend to a wide variety of missions using small and large unmanned systems linked together with manned platforms as a system of systems," said Stefanie Tompkins, director of DARPA's Defense Sciences Office.
"By enabling unmanned systems to learn 'muscle memory' and perception for basic tasks like avoiding obstacles, it would relieve overload and stress on human operators so they can focus on supervising the systems and executing the larger mission."
Since the focus of the program is improving perception and reducing dependence on external sources-as opposed to designing new small UAVs-DARPA will provide performers selected for the program with the same small UAV testbed as government-furnished equipment.
Quelle: SD

Tags: Luftfahrt 

1988 Views

Sonntag, 4. Januar 2015 - 11:30 Uhr

Planet Erde - Foto Geheimnis: Wo ist Philae versteckt?

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The Pleiades satellites spotted Philae in the middle of the Nile, south of the city of Aswan. Not the robot course, but the Egyptian island that gave it its name. Can you find it? Temples transferred to the island of Agilkia are easier to identify.
Philae was shaped like a little bird. On this Pleiades image taken in October 2012, we guess the contours (see picture caption below). This is the beautiful, nicknamed the "Pearl of Egypt", was swallowed up by 2 times: following downstream the construction of the first Aswan Dam (visible in the image) by the British between 1894 and 1902 and the upstream construction of 2nd dam, "the Aswan High Dam," completed in 1970 under the leadership of President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
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In ancient times, the island of Philae was quite different. Place of pilgrimage, it housed a shrine to the goddess Isis. The beauty of the sunken temples motivated, in the 1970s, achieving a "pharaonic" project moving, stone by stone, ancient buildings on the island Agilkia (sometimes also spelled Aguilkia) at 300 m northwest of Philae.
To accommodate the ancient buildings, the island Agilkia was leveled on about thirty meters and remodeled to give it the original form of oiselle of the island of Philae. Today the island Agilkia often renamed Philae, is a popular tourist destination. A sound and light show even gives life to his temples during the starry nights.
As for the robot Philae on its comet, he landed as planned on the site called Agilkia it then bounced, bounced ... and is now stuck along the wall of the "great depression" of tchouri. Name the Egyptian resonances would not it find? Any ideas?
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L'image Pléiades légendée. Crédits : CNES 2012, Distribution Airbus DS/Spot Image.
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Did you know? The name of the Rosetta probe refers to the Rosetta Stone, a stone fragment found in the Egyptian city ... Rosetta. Wearing 3 versions of the same text, this stone has enabled Champollion in the early 19th century to decipher the hieroglyphs. An obelisk found on the island of Philae also helped Champollion to solve their mystery. A Rosetta - and Philae - to decipher the comets!
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Quelle: CNES

Tags: Planet Erde 

2098 Views

Samstag, 3. Januar 2015 - 18:20 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Korean Satellit auf möglichen Crash-Kurs mit Weltraummüll

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Korean space officials are scrambling to minimize the chance of one of their satellites colliding with some space debris.
U.S. monitoring agencies warned Korea on Friday that the country's Science and Technology Satellite 3 could potentially crash into the debris on Sunday evening, Korea time, unless measures are taken.
Korea's Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning says officials will attempt to prevent a collision by changing the satellite's altitude during that time period.
The debris they are watching is one of thousands of pieces of twisted metal that was produced after a Russian and U.S. satellite crashed into each other in 2009.
The Korean satellite, launched in November 2013, is used to forecast geological events. 
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Quelle: arirang-News

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2159 Views

Freitag, 2. Januar 2015 - 21:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Wolkenphänomen über Oberfranken

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Heute (2.01.2014) bekamen wir folgendes Foto mit dieser Email:

Hallo Herr Köhler, 
Zusammen mit einem Schüler von mir haben wir vor ca. 3 Monaten folgendes Bild aufgenommen über Pegnitz/Oberfranken.
Kann mir bis heute keinen Reim darauf machen wie diese Wolkenformation zu erklären ist zuvor gab es einen hellen Lichtblitz!
Bitte schauen Sie sich das doch einmal an!
Gesundes neues Jahr!
mit freundlichen Grüßen
W.Steiner

Bei diesem Phänomen handelt es sich um eine Hole-Punch Cloud (übersetzt Lochstanz-Wolke). Flugzeuge stanzen dabei tatsächlich Löcher in die Wolken. Wenn keine Staubpartikel in der Luft vorhanden sind, an die sich Wassertröpfchen anlagern können, gefrieren sie erst bei einer Temperatur von etwa minus 36 Grad Celsius. Fliegt nun ein Flugzeug durch eine Wolke, die bereits auf minus 15 bis 20 Grad abgekühlt ist, führt der Luftzug über den Tragflächen oder dem Propeller dazu, dass sich die Luft ausdehnt. In einem kreisrunden, abgegrenztem Gebiet kühlt die Wolke so ab, dass die Wassertropfen gefrieren, Eiskristalle bilden und zu Boden fallen.

CENAP-Mannheim

Nachfolgend Beispiel-Erklärung zu Hole-Punch Cloud:

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Strange-looking hole-punch clouds are made by jets
It might look like a UFO – but it’s really a hole-punch cloud. A scientist talked with EarthSky about the connection between hole-punch clouds, jets and snowfall.
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November 1, 2014. Caledonia, Wisconsin. Photo credit: Lisa Anderson
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You’re probably familiar with contrails, the wispy strands of clouds made by jet exhaust high in the sky. But you might never have seen a hole-punch cloud. They’re very strange clearings in the cloud cover – clear patches of sky, often with a circular shape. Sometimes people report them as UFOs. Airplanes create hole-punch clouds – but just how do thy do it?
Hole-punch cloud image provided by Andrew Heymsfield. Used with permission
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Houston, Minnesota. Photo credit: Jamie Vix
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EarthSky spoke with Andrew Heymsfield, a senior scientist with the National Center for Atmospheric Research. He led a team that showed a relationship between these strange-looking clouds, jet aircraft and snowfall. He told EarthSky:
This whole idea of jet aircraft making these features has to do with cooling of air over the wings that generates ice.
His team found that – at lower altitudes – jets can punch holes in clouds and make small amounts of rain and snow. As a plane flies through mid-level clouds, it forces air to expand rapidly and cool. Water droplets in the cloud freeze to ice and then turn to snow as they fall. The gap expands to create spectacular holes in the clouds. He said:
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Image Credit: NOAA
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We found an exemplary case of hole-punch clouds over Texas. From satellite imagery you could see holes just pocketing the sky, holes and long channels where aircraft had been flying at that level of the cloud for a while.
Dr. Heymsfield used a weather forecast model developed at NCAR – and radar images of clouds from NASA’s CloudSat satellite – to explain the physics of how jet aircraft make hole-punch clouds.
Heymsfield’s team found that every measurable commercial jet aircraft, private jet aircraft and also military jets as well as turbo props were producing these holes. He said a hole-punch cloud expands for hours after being created. Major airports, where there’s a lot of aircraft traffic, would be a good place to study cloud holes. He said:
What we decided to do was look at major airports around the world, especially where there’s low cloud cover and cold clouds in the wintertime, and found that the frequency of occurrence suitable for this process to occur is actually reasonably high, on the order of three to five percent. In the winter months, it’s probably two to three times higher, 10 to 15 percent.
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Hole-punch cloud image provided by Andrew Heymsfield. Used with permission
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He said people who look out their airplane window in flight can see for themselves how the wing changes a cloud.
When an aircraft lands or takes off sometimes – especially in humid, tropical areas – you see a little veil of clouds over the wings of the aircraft. And basically, what’s happening over the wings of the aircraft, there’s cooling. And the cooling produces a cloud.
It’s basically a super-cooled cloud. It’s just like a fog you see at the ground except that its temperature is zero degrees centigrade. So in that process of expanding, the air expands over the wing and cools. And that cooling can be as much as 20 degrees centigrade.
The cooling of air over the wings generates ice, said Heymsfield. He said:
We speculated on that and suggested that this was another process to produce holes in clouds. Our results were published in July 2011 in the journal Science.
About the Texas incident where satellite imagery showed many hole-punch openings and channels, Heymsfield said:
What we found was that there were about a hundred of these little features. We decided to, first of all, identify their location and see if we could link them to particular aircraft. Then the second thing we did was say, okay, why do these long channels last for the period of time it would take for a satellite to take a snapshot of them? We got high-time-resolution satellite imagery and were able then to track these features, these holes, and watch them develop with time, watch how they developed.
Bottom Line: Scientists have found that, at mid-altitudes, jet aircraft can punch holes in clouds and make small amounts of rain and snow. These are the strange hole-punch clouds that are sometimes reported as UFOs. Andrew Heymsfield, a senior scientist with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, led a team that showed a relationship between these strange-looking clouds, airplanes and snowfall.
Quelle: EarthSky



Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2848 Views

Freitag, 2. Januar 2015 - 20:15 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - Apollo-11-Mission - Teil 2/2

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S69-39011 (July 1969) --- TRW Incorporated's artist concept depicting the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) descending to the surface of the moon. Inside the LM will be astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. TRW's LM descent engine will brake Apollo 11's descent to the lunar surface. The throttle-able rocket engine will be fired continuously the last 10 miles of the journey to the moon, slowing the LM to a speed of two miles per hour at touchdown. TRW Incorporated designed and built the unique engine at Redondo Beach, California under subcontract to the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Bethpage, New York, the LM prime contractor.

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AS11-42-6179 (19 July 1969) --- This photograph of the solar corona was taken from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during trans-lunar coast and prior to lunar orbit insertion. The moon is the dark disc between the spacecraft and the sun.

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AS11-42-6237 (20 July 1969) --- An Apollo 11 oblique view of the large crater Theophilus located at the northwest edge of the Sea of Nectar on the lunar nearside. Theophilus is about 60 statute miles in diameter. The smooth area is Mare Nectaris. The smaller crater Madler, about 14 statute miles in diameter, is located to the east of Theophilus. Visible in the background are the large crater Fracastorius and the smaller crater Beaumont. The coordinates of the center of this photograph are 29 degrees east longitude and 11 degrees south latitude.

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AS11-42-6248 (July 1969) --- An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside in the area of International Astronomical Union crater No. 312, which is about 30 statute miles in diameter. The center of the photograph is located at 164 degrees west longitude and 8 degrees south latitude. The sharp shadows indicate that the picture was taken at a low sun angle.

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AS11-42-6285 (July 1969) --- An Apollo 11 view of a bright rayed crater on the lunar farside. The crater is unnamed. The center of this photograph is located at 100 degrees southeast longitude and 4 degrees 30 minutes north latitude. This area is just east of Smyth's Sea.

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AS11-44-6608 (20 July 1969) --- The rough terrain in this photograph is typical of the farside of the moon. This lunar picture was taken from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during the lunar landing mission. About one-half of International Astronomical Union (I.A.U.) crater NO. 308 is visible at upper right. The coordinates of the center of I.A.U. crater NO. 308 are 179.3 degrees east longitude and 6 degrees south latitude. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6551 (July 1969) --- This view from the Apollo 11 spacecraft shows the Earth rising above the moon's horizon. The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyth's Sea on the nearside. Coordinates of the center of the terrain are 85 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6581 (20 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM), in a lunar landing configuration, is photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Modules (CSM). Inside the LM were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM to explore the lunar surface. The protrusions connected to the landing pods are sensors to aid in the touchdown or landing process.

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AS11-44-6581 (20 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM), in a lunar landing configuration, is photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Modules (CSM). Inside the LM were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM to explore the lunar surface. The protrusions connected to the landing pods are sensors to aid in the touchdown or landing process.

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AS11-44-6595 (20 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM), in a lunar landing configuration, is photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Modules (CSM). While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the LM "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the CSM "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6598 (20 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM), in a lunar landing configuration, is photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Modules (CSM). Inside the LM were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM to explore the lunar surface.

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AS11-44-6609 (16-24 July 1969) --- An oblique of the Crater Daedalus on the lunar farside as seen from the Apollo 11 spacecraft in lunar orbit. The view looks southwest. Daedalus (formerly referred to as I.A.U. Crater No. 308) is located at 179 degrees east longitude and 5.5 degrees south latitude. Daedalus has a diameter of about 50 statute miles. This is a typical scene showing the rugged terrain on the farside of the moon. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-36-5390 (20 July 1969) --- This interior view of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) shows astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, during the lunar landing mission. This picture was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-37-5528 (20 July 1969) --- This photograph of astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, was taken inside the Lunar Module (LM) while the LM rested on the lunar surface. Astronauts Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, had already completed their historic extravehicular activity (EVA) when this picture was made. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explored the moon's surface.

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AS11-37-5445 (20 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Command and Service Modules (CSM) are photographed from the Lunar Module (LM) in lunar orbit during the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The lunar surface below is in the north central Sea of Fertility. The coordinates of the center of the picture are 51 degrees east longitude and 1 degree north latitude. About half of the crater Taruntius G is visible in the lower left corner of the picture. Part of Taruntius H can be seen at lower right.

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AS11-40-5868 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descends the steps of the Lunar Module (LM) ladder as he prepares to walk on the moon. He had just egressed the LM. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). While Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM "Eagle" to explore the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5875 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during an Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module (LM) is on the left, and the footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the moon. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm Hasselblad lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM, the "Eagle", to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5878 (20 July 1969) --- A close-up view of an astronaut's bootprint in the lunar soil, photographed with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5880 (20 July 1969) --- A close-up view of an astronaut's boot and bootprint in the lunar soil, photographed with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin A. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM)" Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6548 (16-24 July 1969) --- This view from the Apollo 11 spacecraft shows Earth rising above the moon's horizon. The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyth's Sea on the nearside. Coordinates of the center of the terrain are 86 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6549 (16-24 July 1969) --- This view from the Apollo 11 spacecraft shows Earth rising above the moon's horizon. The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyth's Sea on the nearside. Coordinates of the center of the terrain are 86 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6550 (16-24 July 1969) --- This view from the Apollo 11 spacecraft shows Earth rising above the moon's horizon. The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyth's Sea on the nearside. Coordinates of the center of the terrain are 86 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 was NASA's first lunar landing mission in the Apollo program.

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AS11-44-6552 (16-24 July 1969) --- This view of Earth rising over the moon's horizon was taken from the Apollo spacecraft. The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyth's Sea on the nearside. Coordinates of the center of the terrain are 85 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. While astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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S89-30789 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, mission commander, uses a clothesline device to transport a contingency lunar sample into the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" on the lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. was in the Eagle to the receive the sample. The frame was exposed with a 16mm Data Acquisition Camera (DAC). The two moon explorers spent part of two days in the Eagle and on the lunar surface while astronaut Michael Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

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S69-40308 (20 July 1969) --- The deployment of the flag of the United States on the surface of the moon is captured on film during the first Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, stands on the left at the flag's staff. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is also pictured. The picture was taken from film exposed by the 16mm Data Acquisition Camera (DAC) which was mounted in the Lunar Module (LM). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5886 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 mission commander, at the modular equipment storage assembly (MESA) of the Lunar Module "Eagle" on the historic first extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. took the photograph with a Hasselblad 70mm camera. Photo credit: NASA

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AS11-40-5866 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, egresses the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" and begins to descend the steps of the LM ladder as he prepares to walk on the moon. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM "Eagle" to explore the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit. Photo credit: NASA

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AS11-40-5902 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the moon near a leg of the Lunar Module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts' bootprints are clearly visible in the foreground. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5903 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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S69-42583 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) prior to making the first step by man on another celestial body. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity (EVA). The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anomaly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

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AS11-40-5964 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. He is driving one of two core tubes into the lunar soil. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. Aldrin stands near the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment, a component of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP, deployed earlier). The SWC is in the center background.

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AS11-40-5954 (20 July 1969) --- This crater which was located near the point the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) touched down on the moon was photographed by the Apollo 11 astronauts during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Dark shadows obscure much of the crater wall in the background. Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, explored the moon. The object in the foreground is the Apollo 11 35mm stereo close-up camera.

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AS11-40-5949 (20 July 1969) --- The deployment of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) is photographed by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, during the crew extravehicular activity (EVA). Here, astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is deploying the Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP). Already deployed is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3), which can be seen to the left and further in the background. In the center background is the Lunar Module. A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Armstrong took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera, also.

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AS11-37-5551 (20 July 1969) --- Two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) are seen deployed on the lunar surface in this view photographed from inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the far background is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); and to the right and closer to the camera is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3). The footprints of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are very distinct in the lunar soil.

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AS11-40-5863 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed egressing the Lunar Module (LM) during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-40-5873 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. In the right background is the lunar module. On Aldrin's right is the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment, already deployed. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

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AS11-40-5881 (20 July 1969) --- This 70mm handheld camera's image on the Sea of Tranquility's lunar surface is the first of a multi-framed panorama photographed from a point some 30 or 40 feet west of the plus-Z (west) footpad of the Lunar Module "Eagle." The view is looking toward the southwest showing part of the horizon crater rim that was pointed out as being visible from the Eagle's window.

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AS11-40-5899 (20 July 1969) --- Close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts left on the moon in commemoration of the historic lunar landing mission. The plaque was attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM). The plaque was covered with a thin sheet of stainless steel during flight. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, explored the moon.

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AS11-40-5927 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, prepares to deploy the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) during the Apollo 11 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. During flight the EASEP is stowed in the Lunar Module's (LM) scientific equipment bay at the left year quadrant of the descent stage looking forward. Aldrin is removing the EASEP

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AS11-40-5931 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, prepares to deploy the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. In the foreground is the Apollo 11 35mm stereo close-up camera.

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AS11-40-5948 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. He has just deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). This is a good view of the deployed equipment. In the foreground is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); beyond it is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3); in the center background is the United States flag; in the left background is the black and white lunar surface television camera; in the far right background is the Lunar Module (LM). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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S69-39817 (20 July 1969) --- Interior view of the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC), Building 30, during the Apollo 11 lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). The television monitor shows astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. on the surface of the moon.

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AS11-37-5458 (20 July 1969) --- This excellent view from the right-hand window of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) shows the surface of the moon in the vicinity of where the LM touched down. Numerous small rocks and craters can be seen between the LM and the lunar horizon. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the LM to the lunar surface.

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AS11-37-5475 (20 July 1969) --- The black shadow of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) is silhouetted against the surface of the moon in this photograph taken from inside the LM. The lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. was conducted on July 20, 1969. Impressions in the lunar soil made by the lunar boots of the two astronauts are clearly visible.

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AS11-37-5505 (20 July 1969) --- This photograph shows in fine detail the impressions in the lunar soil made by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Armstrong, commander, and Aldrin, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-37-5545 (20 July 1969) --- The flag of the United States, deployed on the surface of the moon, dominates this photograph taken from inside the Lunar Module (LM). The footprints of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. stand out very clearly. In the far background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera which televised the Apollo 11 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Armstrong, commander, and Aldrin, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-44-6626 (21 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) ascent stage, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. aboard, is photographed from the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explored the moon. The LM is approaching from below. The coordinates of the center of the lunar terrain seen below is located at 102 degrees east longitude and 1 degree north latitude.

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AS11-44-6634 (21 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) ascent stage, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. onboard, is photographed from the Command and Services Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. This view is looking west with the Earth rising above the lunar horizon. Astronaut Michael Collins remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explored the moon. The LM is approaching from below. The maze area in the background is Smyth's Sea. At right center is International Astronomical Union crater No. 189.

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AS11-44-6642 (21 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Lunar Module ascent stage, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. aboard, is photographed from the Command and Service Modules (CSM) during rendezvous in lunar orbit. The Lunar Module (LM) was making its docking approach to the CSM. Astronaut Michael Collins remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while the other two crewmen explored the lunar surface. The large, dark-colored area in the background is Smyth's Sea, centered at 85 degrees east longitude and 2 degrees south latitude on the lunar surface (nearside). This view looks west. The Earth rises above the lunar horizon.

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AS11-36-5365 (21 July 1969) --- A close-up view of the docking target on the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) photographed from the Command Module during the LM/CSM docking in lunar orbit. Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, in the LM, were returning from the lunar surface. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explored the moon.

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AS11-37-5437 (20 July 1969) --- The approach to Apollo Landing Site 2 in southwestern Sea of Tranquility is seen in this photograph taken from the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) in lunar orbit. When this picture was made, the LM was still docked to the Command and Service Modules (CSM). Site 2 is located just right of center at the edge of the darkness. The crater Maskelyne is the large one at the lower right. Hypatia Rille (U.S. 1) is at upper left, with the crater Moltke just to the right (north) of it. Sidewinder Rille and Diamondback Rille extend from left to right across the center of the picture. This view looks generally west.

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AS11-37-5448 (July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Command and Service Modules (CSM) (tiny dot near quarter sized crater, center), with astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, aboard. The view overlooking the western Sea of Tranquility was photographed from the Lunar Module (LM). Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, manned the LM and made their historic lunar landing on July 20, 1969. Coordinates of the center of the terrain in the photograph are 18.5 degrees longitude and .5 degrees north latitude.

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S11-44-6689 (16-24 July 1969) --- One-third of the Earth's sphere illuminated, Earth's terminator, sunglint, a portion of east Africa, as photographed from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during its first lunar landing mission. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

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AS11-45-6704 (20 July 1969) --- An Apollo stereo view showing a close-up of a small lump of lunar surface powder about a half inch across, with a splash of a glassy material over it. It seems that a drop of molten material fell on it, splashed and froze. The exposure was made by the Apollo 11 35mm stereo close-up camera. The camera was specially developed to get the highest possible resolution of a small area. A three-inch square area is photographed with a flash illumination and at a fixed distance. The camera is mounted on a walking stick, and the astronauts use it by holding it up against the object to be photographed and pulling the trigger. The pictures are in color and give a stereo view, enabling the fine detail to be seen very clearly. The project is under the direction of Professor T. Gold of Cornell University and Dr. F. Pearce of NASA. The camera was designed and built by Eastman Kodak. Professor E. Purcell of Harvard University and Dr. E. Land of the Polaroid Corporation have contributed to the project. The pictures brought back from the moon by the Apollo 11 crew are of excellent quality and allow fine detail of the undisturbed lunar surface to be seen. Scientists hope to be able to deduce from them some of the processes that have taken place that have shaped and modified the surface.
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S69-21698 (24 July 1969) --- The three Apollo 11 crew men await pickup by a helicopter from the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The fourth man in the life raft is a United States Navy underwater demolition team swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, onboard, splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-40301 (24 July 1969) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC), Building 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the USS Hornet in the Pacific recovery area. Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF).
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S69-40753 (24 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 crewmen, wearing biological isolation garments, arrive aboard the USS Hornet during recovery operations in the central Pacific. They are walking toward the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), in which they will be confined until they arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC), Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). Apollo 11, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, onboard, splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet to conclude their historic lunar landing mission.
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S69-40152 (27 July 1969) --- A Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), with the three Apollo 11 crewmen inside, is unloaded from a United States Air Force C-141 transport at Ellington Air Force Base very early Sunday after a flight from Hawaii. A large crowd was present to welcome astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. back to Houston following their historic lunar landing mission. The crew remained in the MQF until they arrived at the Crew Reception Area of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The crew will be released from quarantine on Aug. 11, 1969.
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S69-21365 (24 July 1969) --- United States President Richard M. Nixon was in the central Pacific recovery area to welcome the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet. The three crewmen will remain in the MQF until they arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-40217 (27 July 1969) --- Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 flight, greets his son Mark, on telephone intercom system, while his wife Jan and another son Eric look on. Armstrong had just arrived in early morning with the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) at Ellington Air Force Base. Armstrong and fellow astronauts will remain in the MQF until arrival and confinement in the Crew Reception Area (CRA) of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Quarantine period will end on Aug. 11, 1969.
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S69-40147 (27 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 crewmen, still under a 21-day quarantine, are greeted by their wives. They arrived at Ellington Air Force Base very early Sunday after a flight aboard a U.S. Air Force C-141 transport from Hawaii. Looking through the window of a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., and Michael Collins. The wives are (left to right) Mrs. Pat Collins, Mrs. Jan Armstrong, and Mrs. Joan Aldrin. The crew of the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission remained in the MQF until they arrived to the Crew Reception Area of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The astronauts will be released from quarantine on Aug. 11, 1969.
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S69-21783 (24 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 Command Module (CM) is photographed as it is hoisted aboard the USS Hornet, prime recovery vessel for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The splashdown took place at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii, only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet.
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S69-40758 (24 July 1969) --- The Apollo 11 spacecraft Command Module (CM) and the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are photographed aboard the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic first lunar landing mission. The three crewmen are already in the MQF. Apollo 11 with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. aboard splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet. While astronauts Armstrong, commander, and Aldrin, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-40302 (24 July 1969) --- A group of NASA and Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) officials join in with the flight controllers in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC), Building 30, in celebrating the successful conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left foreground are Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director of Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Administrator, Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters.
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S69-39996 (25 July 1969) --- The first Apollo 11 sample return container, with lunar surface material inside, is unloaded at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The rock box had arrived only minutes earlier at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The lunar samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity.
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S69-40306 (30 July 1969) --- The crewmen of the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission are seen dining in the Crew Reception Area of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37, Manned Spacecraft Center. Left to right, are astronauts Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Michael Collins, and Neil A. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The astronauts will be released from quarantine on Aug. 11, 1969.
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S69-40747 (July 1969) --- Dr. Grant Heikan, MSC and a Lunar Sample Preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.
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S69-40939 (August 1969) --- Landrum Young, Brown and Root - Northrop technician, examines mice in the Animal Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. The sample material was collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) on July 20, 1969.
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S69-44463 (July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong took this series of pictures of the landing site of Apollo 11's Lunar Module (LM) Eagle on the lunar surface. These panoramic views of the lunar surface reveal the surface near where the LM touched down, in the southeastern Sea of Tranquility. Foot pads and shadows of the LM are visible in the two of the three panoramic views.
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S69-44464 (July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong took this series of pictures of the landing site of Apollo 11's Lunar Module (LM) Eagle on the lunar surface. Glare in the middle of the top frames is the result of the Hasselblad being aimed toward the sun.
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S69-44465 (20 July 1969) --- These panoramic views of the lunar surface, photographed from the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) as it rested on the lunar surface. The views reveal the surface near where the LM touched down, in the southeastern Sea of Tranquility. The views are as it looked before and after astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. participated in extravehicular activity (EVA). The United States flag is pictured in the bottom or "after" photo with the black and white lunar surface television camera pictured at the right of flag. Shadows of the LM are visible in the two panoramic views and a silhouette of part of a Reaction Control Subsystem thruster is seen in the bottom picture. Note the numerous footprints made by the two crewmen during the EVA period.
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S69-45002 (26 July 1969) --- A close-up view of the lunar rocks contained in the first Apollo 11 sample return container. The rock box was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37, at 3:55 p.m. (CDT), Saturday, July 26, 1969. The gloved hand gives an indication of size. This box also contained the Solar Wind Composition experiment (not shown) and two core tubes for subsurface samples (not shown). These lunar samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.
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S69-45009 (27 July 1969) --- This is the first lunar sample that was photographed in detail in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The photograph shows a granular, fine-grained, mafic (iron magnesium rich) rock. At this early stage of the examination, this rock appears similar to several igneous rock types found on Earth. The scale is printed backwards due to the photographic configuration in the Vacuum Chamber. The sample number is 10003. This rock was among the samples collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) on July 20, 1969.
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S69-45025 (27 July 1969) --- This is the first lunar sample that was photographed in detail in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The photograph shows a granular, fine-grained, mafic (iron magnesium rich) rock. At this early stage of the examination, this rock appears similar to several igneous rock types found on Earth. The scale is printed backwards due to the photographic configuration in the Vacuum Chamber. The sample number is 10003. This rock was among the samples collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.
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S69-45507 (4 Aug. 1969) --- A close-up of the second Apollo 11 sample return container in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37. This rock box was opened for the first time at 1 p.m. (CDT), Aug. 4, 1969. Some of the material has already been removed from the ALSRC in this view. The stainless steel can contains some course lunar surface material. The lunar samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.
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S69-45519 (5 Aug. 1969) --- A close-up view of the lunar rocks contained in the second Apollo 11 sample return container. The rock box was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), Building 37, on Tuesday, Aug. 5, 1969. These lunar samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) on July 20, 1969.
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S69-47900 (September 1969) --- This is a photo micrograph of lunar sample 10022. Magnification one inch equals one-tenth millimeter. The light blue and white mineral is plagioclase. The black is ilmenite, and the blue and/or green and/or orange and/or yellow and/or red mineral is pyroxene. The large pyroxene is a phenocryst that had been partially resorbed. The lunar samples collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission have been subjected to extensive tests and examinations at the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory.
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S69-53126 (30 Sept. 1969) --- A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the cultures.
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S69-53666 (30 Sept. 1969) --- A close-up view of numerous fern plants growing in a sprinkling of lunar soil brought back from the lunar surface by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The photograph of the fern plants was taken 50 days after the plants were exposed to the lunar matter. The plants - Onoclea sensidilis, or more commonly known as Sensitive Fern - were photographed on a dish containing the minimal nutrients for germination. The cabbage-like, darker circle of plants, about 3/8-inch tall at the highest point, is germinating in contact with the lunar material, but the lighter colored, blurred plant material surrounding the cabbage-like clump is not in contact with any of the lunar soil. The strong thrive of these plants has been termed surprising and outstanding by MSC plant specialists.
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S70-17434 (13 Aug. 1969) --- New York City welcomes Apollo 11 crewmen in a showering of ticker tape down Broadway and Park Avenue in a parade termed as the largest in the city's history. Pictured in the lead car, from the right, are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The three astronauts teamed for the first manned lunar landing, on July 20, 1969.
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S70-17433 (13 Aug. 1969) --- New York City welcomes Apollo 11 crewmen in a showering of ticker tape down Broadway and Park Avenue in a parade termed as the largest in the city's history. Pictured in the lead car, from the right, are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The three astronauts teamed for the first manned lunar landing, on July 20, 1969.
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Fotos: NASA

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Freitag, 2. Januar 2015 - 14:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Unzureichende Informationen in NICAP-Dokument als UFO-Beweis -TEIL 13

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June 30, 1957
The NICAP document describes this episode briefly in section X:
June 30, 1957. An airliner en route from Belo Horizonte to Rio de Janeiro, at 6:30 p.m., en- countered a glowing red-orange disc-like object. Capt. Saul Martins later told the press the UFO maneuvered all around the DC-3, pacing it, flying above and below it. One of the many pas- sengers who also witnessed the object was a renowned Brazilian writer, Prof. Aires de Mata Machado Filho.1
The source of this report is July 7th edition of the newspaper, Diairo Popular
Looking for supporting information
What bothers me most of many UFO documents is how they can take one piece of infor-
mation and inflate it into something bigger than it was. Sometimes critical informa-
tion is left out. In this case, I could not find any additional information other than this one
document. Keyhoe writes about it briefly in his book, The flying saucer conspiracy (page
94), but gives the date as July 7th, which is the date of the newspaper article and not the actual event. Weinstein sources Keyhoe and NICAP. He also sources Richard Haines, who appears to have sourced NICAP. Therefore, the entire case rests of the one newspa- per article, where the actual source was not even directly quoted.
In an attempt to see if others might have some information, I inquired to Kentaro Mori, who has been away from UFOlogy for some time. I was hoping he might shed some light from his sources in South America. The only thing he noted was that the name of the writer was incorrect. It is actually Prof. Aires da Mata Machado Filho and he appears to have never written about this event. Beyond that I received no additional information about this sighting. It appears that the sole source for this “important” bit of evidence is this news paper article.
A coincidence?
One of the reasons, I selected this case was because I stumbled across an article in Sky and Telescope, where the actual source of the UFO may have been documented. The November 1957 edition of Sky and Telescope documents a spectacular daylight fireball between 5 and 5:30 PM local time. From Belo Horizonte, the fireball was visible from an angle of 50 degrees elevation travel- ing “downward” towards Ibitira with an azimuth of 293 degrees (see diagram below). According to Vincent Menzes, “The fireball was seen as a reddish, egg shaped, body, which became silvery in color, but I think the latter hue was seen after disintegration.” 2
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The fireball was visible all over the region making it as a potential candidate for this sighting. It is hard to ignore the coincidence of this spectacular event occurring within about an hour of the reported time of the sighting.
Fireballs as UFOs
The reporting of fireball meteors as UFOs is nothing new. A daylight fireball is a dramatic event and can leave quite the impres- sion on observers. In his book, UFOs Explained, Phil Klass describes a daylight fireball event that startled pilots flying in Illinois, Missouri and Iowa. All thought the fireball was much closer than it was and some reported that the fireball changed course at the last minute to avoid a collision.
Based on this information, is it that much of a stretch to suggest the time in “Diario Popular” might have been off by an hour and that the air crew may have seen the fireball? Does one newspaper clipping really count as evidence that UFOs are “manifestations of extraterrestrial life”?3 I classify this case as “Insufficient information” or “possible meteor” . It should be removed from the lists of “Best evidence”.
Notes and references
1. Hall, Richard M. (Ed.) The UFO evidence. The National Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP). New York: Barnes and Noble. 1997. P. 120.
2. Menezes, Vincent. “A probable meteorite fall in Brazil”. Sky and Telescope. Cambridge, Mass.: Sky publishing corp. November, 1957. P. 10.
3. Hall, Richard M. (Ed.) The UFO evidence. The National Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP). New York: Barnes and Noble. 1997. P. 179.
Quelle: SUNlite 5/2014

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

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