The Deep Impact spacecraft lifted off aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., at 1:47:08.574 p.m. EST on January 12, 2005.
Tempel Fades into Night
Images taken by Deep Impact's flyby spacecraft after it turned around to capture last shots of a receding comet Tempel 1. Earlier, the mission's probe had smashed into the surface of Tempel 1, kicking up the fan-shaped plume of dust seen here behind the comet. Impact occurred at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3, 2005.
Image credit: NASA/JPL
Tempel Alive with Light
This spectacular image of comet Tempel 1 was taken 67 seconds after it obliterated Deep Impact's impactor spacecraft. The image was taken by the high-resolution camera on the mission's flyby craft. Scattered light from the collision saturated the camera's detector, creating the bright splash seen here. Linear spokes of light radiate away from the impact site, while reflected sunlight illuminates most of the comet surface. The image reveals topographic features, including ridges, scalloped edges and possibly impact craters formed long ago.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
NASA - Maps and Spectra of Ice-rich Areas on Comet Tempel 1
Maps and spectra of ice-rich areas relative to non-ice regions of the nucleus. a) and b) HRI visible (16 m/pixel); c and d) MRI visible (82 m/pixel); e and f) IR (120 m/pixel) data. Note the IR scan at the highest resolution (e and f) only covers the upper half of the nucleus, as shown. The ice-rich areas are mapped in the visible images as combinations of high 450/750 nm (or 387/750 nm for MRI) and low 950/750 nm, and in the infrared by the strength of absorptions at 2.0 µm. The visible spectra are scaled to a value of 1.0 at 750 nm, while the IR spectra are scaled at the same value at 2.0 µm. To facilitate detection of these subtle variations, all data are scaled to the same broad smooth area of the nucleus, indicated by the red boxes. IR spectra from each of the three ice rich regions include distinct absorptions due to water ice (f).
Photo Credit: NASA/UM/SAIC J. M. Sunshine et al., Science 311, 1453 (2006); published online 2 February 2006 (10.1126/science.1123632). Reprinted with permission from AAAS.
This image shows NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft being built at Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Boulder, Colo. On July 2, at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 3), the spacecraft's impactor will be released from Deep Impact's flyby spacecraft. One day later, it will collide with Tempel 1. The impactor cannot directly talk to Earth, so it will communicate via the flyby spacecraft during its final day.
The two spacecraft communicate at "S-band" frequency. The flyby's S-band antenna is the gold, rectangle-shaped object seen on the spacecraft, in the middle of this picture.
Image credit: Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation
NASA's Deep Space Comet Hunter Mission Comes to an End
PASADENA, Calif. - After almost 9 years in space that included an unprecedented July 4th impact and subsequent flyby of a comet, an additional comet flyby, and the return of approximately 500,000 images of celestial objects, NASA's Deep Impact mission has ended.
The project team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., has reluctantly pronounced the mission at an end after being unable to communicate with the spacecraft for over a month. The last communication with the probe was Aug. 8. Deep Impact was history's most traveled comet research mission, going about 4.7 billion miles (7.58 billion kilometers).
"Deep Impact has been a fantastic, long-lasting spacecraft that has produced far more data than we had planned," said Mike A'Hearn, the Deep Impact principal investigator at the University of Maryland in College Park. "It has revolutionized our understanding of comets and their activity."
Deep Impact successfully completed its original bold mission of six months in 2005 to investigate both the surface and interior composition of a comet, and a subsequent extended mission of another comet flyby and observations of planets around other stars that lasted from July 2007 to December 2010. Since then, the spacecraft has been continually used as a space-borne planetary observatory to capture images and other scientific data on several targets of opportunity with its telescopes and instrumentation.
Launched in January 2005, the spacecraft first traveled about 268 million miles (431 million kilometers) to the vicinity of comet Tempel 1. On July 3, 2005, the spacecraft deployed an impactor into the path of comet to essentially be run over by its nucleus on July 4. This caused material from below the comet’s surface to be blasted out into space where it could be examined by the telescopes and instrumentation of the flyby spacecraft. Sixteen days after that comet encounter, the Deep Impact team placed the spacecraft on a trajectory to fly back past Earth in late December 2007 to put it on course to encounter another comet, Hartley 2 in November 2010.
"Six months after launch, this spacecraft had already completed its planned mission to study comet Tempel 1," said Tim Larson, project manager of Deep Impact at JPL. "But the science team kept finding interesting things to do, and through the ingenuity of our mission team and navigators and support of NASA’s Discovery Program, this spacecraft kept it up for more than eight years, producing amazing results all along the way."
The spacecraft's extended mission culminated in the successful flyby of comet Hartley 2 on Nov. 4, 2010. Along the way, it also observed six different stars to confirm the motion of planets orbiting them, and took images and data of Earth, the moon and Mars. These data helped to confirm the existence of water on the moon, and attempted to confirm the methane signature in the atmosphere of Mars. One sequence of images is a breathtaking view of the moon transiting across the face of Earth.
In January 2012, Deep Impact performed imaging and accessed the composition of distant comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). It took images of comet ISON this year and collected early images of ISON in June.
After losing contact with the spacecraft last month, mission controllers spent several weeks trying to uplink commands to reactivate its onboard systems. Although the exact cause of the loss is not known, analysis has uncovered a potential problem with computer time tagging that could have led to loss of control for Deep Impact's orientation. That would then affect the positioning of its radio antennas, making communication difficult, as well as its solar arrays, which would in turn prevent the spacecraft from getting power and allow cold temperatures to ruin onboard equipment, essentially freezing its battery and propulsion systems.
“Despite this unexpected final curtain call, Deep Impact already achieved much more than ever was envisioned," said Lindley Johnson, the Discovery Program Executive at NASA Headquarters, and the Program Executive for the mission since a year before it launched. "Deep Impact has completely overturned what we thought we knew about comets and also provided a treasure trove of additional planetary science that will be the source data of research for years to come.”
The mission is part of the Discovery Program managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. JPL manages the Deep Impact mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. of Boulder, Colo., built the spacecraft. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.
UMD-Led Deep Impact Ends, Leaves Bright Comet Tale
COLLEGE PARK, Md. - NASA today announced the end of operations for the Deep Impact spacecraft, history's most traveled deep-space comet hunter, after trying unsuccessfully for more than a month to regain contact with the spacecraft.
UMD scientists – who helped conceive the mission, bring it to reality and keep it going years longer than originally planned—say it is a big loss, but find great satisfaction that Deep Impact exceeded all expectations and that the science derived from it transformed our understanding of comets.
"The impact on comet Tempel 1, the flyby of comet Hartley 2, and the remote sensing of comet Garradd have led to so many surprising results that there is a complete rethinking of our understanding of the formation of comets and of how they work. These small, icy remnants of the formation of our solar system are much more varied, both one from another and even from one part to another of a single comet, than we had ever anticipated," said University of Maryland astronomer Michael A'Hearn, who led the Deep Impact science team from the successful Deep Impact proposal to its unanticipated completion.
"Deep Impact has been a principal focus of my astronomy work for more than a decade and I'm saddened by its functional loss. But, I am very proud of the many contributions to our evolving understanding of comets that it has made possible," A'Hearn said.
First Look Inside a Comet
Deep Impact first made history and world-wide headlines on July 4, 2005 when a small impactor spacecraft – a refrigerator-sized probe released from the main craft – collided spectacularlywith comet Tempel 1 at 23,000 mph to give scientists their first-ever view of pristine material from inside a comet.
A comet is composed of dust and ices and that form its body (nucleus) and tail (coma). The tail is created when heat from the Sun causes the body of the comet to give off dust and ice, forming a cloud that surrounds and extends out from the nucleus. According to A'Hearn the key goal of the Deep Impact's mission to Tempel 1 was to look for differences between the composition of the sun-heated surface of a comet's nucleus and its colder, more primordial interior. "Much to our surprise, and contrary to most theoretical models, the different ices [of water, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide] that were excavated from as deep as 20 meters had the same relative abundances as the ones that were evaporating just below the surface," he said.
A'Hearn noted that science results of this mission also showed comets could be surprisingly fluffy. "We found that the nucleus of Tempel 1 as a whole is at least 50 percent empty space and the surface layer at the impact site at least 75 percent empty space. This finding confirmed the correctness of some previous indirect observations suggesting comets could be more porous than expected."
And he said the wide variety of craters and other surface features, and particularly the prominent layering of the nucleus found on this comet imply that the nuclei of short-period comets (those which orbit the Sun every 20 years or less) are not fragments of larger bodies as had been argued by many scientists.
An Extended Mission x 2
After the original mission was complete, the University of Maryland-led science team convinced NASA to keep the spacecraft operational and consider new mission proposals. Working with scientists from the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center just down the road in Greenbelt, Md., they ultimately created two missions in one. The Deep Impact spacecraft and its three working instruments (two color cameras and an infrared spectrometer) headed for an extended flyby of comet Hartley 2. On the way Deep Impact's high resolution camera searched for Earth-sized planets around other stars.
This extended mission culminated in the successful flyby of comet Hartley 2 – one of a small subset of known, hyperactive comets – on Nov. 4, 2010 during which the spacecraft flew through and imaged a "snow storm" of large and small fluffy ice particles. The team's analysis showed carbon dioxide was the volatile fuel generating the ice spewing jets that created this cosmic snow cloud.
Imaging 2 Comets in from the Cold
In January of 2012, the Deep Impact teams used the spacecraft's instruments for a distant campaign studying comet Garradd. After spending some 4 billion years in the Siberia of the solar system, a distant, frozen region known as the Oort Cloud, the comet was making one of its first few passages close to the sun. Observations of Garradd led Maryland and other scientists to re-examine the behavior of frozen gases in comets and the gas jets that result when these ices are warmed by the Sun.
In 2013 the Deep Impact team was using the spacecraft to study another comet on its first time visitor from the Oort Cloud to the inner solar system, comet ISON. This study-from-a-distance campaign was cut short by the failure of the spacecraft.
"The core of the Deep Impact mission was a controlled planetary-scale impact experiment, but in the end it was so much more," said UMD astronomer and Deep Impact mission scientist Jessica Sunshine. "Deep Impact treated us to views of beautiful landscapes including flows, cliffs, and spires that we could never have imagined, flew us through a cloud of ice surrounding Hartley 2, and along the way also confirmed that the surface of the Moon is hydrated.
"The new perspective and the new series of questions raised by Deep Impact has inspired us to propose a new mission to understand the diversity of comets that Deep Impact revealed," said Sunshine, who was deputy principal investigator for the extended mission to Hartley 2. "Comet Hopper (CHopper) would be a cometary rover that would not be limited to tantalizing data from flyby comets. Instead it would explore a comet in detail, hopping from landform to landform, as the comet moves from the outer to the inner Solar System."
The Deep Impact mission is part of the Discovery Program managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The University of Maryland, College Park, is home to Michael A'Hearn, principal investigator for Deep Impact, and of eight other mission scientists. JPL manages the Deep Impact mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The spacecraft was built for NASA by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.
Deep Impact Science Highlights
Originally built to conduct a mission to one comet, under the guidance of the University of Maryland science team the Deep Impact spacecraft ended up gathering information from four different comets, Earth and the Moon. In the process it provided insights into the forces that created comets 4.5 billion years ago and drive them today, and into the origin of our solar system.
- Deep Impact’s intentional collision with Tempel 1 on July 4, 2005 provided the first hard information about the nucleus, or solid body of a comet. The collision revealed that Tempel 1 was surprisingly fluffy – like a bank of powder snow, consisting of 75 percent to 80 percent empty space, which insulated the interior from the comet’s surface heat.
- The Tempel 1 encounter produced the first finding of water ice on the surface of a comet, and the first observations of natural impact craters on a comet, layers of material in the nucleus, flows, and other surprising features. Based on these observations and related findings, scientists now think many comets’ nuclei formed gradually, rather than in violent collisions as previously believed.
- In a 2007 flyby en route to a new mission, Deep Impact created video of Earth as seen from 31 million miles away. The video helped scientists know what to look for as they search for faraway Earth-like planets orbiting other stars.
- Deep Impact proved there is water on the surface of the Moon. Deep Impact’s scientists found a thin layer of water molecules forms on the lunar surface and then dissipates each day. The discovery, confirming observations by the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Cassini space probe, was made on the fly as Deep Impact passed the Moon in 2007 and 2009.
- As its two telescopic cameras captured spectacular images of jets of material shooting from the surface of comet Hartley 2 in October 2010, Deep Impact revealed that dry ice, or carbon dioxide gas, is the jet fuel for that comet, and perhaps for other hyperactive comets. Scientists previously thought water vapor powered the jets of dust and gas coming off the nuclei of comets.
- Observations of comet Garrad in 2012 showed a remarkably high abundance of carbon asartmonoxide, making this comet different than others studied. This puzzling find may be explained through future observations of more comets.
- Taken together, Deep Impact’s missions revealed that comets’ nuclei can be very different from one another. Scientists were inspired to rethink their ideas of where and how comets formed. They now think a group of comets that orbit the Sun every 20 years or less probably formed relatively close to Earth, and may be a source of our planet’s water.
- Deep Impact’s instruments made the first systematic observations of newly discovered comet ISON, a sungrazer comet making its first approach to the Sun in December 2013. Loss of contact with the spacecraft prevented the science team from gathering valuable data as ISON approaches the Sun.
- The historic moment when Deep Impact’s refrigerator-sized impact craft collided with Tempel 1 made headlines worldwide, with more than a billion hits on the mission website. By boosting public enthusiasm for unmanned spacecraft exploration, Deep Impact has undoubtedly inspired a new generation of astronomers and astrophysicists.
Quelle: University System of Maryland