A full-scale, test version of the booster for NASA’s new rocket, the Space Launch System, will fire up for the second of two qualification ground tests June 28 at prime contractor Orbital ATK’s test facility in Promontory, Utah. Photo Credit: Orbital ATK
The solid rocket booster that will propel NASA’s skyscraper-size, 300-plus-foot-tall Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and its Orion spacecraft in the coming years marked off a significant development milestone in March 2015, unleashing its fury on a barren mountainside at Orbital ATK’s test stand in Promontory, Utah, for the Qualification Motor-1 test fire (QM-1). The 154-foot-long booster, the largest of its kind in the world, ignited to verify its performance at 90 degrees, the highest end of the booster’s accepted propellant temperature range and the temperature the SLS can expect to encounter at its Florida launch site on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39B.
Detailed inspections of the now disassembled booster took place over the course of 2015, with all the data collected confirming the QM-1 test as a resounding success. More than 500 instrumentation channels were used to help evaluate over 100 defined test objectives, and now work is underway at the test stand preparing the second booster for another test fire, Qualification Motor-2 (QM-2), which is scheduled to take place June 28, 2016.
When Michael Thornton was growing up in the small south Florida city of Clewiston, he never dreamed of working in America's space program. Today, he not only is helping NASA prepare for the Journey to Mars, he recently was selected as the agency's Kennedy Space Center Employee of the Year.
As software lead for the Ground Special Power Branch of NASA Engineering, Thornton traveled to Denver in 2015 for a meeting between officials with NASA and Lockheed Martin, prime contractor for the Orion spacecraft. Following the review, he realized there was a need to upgrade ground power systems to adequately support the new vehicle.
According to Ralonda Farrant, a management and program analyst in the Avionics Division of NASA Engineering, Thornton found that some of Kennedy's ground power interfaces were lacking the ability to take full advantage of several features included in Lockheed Martin's plans for Orion to receive electrical power during ground processing.
"He brought those issues to the attention of the Engineering Directorate's lead design engineer and management team," she said in nominating Thornton for special recognition. "Michael has also identified and presented solutions to the design team which were approved for correction and implementation."
For this achievement, Thornton was selected as NASA's Employee of the Month for September 2015. From among last year's Employees of the Month, he was recently honored further as the spaceport's 2015 Employee of the Year
Thornton prefers to give credit to those he works with on a daily basis.
"I don't think I would be here without my team," he said. "They definitely work hard and we work together as one. We all listen and understand each other. That's what makes us jell as a team."
Having been raised in Clewiston, a city of just over 7,000 citizens, the Florida spaceport seemed to be far away. Thornton thought he had "no chance" of ever working in the Space Shuttle Program he heard and read about.
But in 1999 Thornton graduated from the University of Central Florida with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. A few months later, he had an opportunity to interview with and go to work for United Space Alliance, or USA, NASA's Space Program Operations Contractor at Kennedy.
"It was very exciting to actually get to work in the Shuttle Program," he said.
USA was formed as a limited liability company between Lockheed Martin and Boeing to operate the Shuttle Program at Kennedy, the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.
In 2005, Thornton was offered a new opportunity to go to work in NASA's Engineering Directorate. Today, he is leading a team that is preparing Ground Special Power, or GSP, to support the agency's Orion spacecraft.
Built to take humans farther than they have ever gone before, Orion will be the exploration vehicle that will carry crews to space launched atop NASA’s new Space Launch System rocket, the largest and most powerful ever flown. The SLS rocket will be capable of sending humans aboard Orion to deep-space destinations such as an asteroid and Mars.
During the times Orion spacecraft are assembled and processed at Kennedy, Thornton's group acts as the "power company."
"Anytime Orion needs electricity, we make sure the spacecraft gets what it needs," he said. "We convert AC power to DC through the ground power unit."
AC, or alternating current, is an electric stream in which the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction, whereas in DC, direct current, the flow of electric charge is only in one direction.
Thornton noted that electrical support would be needed anyplace the vehicle needs power, including the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building where Orion will undergo assembly and testing. As processing moves along, other key locations will include the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be stacked atop the SLS rocket, and Launch Pad 39B right up until the final moments before liftoff.
Recently, Thornton and his team have been designing and developing the integrated launch operations applications software for the electrical power distribution and control, or EPD&C, systems. This effort has included the fabrication, installation and verification of GSP hardware racks, which include power supply, backup battery modules and interface control displays.
"Michael has provided invaluable leadership during the development of the software requirements documents, programmable logic controller code, displays and models," Farrant said. "His knowledge of the EPD&C and GSP systems continues to be a driving force to the team."
During his recent visit to Lockheed Martin in Denver, Thornton learned about many of the Orion capabilities that will require GPU support.
"I realized that we'd need to modify the center's GPU systems to take full advantage of Orion's capabilities from voltage monitors to the spacecraft's avionics," he said.
Looking ahead, Thornton and his team already are planning for Exploration Mission 1, or EM-1, the first Orion launch atop an SLS rocket slated for late 2018.
EM-1 will be the first mission in which the Orion spacecraft will be integrated with the large SLS booster. The multi-week mission will send the spacecraft farther into space than any human-capable spacecraft has gone before. Flying nearly 40,000 miles beyond the orbit of the moon, the mission is designed to test the vehicle, making sure it's safe to put humans aboard the next launch of an SLS.
Thornton says that he is looking forward to that first SLS liftoff and hopes to be in the Launch Control Center Firing Room.
"Down the road, I definitely would like to be in the Firing Room with my headset on," he said. "As the NASA test director is polling his people on that first EM-1 mission – a big step on our way to Mars -- I want to be the person to say, 'yes, we are go.' "
EDITOR'S NOTE: In response to an employee suggestion, individuals honored in the future as NASA's Kennedy Space Center Employee of the Year will be featured in upcoming articles.
Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Orion crew module pressure vessel is undergoing testing and assembly leading to Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. EM-1 will be an unpiloted flight test in which the spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.
Lockheed Martin engineers and technicians prepare the Orion pressure vessel for a series of tests inside the proof pressure cell in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett
Engineers at Kennedy Space Center in Florida recently conducted a series of pressure tests of the Orion pressure vessel. Orion is the NASA spacecraft that will send astronauts to deep space destinations, including on the journey to Mars. The tests confirmed that the weld points of the underlying structure will contain and protect astronauts during the launch, in-space, re-entry and landing phases on the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), when the spacecraft performs its first uncrewed test flight atop the Space Launch System rocket.
The Orion pressure vessel contains the atmosphere that a crew would breathe during a mission. It also will provide living and working space for the crew, and withstand the loads and forces experienced during launch and landing.
In late April, Orion was lifted by crane from its assembly and tooling stand and moved to a test stand inside the proof pressure cell. The assembly and tooling stand is called the birdcage because it closely resembles a birdcage, but on a much larger scale.
To prepare for the test, technicians attached hundreds of strain gauges to the interior and exterior surfaces of the vehicle. The strain gauges were attached to provide real time data to the analysts monitoring the changes during the pressurization. The analysts were located in the control room next to the pressure cell. The large doors were closed and sealed and Orion was pressurized to over the maximum pressure it is expected to encounter on orbit.
Lockheed Martin, the manufacturer of the Orion crew module, ran the test at incremental steps over two days to reach the maximum pressure. During each step, the team pressurized the chamber and then evaluated the data to identify changes for the next test parameter. The results revealed the workmanship of the crew module pressure vessel welds and how the welds reacted to the stresses from the pressurization.
“We are very pleased with the performance of the spacecraft during proof pressure testing,” said Scott Wilson, NASA manager of production operations for the Orion Program. “The successful completion of this test represents another major step forward in our march toward completing the EM-1 spacecraft, and ultimately, our crewed missions to deep space.”
“It gives the team a lot of pride to see Orion coming together for EM-1,” said Ed Stanton, a systems engineer for Orion Production Operations in the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program.
Orion was tested inside the proof pressure cell in the high bay of the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building. After being moved back to the birdcage assembly stand, technicians will begin the intricate work of attaching hundreds of brackets to the vessel’s exterior to hold the tubing for the vehicle’s hydraulics and other systems.
Future tests include a launch simulation and power on. Orion also will be sent to NASA Glenn Research Center’s Plum Brook Station facility in Sandusky, Ohio, for acoustics and vibration tests. The uncrewed Orion will be outfitted with most of the systems needed for a crewed mission.
NASA’s Space Launch System rocket with the Orion spacecraft atop will roar into space from Kennedy’s Launch Pad 39B. EM-1 will send Orion on a path thousands of miles beyond the moon over a course of three weeks, farther into space than human spaceflight has ever travelled before. The spacecraft will return to Earth and safely splash down in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California. This mission will advance and validate capabilities required for human exploration of Mars.