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Raumfahrt - Vorbereitung für ISS-Crew-43-Start mit One-Year Mission Update-1

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3.01.2015

Expedition 43 insignia (ISS043-S-001) 
ISS043-S-001 (April 2013) --- The hexagon (six-sided) shape of the Expedition 43 patch represents the six crew members living and working onboard the orbital outpost. The International Space Station (ISS) is portrayed in orbit around the Earth, representing the multi-national partnership that has constructed, developed, and continues to operate the ISS for the benefit of all humankind. The sunrise marks the beginning of a new day, reflecting the fact that we're at the dawn of our history as a space faring species. The moon and planets represent future exploration of our solar system, for which the ISS is a stepping stone. Finally, the five stars honor the crews who have lost their lives during the pursuit of human spaceflight. The NASA insignia design for shuttle flights and station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

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iss043-s-002 
ISS043-S-002 (10 July 2014) --- Expedition 43 crew members take a break from training at NASA's Johnson Space Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from the right are NASA astronaut Terry Virts, commander; along with Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, all flight engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Staffor
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PHOTO DATE: 02-07-13
LOCATION: Ellington Field - Hangar 276 - Tarmac
SUBJECT: JSC2013-E-010117 (7 Feb. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 43 flight engineer, prepares for a flight in a NASA T-38 trainer jet at Ellington Airport near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA
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PHOTO DATE: 5-9-13
LOCATION: Bldg. 9NW - ISS Mockups
SUBJECT: JSC2013-E-031247 (9 May 2013) --- NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore (left), Expedition 41 flight engineer and Expedition 42 commander; European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Expedition 42/43 flight engineer; and NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (right), Expedition 43 flight engineer, participate in a routine operations training session in an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA
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PHOTO DATE: 5-9-13
LOCATION: Bldg. 9NW - ISS Mockups
SUBJECT: JSC2013-E-031287 (9 May 2013) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (left), Expedition 43 flight engineer; and NASA astronaut Terry Virts, Expedition 42 flight engineer and Expedition 43 commander, participate in a routine operations training session in an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA
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SC2014-E-061630 (30 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Terry Virts (left), Expedition 42 flight engineer and Expedition 43 commander; and NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 43/44 flight engineer and Expedition 45/46 commander, participate in an extravehicular activity (EVA) maintenance training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Crew instructor Sandra Moore assists Virts and Kelly. Photo credit: NASA/James Blair
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JSC2014-E-075864 (5 Aug. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (left), Expedition 43/44 flight engineer and Expedition 45/46 commander, participates in an IMAX cinematography training session an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Instructor James Neihouse assists Kelly. Photo credit: NASA/Lauren Harnett
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JSC2014-E-067735 (10 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (left), Expedition 43/44 flight engineer and Expedition 45/46 commander; and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 43-46 flight engineer, take a break from training at NASA's Johnson Space Center to pose for a portrait. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Stafford
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Mikhail Kornienko During Emergency Scenario Training
JSC2014-E-063675 (3 July 2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 43-46 flight engineer, is pictured during an emergency scenario training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/James Blair
Quelle: NASA
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NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (left), Russian cosmonauts Gennady Padalka (center) and Mikhail Kornienko, all Expedition 41 backup crew members, attired in Russian Sokol launch and entry suits, take a break from training in Star City, Russia to pose for a portrait. Photo credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center
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Scott Kelly, Mikhail Kornienko and Gennady Padalka
JSC2014-E-063683 (3 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (center), Expedition 43/44 flight engineer and Expedition 45/46 commander; Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko (right), Expedition 43-46 flight engineer; and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 43 flight engineer and Expedition 44 commander, participate in an emergency scenario training session in an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/James Blair
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JSC2014-E-063704 (3 July 2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko (left), Expedition 43-46 flight engineer; Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (center), Expedition 43 flight engineer and Expedition 44 commander; and NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 43/44 flight engineer and Expedition 45/46 commander, participate in an emergency scenario training session in an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/James Blair
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JSC2014-E-064901 (10 July 2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (right), Expedition 43 flight engineer and Expedition 44 commander; and Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov, Expedition 42/43 flight engineer, are pictured during an emergency scenario training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/ Robert Markowitz
Soyuz 42
Crew: Scott Kelly, Mikhail Kornienko, Gennady Padalka
Launch: March 2015
Landing: Oct. 2015 *
* As the One-Year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will remain onboard ISS following Soyuz 42 departure and return to Earth on Soyuz 44 in March 2016.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 15.01.2015
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The One-Year Mission will focus on seven categories of research. In March 2015, American Astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko will begin collaborative investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). They will reside on the ISS for a year, which is twice as long as typical U.S. missions. These investigations are expected to yield beneficial knowledge on the medical, psychological and biomedical challenges faced by astronauts during long-duration space flight.
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The Research

1. Functional 
These investigations will examine the changes in crew member performance of functional tasks after 12 months in a low-gravity environment: Field Test and Functional Task Test.
Recovery of Functional Sensorimotor Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test)
Millard F. Reschke, Ph.D.
Inessa B. Kozlovskaya, M.D.
Physiological Factors Contributing to Post-flight Changes in Functional Performance (FTT/Functional Task Test)
Jacob Bloomberg, Ph.D.
 
2. Behavioral Health
These investigations will examine psychological effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members by conducting cognition tests, neuromapping studies, journaling analyses and a reaction self-test.
Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue (Cognition)
Mathias Basner, M.D., Ph.D
Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases (Neuromapping)
Rachael Seidler, Ph.D.
Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure on ISS-12 (Sleep ISS-12)
​Laura K. Barger, Ph.D.
Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals (Journals)
Jack Stuster, Ph.D.
Psychomotor Vigilance Self Test on ISS (PVT) (Reaction Self Test) 
David F. Dinges, Ph.D.
 
3. Visual Impairment
These investigations will examine ocular health and the body’s response to fluid shifts in a weightless environment. This includes examining techniques to measure intracranial pressure.
Integrated Fluid Volume (Integrated Fluid Volume/Fluid Shifts)
Alan R. Hargens, Ph.D.
Michael B. Stenger, Ph.D.
Scott A. Dulchavsky, M.D., Ph.D.
Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews (Ocular Health)
Christian Otto, M.D.
 
4. Metabolic
These investigations will examine integrated immune, salivary markers, biochemical profiles and  the relationship between biological markers of oxidative and inflammatory stress and the risk for atherosclerosis in a long-duration, weightless environment. An integrated immune monitoring strategy also will be validated.
NASA Biochemical Profile Project (Biochemical Profile)
Scott M. Smith, Ph.D.
Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight (Cardio Ox)
Steven H. Platts, Ph.D.
Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune)
Clarence Sams, Ph.D.
The Effects of Long-term Exposure to Microgravity on Salivary Markers of Innate Immunity (Salivary Markers)
Richard J. Simpson, Ph.D.
 
5. Physical Performance
These investigations will examine exercise capability with a focus on physical performance of bone, muscle and the cardiovascular system over time in a weightless environment: Sprint Study and Hip QTC Study.
Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)
Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D.
Occupational Risk Surveillance for Bone: Pilot Study-Effects of In-flight Countermeasures on Sub-regions of the Hip Bone (HIP QCT)
Jean Sibonga, Ph.D.
 
6. Microbial
These investigations will examine changes in the microbiome of crewmembers.
Study of the Impact of Long-term Space Travel on the Astronaut's Microbiome (Microbiome)
Hernan Lorenzi
 
7. Human Factors
These investigations will examine how astronauts interact with their environment aboard the International Space Station focusing on fine motor performance, habitability, and training retention.
Effects of Long-duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills (Fine Motor Skills/Fine Motor Control)
Kritina L. Holden, Ph.D.
Assessment of International Space Station Vehicle Habitability
Sherry Thaxton, Ph.D.
Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention
Immanuel Barshi, Ph.D.
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Quelle: NASA

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Update: 21.01.2015
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In his State of the Union address Tuesday, President Obama wished good luck to astronaut Scott Kelly (pictured at left in the blue jacket), who will leave Earth next month for a year aboard the International Space Station. The President also hailed new jobs that push us "out into the Solar System not just to visit, but to stay" and cited NASA's and NOAA's recent research on climate change.
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Stepping Stones to NASA’s Human Missions Beyond
“That's one small step for (a) man; one giant leap for mankind.”  When Neil Armstrong took his first steps on the moon, many strides came before to achieve that moment in history.  The same is true for a human mission to Mars.  One step towards that journey begins in March 2015, when NASA astronaut Scott Kelly will make history as the first American to spend a year in space.
“This will be a significantly different experience; being aboard the International Space Station more than twice the duration of my previous flights will not be easy, but I am looking forward to the challenge,” said Kelly, a veteran of three space flights.
This one-year mission will be a stepping stone to human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.  Scott Kelly and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko will embark on the first joint U.S.-Russian one-year mission, underscoring the “international” in International Space Station as the partners exemplify multilateral cooperation with regard to science.
How will their bodies react to a year of weightlessness?  NASA’s Human Research Program is about to find out.
“The one-year expedition will be a focused effort to reach across international and technological boundaries to enhance integrated science on the station,” said John Charles, NASA Human Research Program associate manager for international science.
Researchers expect the mission’s investigations to provide data on physical and mental changes and challenges astronauts may face when they embark on longer-duration missions, like those to an asteroid, Mars, or beyond.
"It's not always easy for the body to adapt to microgravity," said Kelly. "The conditions in a weightless environment take getting used to."
NASA and Roscosmos recently selected several collaborative investigations for this mission to evaluate the effects of long-duration spaceflight on humans.  Each of the U.S. investigations will be grouped into one of seven categories: functional, behavioral health, visual impairment, metabolic, physical performance, microbial, and human factors.
The “functional” category will include investigations that will study the changes in performance of functional tasks for lunar and Mars operations.  The Field Test and Functional Task Test are two investigations in the “functional” category.  After returning to Earth, some astronauts have difficulty with movements like standing up straight.  These investigations will examine what happens to the body when astronauts return to Earth's gravity after 12 months of weightlessness.  Researchers hope to develop a recovery timeline for crew members and to evaluate methods to help retrain the body’s ability to do those tasks.  “These tests will mimic potential astronaut activities and their capability to perform them after they trek the six or eight months to Mars,” Charles said.  Results of these investigations may be applicable to patients recuperating from a long period of bed rest.
The “behavioral health” category will include studies to learn more about our brain and how it relates to stress and fatigue in space.  In Cognition and Sleep Monitoring, researchers will test how astronauts manage their sleep and how fatigued they become during long-duration missions.  From this data researchers plan to develop software that tests the crew’s comprehension, memory, attention and reasoning.  The results of these studies will be helpful for the larger international medical community by learning more about the effects of stress and fatigue, and more importantly, how to combat it.
The NeuroMapping investigation will use MRI before launch and after landing back on Earth to look at how changes in gravity affect the brain’s ability to control movements after a year in space.
The Journals study will analyze the astronauts' diaries to gather data on how crew members adjust emotionally to their spaceflight environment, and how they perceive their ability to perform tasks during long-duration missions.
The Reaction Self Test will provide objective feedback and inform researchers of astronauts’ level of cognitive performance while on space station missions.  It also seeks to evaluate effects of sleep loss and circadian disruption.
The “visual impairment” category will include the Fluid Shifts and Ocular Health investigations to study what happens when fluids shift into the upper body during weightlessness.  This shift may cause changes in vision.  Physiological data will be collected using non-invasive tools to study visual impairment and intracranial pressure caused by prolonged weightlessness.  Patients on Earth suffering from similar problems, such as Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH), may benefit from research of this syndrome and the increased focus on non-invasive measurement techniques.
Experiments in the “metabolic” category will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on body chemistry, the heart and immune systems.  The Biochemical Profile study will result in a database of biomedical data before, during and after flight to share among investigators and medical personnel.
The Cardio Ox investigation will provide insight into the role of oxidative stress on the body.  It will also look at how these biological markers may pose a risk for plaque build-up in arteries following extended stays in space.
The Integrated Immune studies will look at the effects of spaceflight on human immunology, and validate an immune monitoring strategy.  Although there is evidence that the immune system can become dysfunctional during spaceflight, the cause is unknown.  These studies may have potential applications for the monitoring of immune functions of people on Earth with altered immunity.
The “physical performance” category includes studies that will enhance our knowledge of the effects of weightlessness on bones, muscles and heart.  The Sprint investigation, currently ongoing on station, evaluates a new exercise regimen involving less frequent, higher intensity tasks, to minimize loss of muscle, bone, and cardiovascular functions that can occur over long periods in space.  The Hip QCT study will help define the risks for early onset osteoporosis and bone fracture due to long duration spaceflight, as well as for individuals on Earth.
Included in the “microbial” category is the Microbiome investigation.  This ongoing study will continue during the one year mission to help researchers determine what happens when microbial species, which help to manage the body’s health, live in space for long periods.  The study will also evaluate potential impact on a crew member’s health.  Samples of crew members’ saliva, blood, perspiration and stool will be collected, as well as surface samples from air vents, sleep quarters, exercise equipment, water dispensers and the lavatory.  These samples will be correlated with hygiene and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity.  By sampling the microbiome of astronauts on Earth and comparing it to their microbiome in space, researchers will be able to define how the body responds to various aspects of space travel. 
The “human factors” category will include investigations to assess how astronauts interact with the space station environment.  The Fine Motor Control study will determine the effects of long-duration weightlessness on fine motor performance by using a tablet computer that measures tasks of pointing, dragging, pinch-rotating, and tracing.  The Habitability investigation will determine how livable the station is with crew members’ observations in periodic questionnaires, crew-collected video footage and videos of key areas of the orbiting complex.  This data will aid in the design of future space vehicles and habitats.
During the Training Retention study, researchers will collect data at three-month intervals on the astronaut’s ability to retain training techniques in space, examine how much assistance will be needed from the ground, and compare training retention on a long-duration mission with that on Earth.
“These studies will help us determine if crews could go to Mars and return to Earth safely,” Kelly said.
The research to be conducted on this one-year mission will help NASA and the international community better understand the effects of spaceflight on the human body.  This is a key stepping stone to ensuring the health of our astronauts as NASA makes its next giant leap for humanity.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 6.03.2015
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Presse-Konferenz 
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Quelle: NASA
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Update: 11.03.2015 
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Soyuz 42
Crew: Scott Kelly, Mikhail Kornienko, Gennady Padalka
Launch: March 27, 2015
Landing: Sept. 11, 2015*
*Kelly and Kornienko will remain onboard until March 2016
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Quelle: NASA
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Update: 17.03.2015
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Evacuation Drills, Science Work and New Crew Launch Preps

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ISS042E136074 (01/15/2015) — US astronaut Terry Virts and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti are ready to select a fruit snack during a brief break from work aboard the International Space Station on Jan. 15, 2015. The apples, suspended in microgravity are easy targets. Both astronauts are flight engineers with Expedition 42.
Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts and Flight Engineers Samantha Cristoforetti and Anton Shkaplerov practiced emergency procedures Tuesday, preparing the three crew members for the actions they would take in the unlikely event that they must evacuate the International Space Station.
Cristoforetti went back to work on the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES). She will be setting up MARES hardware inside the European Columbus lab module over the next two days. Virts assisted her with the MARES deployment just before lunchtime.Virts later moved to the U.S. Destiny lab module to pack up a physics experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The commander stowed the Coarsening in Solid Mixtures-4 (CSLM-4) experiment, an investigation studying solid-liquid mixtures, which will be returned on a future SpaceX Dragon mission.
Meanwhile, Soyuz TMA-16M Commander Gennady Padalka and One-Year crew members Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko are preparing for launch on March 27, when they will join Expedition 43 at the orbital laboratory. Kelly and Kornienko will stay in space until March 2016. Padalka will return to Earth Sept. 11.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 23.03.2015
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One-Year Crew Set for Launch to Space Station; NASA TV to Air Live Coverage
The prime crew members for International Space Station Expedition 43 take a break in training for a crew portrait. From left are Flight Engineers Scott Kelly of NASA, Gennady Padalka and Mikhail Kornienko of Roscosmos. Kelly and Kornienko will be spending an entire year in space on board the ISS.
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The first one-year crew for the International Space Station is set to launch Friday, March 27. NASA Television will provide extensive coverage of the launch and the crew’s arrival to the orbital laboratory.
NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko will spend a year living and working aboard the space station and will launch with cosmonaut Gennady Padalka. The trio will become part of the station’s Expedition 43 crew.
NASA TV coverage will begin at 2:30 p.m. EDT March 27, with launch scheduled for 3:42 p.m. (1:42 a.m. Saturday, March 28 in Baikonur) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The trio will ride to space in a Soyuz spacecraft, which will rendezvous with the space station and dock after four orbits of Earth. Docking to the space station's Poisk module will take place at 9:36 p.m. Friday. NASA TV coverage of docking will begin at 8:45 p.m.
Hatches between the Soyuz and the station will be opened at approximately 11:15 p.m., at which time Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts of NASA and his crewmates, Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos and Samantha Cristoforetti of ESA (European Space Agency), will greet Kelly, Kornienko and Padalka. Hatch opening coverage begins on NASA TV at 10:45 p.m.
Kelly and Kornienko will spend a year on the space station to better understand how the human body reacts and adapts to the harsh environment of space. Data from the expedition will be used to determine whether there are ways to further reduce the risks on future long-duration missions to an asteroid and eventually Mars.
The crew will support several hundred experiments in biology, biotechnology, physical science and Earth science -- research that impacts life on Earth. Data and samples will be collected throughout the year from a series of studies involving Scott and his twin brother, former NASA astronaut Mark Kelly. The studies will compare data from the genetically-identical Kelly brothers to identify any subtle changes caused by spaceflight.
Padalka will spend six months aboard the outpost, during which he will become the first four-time station commander and record holder for most cumulative time spent in space.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 25.03.2015
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Die überraschend dramatische, Rekord-Geschichte hinter Scott Kelly Space Patches
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NASA astronaut Scott Kelly points to his one year mission patch, one of many representing his ISS expedition. (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
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March 24, 2015 – Scott Kelly's astronaut name tags were supposed to be aboard the International Space Station by now.
The two blue and gold embroidered badges, each adorned with U.S. Navy astronaut wings and Kelly's name in either English or Russian, were originally among the items that NASA had arranged to send to the orbiting outpost ahead of Kelly beginning his yearlong mission this Friday (March 27).
In fact, the pair of name tags had been packed aboard a U.S. commercial cargo freighter that was on its way to the space station last October.
That is, until seconds into the flight, when the unmanned rocket exploded in a giant fireball over Virginia.
In the wake of the accident, as investigators searched the debris field for clues as to what happened, someone found Kelly's name tags. Seemingly no worse for the wear, the cloth patches were returned to the astronaut.
Scott Kelly's name tags as found in the debris from Orbital ATK's Cygnus freighter. 
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"And now I'm taking them with me," Kelly revealed, noting to collectSPACE that they had to be something of a lucky charm.
"After all," he joked, "what are the chances they would be in two rocket explosions?"
The name tags, talismans or not, are set to fly with Kelly, adding to the record number of mission-related patches he will wear as part of this expedition.
Together with cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Mikhail Kornienko, Kelly will launch onboard Russia's Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft on a four-orbit, six-hour flight to the space station beginning from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 3:42 p.m. EST (1942 GMT) on Friday.
This commemorative patch represents the first yearlong mission onboard the International Space Station. (AB Emblem)
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Kelly and Kornienko are the International Space Station's first yearlong crew members. Their extended mission will collect medical data to better understand how the human body reacts to the space environment, helping NASA and Roscosmos prepare for even longer journeys into space, such as sending astronauts to an asteroid or to Mars.
Because of their extended stay and the logistics of flying astronauts and cosmonauts to and from the space station, Kelly and Kornienko will join four expedition crews while in orbit. They are also members of the TMA-16M crew, and, of course, members of the two-person one year mission.
That means that during their trip around the Sun, Kelly and Kornienko will each see their names stitched onto no less than six different mission patches — all in the course of one mission. But that's just the start.
Name tags aside, Kornienko also has three patches from his prior 176 day stay on the space station in 2010. Kelly, who similarly spent 180 days in space before this yearlong expedition, flew on three previous missions, accumulating five patches (two space shuttle emblems, a Soyuz patch and two expedition insignias).
Scott Kelly wearing his NASA blue flight suit with patches for his four ISS expeditions and yearlong mission. (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
That brings Kelly's total to 11, which turns out to be more mission patches than the two astronauts who are tied for the most missions into space at only seven.
For collectors, Kelly's patchwork extends even further. In the lead up to Kelly's launch, two of his four space station expedition patches for this yearlong mission had changes made after they had entered production. A crew member change on Expedition 43 required a name swap and the art for the Expedition 46 patch was altered after concerns were raised about inadvertent symbolism.
(Kelly's second shuttle flight, STS-118 in 2007, also had two versions of its patch after a crew member change.)
And, as if all that were not enough, Kelly also has official NASA honorary patches to mark the speed he achieved in flight, "Mach 25," and when he logged his first "100 Days in Space." An emblem was also created to symbolize the study he will undergo on this mission with his twin brother Mark, comparing how the two fare while Scott is in space and Mark is on Earth.
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Some of Scott Kelly's patches: Soyuz TMA-16M, ISS Expeditions 43 to 46, and One Year Mission. 
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If that seems like a whole lot of space patches to wear, it is. In the months prior to his launch this week, Kelly was seen at first wearing a flight jacket decorated with at least 11 patches, including the NASA logo and U.S. flag. Even he thought it was a bit much.
"I am getting a new one with less patches on it, because this looks kind of ridiculous," Kelly told collectSPACE in January. "It makes me feel guilty when I see some of the ascans (candidates) walking around with no patches with their names on it."
Kelly should take some solace though, in the knowledge that another of his crew members has even more patches. Gennady Padalka, who will only stay only six months with Kelly and Kornienko in space but who will set a record for cumulative time over the total course of his five flights, has had 13 different mission patches bare his name, two more than Kelly.
Quelle: CS
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Quelle: NASA

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